the beginner's guide to photography

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Are you interested in learning more about photography or perhaps even becoming a photographer but don't know where to start? Then this is the book for you!

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  • The Beginners

    Guide to

    Photography

    Dami Anandbazar

    The Beginners

    Guide to

    Photography

    Dami Anandbazar

  • 2

    The Beginners Guide to

    Photography

    2

    The Beginners Guide to

    Photography

  • 3

    The camera used in the examples in this guidebook is a

    Canon 5D Mark II. Most Canon cameras will have

    similar designs. The instructions may differ with other

    brands and models.

    3

    The camera used in the examples in this guidebook is a

    Canon 5D Mark II. Most Canon cameras will have

    similar designs. The instructions may differ with other

    brands and models.

  • 4

    Table of Contents

    1. Introduction

    2. Aperture

    3. Shutter Speed

    4. ISO

    5. Aperture Priority

    6. Shutter Priority

    6

    10

    12

    16

    19

    26

    4

    Table of Contents

    1. Introduction

    2. Aperture

    3. Shutter Speed

    4. ISO

    5. Aperture Priority

    6. Shutter Priority

    6

    10

    12

    16

    19

    26

  • 5

    7. Program Mode

    8. Metering Modes

    9. AF Points

    10. Photo Composition

    11. Rules of Thumb

    12. Tips for Beginners

    13. Index

    14. Acknowledgements

    31

    34

    38

    43

    48

    50

    53

    55

    5

    7. Program Mode

    8. Metering Modes

    9. AF Points

    10. Photo Composition

    11. Rules of Thumb

    12. Tips for Beginners

    13. Index

    14. Acknowledgements

    31

    34

    38

    43

    48

    50

    53

    55

  • 6

    Introduction Simply having an expensive camera

    does not necessarily make you a

    good photographer. The process of

    learning how to take creative

    pictures is very much a process of

    trial and error, and this guide will

    ease you through that process.

    Essentially, there are 3 major pillars

    of photography; Aperture, which

    dictates the size of the opening in

    the lens, Shutter Speed, which

    changes the speed of the cameras

    shutter, and ISO, which controls the

    sensitivity of the camera to light.

    Those 3 settings determine the

    6

    Introduction Simply having an expensive camera

    does not necessarily make you a

    good photographer. The process of

    learning how to take creative

    pictures is very much a process of

    trial and error, and this guide will

    ease you through that process.

    Essentially, there are 3 major pillars

    of photography; Aperture, which

    dictates the size of the opening in

    the lens, Shutter Speed, which

    changes the speed of the cameras

    shutter, and ISO, which controls the

    sensitivity of the camera to light.

    Those 3 settings determine the

  • 7

    exposure of the photo, which

    controls how dark or light the photo

    will appear1. Along with the three

    pillars of photography, there are

    several things to keep at the back of

    your mind as you familiarize

    yourself with the concepts of

    photography. The Rule of Thirds

    helps you to take a more

    aesthetically pleasing photo,

    dictating how the image should be

    composed by dividing it into 9 equal

    rectangles.1

    Focus is very important in

    photography. Before taking a

    picture, you should always have an

    idea of which parts of your photo

    you want to focus on, and which

    parts will be blurry. Know whether

    or not your background will be in

    focus, or if it will be blurry, how

    blurry will it be? Nailing your focus

    will make your photo look much

    better, and this guidebook will show 1Josh, Expert Photography, http://expertphotography.com/a-beginners-guide-to-photography/ (accessed 06 Dec, 2015).

    7

    exposure of the photo, which

    controls how dark or light the photo

    will appear1. Along with the three

    pillars of photography, there are

    several things to keep at the back of

    your mind as you familiarize

    yourself with the concepts of

    photography. The Rule of Thirds

    helps you to take a more

    aesthetically pleasing photo,

    dictating how the image should be

    composed by dividing it into 9 equal

    rectangles.1

    Focus is very important in

    photography. Before taking a

    picture, you should always have an

    idea of which parts of your photo

    you want to focus on, and which

    parts will be blurry. Know whether

    or not your background will be in

    focus, or if it will be blurry, how

    blurry will it be? Nailing your focus

    will make your photo look much

    better, and this guidebook will show 1Josh, Expert Photography, http://expertphotography.com/a-beginners-guide-to-photography/ (accessed 06 Dec, 2015).

  • 8

    Lighting is one of the most vital

    aspects of photography. Always be

    aware of your lighting and

    surroundings, as you must adjust

    your cameras settings accordingly.

    Some useful tips for lighting include;

    avoid bright light behind your

    subject, look out for dark shadows,

    and beware of things that glare in

    the light. In essence, photography is

    lighting, as photography is the art of

    capturing light reflected from

    objects into the cameras lenses.

    The success of a photo will usually

    come down to photo composition,

    which is what you include and leave

    out of the shot, and how you

    2Josh, Expert Photography, http://expertphotography.com/a-beginners-guide-to-photography/ (accessed 06 Dec, 2015).

    8

    Lighting is one of the most vital

    aspects of photography. Always be

    aware of your lighting and

    surroundings, as you must adjust

    your cameras settings accordingly.

    Some useful tips for lighting include;

    avoid bright light behind your

    subject, look out for dark shadows,

    and beware of things that glare in

    the light. In essence, photography is

    lighting, as photography is the art of

    capturing light reflected from

    objects into the cameras lenses.

    The success of a photo will usually

    come down to photo composition,

    which is what you include and leave

    out of the shot, and how you

    2Josh, Expert Photography, http://expertphotography.com/a-beginners-guide-to-photography/ (accessed 06 Dec, 2015).

  • 9

    It will also be helpful to keep in

    mind the color within your photos.

    If the main subject of focus is the

    same color as the background, it

    can make it difficult for viewers to

    see the subject, which can be

    All the pictures in this guidebook are the

    works of the author, with the exception of

    the diagram on page 10.

    9

    It will also be helpful to keep in

    mind the color within your photos.

    If the main subject of focus is the

    same color as the background, it

    can make it difficult for viewers to

    see the subject, which can be

    All the pictures in this guidebook are the

    works of the author, with the exception of

    the diagram on page 10.

  • 10

    Aperture Simply put, aperture is the size of

    the opening in the lens3. When you

    press on the shutter release button

    to take a picture, a hole opens in

    the cameras lens which allows light

    to enter, giving the image sensor a

    look at the scene which you are

    about to shoot. The aperture setting

    controls the size of that hole. The

    larger the hole, the more light that

    enters; the smaller the hole, the

    less light entering the lens. Aperture

    is measured in f-stops. The diagram

    above shows how increasing the f-

    stop number affects the size of the

    hole.3

    3Darren Rose, Digital Photography School, http://digital-photography-school.com/aperture/ (accessed 15 Nov, 2015).

    10

    Aperture Simply put, aperture is the size of

    the opening in the lens3. When you

    press on the shutter release button

    to take a picture, a hole opens in

    the cameras lens which allows light

    to enter, giving the image sensor a

    look at the scene which you are

    about to shoot. The aperture setting

    controls the size of that hole. The

    larger the hole, the more light that

    enters; the smaller the hole, the

    less light entering the lens. Aperture

    is measured in f-stops. The diagram

    above shows how increasing the f-

    stop number affects the size of the

    hole.3

    3Darren Rose, Digital Photography School, http://digital-photography-school.com/aperture/ (accessed 15 Nov, 2015).

  • 11

    Switching from one f-stop to the

    next doubles or halves the size of

    the aperture. The smaller the

    number of the f-stop, the bigger

    the aperture and vice versa4. When

    you change between apertures, you

    will see a change in depth of field of

    the image. Depth of Field, or DOF, is

    the term for how much of your

    photo will be in focus. Larger depth

    of field means most of the shot will

    be in focus, whereas shallow depth

    of field means only a small part of

    the shot will be in focus. Larger

    apertures result in a shallower

    depth of field; smaller apertures

    result in a larger depth of field.4

    4Darren Rose, Digital Photography School, http://digital-photography-school.com/aperture/ (accessed 15 Nov, 2015).

    11

    Switching from one f-stop to the

    next doubles or halves the size of

    the aperture. The smaller the

    number of the f-stop, the bigger

    the aperture and vice versa4. When

    you change between apertures, you

    will see a change in depth of field of

    the image. Depth of Field, or DOF, is

    the term for how much of your

    photo will be in focus. Larger depth

    of field means most of the shot will

    be in focus, whereas shallow depth

    of field means only a small part of

    the shot will be in focus. Larger

    apertures result in a shallower

    depth of field; smaller apertures

    result in a larger depth of field.4

    4Darren Rose, Digital Photography School, http://digital-photography-school.com/aperture/ (accessed 15 Nov, 2015).

  • 12

    Shutter Speed Shutter speed is the amount of time

    that the shutter is open5. One of

    the three settings which control the

    exposure of the photo, shutter

    speed is measured in seconds,

    although in most cases it is

    measured in fractions of seconds.

    The bigger the denominator, the

    faster the shutter speed. Just like

    aperture, shutter speeds usually

    doubles or halves with each setting.

    So keep in mind, increasing the

    shutter speed by 1 stop and

    decreasing the aperture by 1 stop

    will have a similar effect on

    exposure. Faster shutter speeds

    means less light will be allowed to

    enter the lens, so in order to

    compensate for less light, you

    should increase the aperture or ISO

    sensitivity.5

    5Darren Rowse, Digital Photography School, http://digital-photography-school.com/shutter-speed/ (accessed 15 Nov, 2015).

    12

    Shutter Speed Shutter speed is the amount of time

    that the shutter is open5. One of

    the three settings which control the

    exposure of the photo, shutter

    speed is measured in seconds,

    although in most cases it is

    measured in fractions of seconds.

    The bigger the denominator, the

    faster the shutter speed. Just like

    aperture, shutter speeds usually

    doubles or halves with each setting.

    So keep in mind, increasing the

    shutter speed by 1 stop and

    decreasing the aperture by 1 stop

    will have a similar effect on

    exposure. Faster shutter speeds

    means less light will be allowed to

    enter the lens, so in order to

    compensate for less light, you

    should increase the aperture or ISO

    sensitivity.5

    5Darren Rowse, Digital Photography School, http://digital-photography-school.com/shutter-speed/ (accessed 15 Nov, 2015).

  • 13

    With slower shutter speeds, it

    allows you to adjust the aperture

    and ISO sensitivity as you wish.

    However, slow shutter speeds can

    result in camera shake, where an

    image appears blurry and

    unfocused due to movement. A

    common rule of thumb is to select a

    shutter speed with a denominator

    larger than the focal length of the

    lens to take a photo at the slowest

    shutter speed without camera

    6Darren Rowse, Digital Photography School, http://digital-photography-school.com/shutter-speed/ (accessed 15 Nov, 2015).

    13

    With slower shutter speeds, it

    allows you to adjust the aperture

    and ISO sensitivity as you wish.

    However, slow shutter speeds can

    result in camera shake, where an

    image appears blurry and

    unfocused due to movement. A

    common rule of thumb is to select a

    shutter speed with a denominator

    larger than the focal length of the

    lens to take a photo at the slowest

    shutter speed without camera

    6Darren Rowse, Digital Photography School, http://digital-photography-school.com/shutter-speed/ (accessed 15 Nov, 2015).

  • 14

    In low light situations, higher

    shutter speeds are needed to

    compensate for the lack of light,

    whereas faster shutter speeds

    should be used when there is a

    sufficient and controlled amount of

    lighting. You might need a tripod

    with shutter speeds lower than

    around 1/60, but it usually depends

    on how steady the hands of the

    photographer are. Shutter speed

    can be used in many creative ways,

    such as freezing or blurring motion.

    To freeze motion faster shutter

    speeds are required while slower

    shutter speeds will blur the motion.

    14

    In low light situations, higher

    shutter speeds are needed to

    compensate for the lack of light,

    whereas faster shutter speeds

    should be used when there is a

    sufficient and controlled amount of

    lighting. You might need a tripod

    with shutter speeds lower than

    around 1/60, but it usually depends

    on how steady the hands of the

    photographer are. Shutter speed

    can be used in many creative ways,

    such as freezing or blurring motion.

    To freeze motion faster shutter

    speeds are required while slower

    shutter speeds will blur the motion.

  • 15

    15

  • 16

    ISO ISO is the level of sensitivity of your

    camera to light7. ISO is measured in

    numbers usually from 100 to

    around 6400. The lower the ISO

    number, the less sensitivity, and the

    higher the ISO number, the more

    sensitivity. Every camera has what is

    called a base ISO, the term for the

    lowest ISO setting the camera has to

    offer, which produces detailed

    images with no noise. Bumping up

    the ISO brings grainy visual

    distortion into the photograph,

    making it look slightly pixelated.7

    7Nasim Mansurov, Photography Life, https://photographylife.com/what-is-iso-in-photography, (accessed 13 Nov, 2015).

    16

    ISO ISO is the level of sensitivity of your

    camera to light7. ISO is measured in

    numbers usually from 100 to

    around 6400. The lower the ISO

    number, the less sensitivity, and the

    higher the ISO number, the more

    sensitivity. Every camera has what is

    called a base ISO, the term for the

    lowest ISO setting the camera has to

    offer, which produces detailed

    images with no noise. Bumping up

    the ISO brings grainy visual

    distortion into the photograph,

    making it look slightly pixelated.7

    7Nasim Mansurov, Photography Life, https://photographylife.com/what-is-iso-in-photography, (accessed 13 Nov, 2015).

  • 17

    ISO numbers start from around 100-

    200 (Base ISO), and usually doubles

    or halves each time you switch

    between settings just like aperture

    and shutter speed. Being twice as

    sensitive to light means the camera

    requires half the time it takes to

    take a photo. To change the ISO,

    press the button shown on the

    image to the right and switch the

    setting using the front dial. The

    small LCD panel below the ISO

    button will display which setting you

    have chosen. You will also be able

    to see the setting you have chosen

    by looking through the viewfinder.8

    8Nasim Mansurov, Photography Life, https://photographylife.com/what-is-iso-in-photography, (accessed 13 Nov, 2015).

    17

    ISO numbers start from around 100-

    200 (Base ISO), and usually doubles

    or halves each time you switch

    between settings just like aperture

    and shutter speed. Being twice as

    sensitive to light means the camera

    requires half the time it takes to

    take a photo. To change the ISO,

    press the button shown on the

    image to the right and switch the

    setting using the front dial. The

    small LCD panel below the ISO

    button will display which setting you

    have chosen. You will also be able

    to see the setting you have chosen

    by looking through the viewfinder.8

    8Nasim Mansurov, Photography Life, https://photographylife.com/what-is-iso-in-photography, (accessed 13 Nov, 2015).

  • 18

    When taking photographs in low

    light situations, bump up the ISO

    just enough so that there is enough

    light entering but no noise in the

    photo. When the lighting is

    controlled, use the lowest possible

    ISO setting and adjust the aperture

    and shutter priority accordingly.

    Also, if you are using a tripod, you

    can use the slowest shutter speed

    and the lowest ISO for the highest

    quality photo. One very important

    thing to keep at the back of your

    mind is to never trust the display on

    your camera. Always zoom in a bit

    to look for unwanted noise, as it

    usually appears very different on a

    computer.

    18

    When taking photographs in low

    light situations, bump up the ISO

    just enough so that there is enough

    light entering but no noise in the

    photo. When the lighting is

    controlled, use the lowest possible

    ISO setting and adjust the aperture

    and shutter priority accordingly.

    Also, if you are using a tripod, you

    can use the slowest shutter speed

    and the lowest ISO for the highest

    quality photo. One very important

    thing to keep at the back of your

    mind is to never trust the display on

    your camera. Always zoom in a bit

    to look for unwanted noise, as it

    usually appears very different on a

    computer.

  • 19

    Aperture Priority This is a semi-automatic mode

    which allows you to set the

    aperture manually and the camera

    automatically sets the shutter

    speed9. When you widen the

    aperture, you allow more light to

    enter the lens which in turn allows

    the camera to speed up the shutter

    speed for the optimal exposure.

    Changing the aperture setting

    affects the exposure of the photo,

    so ISO and shutter speed should

    also be considered. To use aperture

    priority mode, switch the dial to A

    or Av, and use the front dial to

    change the aperture setting.9

    9Josh, Expert Photography, http://expertphotography.com/how-when-to-use-aperture-priority-mode/, (accessed 14 Nov, 2015).

    19

    Aperture Priority This is a semi-automatic mode

    which allows you to set the

    aperture manually and the camera

    automatically sets the shutter

    speed9. When you widen the

    aperture, you allow more light to

    enter the lens which in turn allows

    the camera to speed up the shutter

    speed for the optimal exposure.

    Changing the aperture setting

    affects the exposure of the photo,

    so ISO and shutter speed should

    also be considered. To use aperture

    priority mode, switch the dial to A

    or Av, and use the front dial to

    change the aperture setting.9

    9Josh, Expert Photography, http://expertphotography.com/how-when-to-use-aperture-priority-mode/, (accessed 14 Nov, 2015).

  • 20

    There are many situations in which

    using aperture priority can be very

    useful.

    If you are trying to put all the

    emphasis on the subject at the

    expense of the background detail

    To put everything in the frame in

    focus.

    In controlled lighting situations with

    minimal movement, where shutter

    speed is not important.

    However there are some situation

    where you should not use this

    mode as it could ruin your shot.

    Poor light or dark room

    Shooting in low light can cause problems

    with exposure and camera shake. Using

    aperture priority mode only solves the

    exposure problem, and as a result you get

    camera shake. To a certain degree, you

    can fix the exposure but you cannot fix

    camera shake in photos. However you can

    fix

    20

    There are many situations in which

    using aperture priority can be very

    useful.

    If you are trying to put all the

    emphasis on the subject at the

    expense of the background detail

    To put everything in the frame in

    focus.

    In controlled lighting situations with

    minimal movement, where shutter

    speed is not important.

    However there are some situation

    where you should not use this

    mode as it could ruin your shot.

    Poor light or dark room

    Shooting in low light can cause problems

    with exposure and camera shake. Using

    aperture priority mode only solves the

    exposure problem, and as a result you get

    camera shake. To a certain degree, you

    can fix the exposure but you cannot fix

    camera shake in photos. However you can

    fix

  • 21

    both problems by using aperture priority

    mode and a tripod, which will give you

    sharp and clear photos with no camera

    shake.

    Night Landscape

    Aperture priority mode is useful for

    landscape shots during the day, but it can

    be difficult at night due to how

    unpredictable the lighting can be. For

    these situations shutter priority or

    program mode is the better option as you

    can change the shutter speed as you wish.

    21

    both problems by using aperture priority

    mode and a tripod, which will give you

    sharp and clear photos with no camera

    shake.

    Night Landscape

    Aperture priority mode is useful for

    landscape shots during the day, but it can

    be difficult at night due to how

    unpredictable the lighting can be. For

    these situations shutter priority or

    program mode is the better option as you

    can change the shutter speed as you wish.

  • 22

    Aperture tips

    Very Low Light

    You may be tempted to use your cameras

    built-in flash when youre shooting in low

    light situations, but dont do it! Using the

    flash can produce very low quality photos,

    often introducing washed out faces, harsh

    black shadows, and red-eye. Therefore it

    is a much better option to use a larger

    aperture and maybe a higher ISO

    depending on how dark it is.10

    10Josh, Expert Photography, http://expertphotography.com/how-when-to-use-aperture-priority-mode/, (accessed 14 Nov, 2015).

    22

    Aperture tips

    Very Low Light

    You may be tempted to use your cameras

    built-in flash when youre shooting in low

    light situations, but dont do it! Using the

    flash can produce very low quality photos,

    often introducing washed out faces, harsh

    black shadows, and red-eye. Therefore it

    is a much better option to use a larger

    aperture and maybe a higher ISO

    depending on how dark it is.10

    10Josh, Expert Photography, http://expertphotography.com/how-when-to-use-aperture-priority-mode/, (accessed 14 Nov, 2015).

  • 23

    Macro Images

    When shooting very small objects, the

    subject can fall out of focus very easily

    even with a smaller aperture. To capture

    the most detail, use the smallest aperture

    available, which means you will need a

    slower shutter speed to compensate for

    the lack of light, and quite possibly a

    tripod as well.11

    Capturing Motion Blur in Daytime

    To capture motion blur during the day,

    use a smaller aperture. Using a larger

    aperture will produce overexposed

    photos, since you need slower shutter

    speeds to capture motion blur. Using a

    tripod along with a small aperture will

    give you that very slight motion blur.11

    11Josh, Expert Photography, http://expertphotography.com/how-when-to-use-aperture-priority-mode/, (accessed 14 Nov,

    2015).

    23

    Macro Images

    When shooting very small objects, the

    subject can fall out of focus very easily

    even with a smaller aperture. To capture

    the most detail, use the smallest aperture

    available, which means you will need a

    slower shutter speed to compensate for

    the lack of light, and quite possibly a

    tripod as well.11

    Capturing Motion Blur in Daytime

    To capture motion blur during the day,

    use a smaller aperture. Using a larger

    aperture will produce overexposed

    photos, since you need slower shutter

    speeds to capture motion blur. Using a

    tripod along with a small aperture will

    give you that very slight motion blur.11

    11Josh, Expert Photography, http://expertphotography.com/how-when-to-use-aperture-priority-mode/, (accessed 14 Nov,

    2015).

  • 24

    Busy Backgrounds

    Busy backgrounds can distract the viewer

    from the main subject, which makes the

    photo chaotic, confusing the viewer. For

    this, use a larger aperture to give the

    photo a shallow depth of field, which will

    put the unneeded background out of

    focus. Set the autofocus mode to One

    shot, as it is most suitable for subjects

    which are not moving.

    24

    Busy Backgrounds

    Busy backgrounds can distract the viewer

    from the main subject, which makes the

    photo chaotic, confusing the viewer. For

    this, use a larger aperture to give the

    photo a shallow depth of field, which will

    put the unneeded background out of

    focus. Set the autofocus mode to One

    shot, as it is most suitable for subjects

    which are not moving.

  • 25

    Contextual Background

    If the background is part of the story

    youre trying to tell through your photo,

    use a smaller aperture to put the

    background into focus. Its all about

    whether the background is too distracting

    or if it is an important part of the photo.12

    Landscapes

    For most landscape photos, you want the

    entire frame in focus, so the viewer sees it

    as if they were actually there. Smaller

    apertures give a larger DOF, focusing on

    everything in the frame.12

    12Josh, Expert Photography, http://expertphotography.com/how-when-to-use-aperture-priority-mode/, (accessed 14 Nov, 2015).

    25

    Contextual Background

    If the background is part of the story

    youre trying to tell through your photo,

    use a smaller aperture to put the

    background into focus. Its all about

    whether the background is too distracting

    or if it is an important part of the photo.12

    Landscapes

    For most landscape photos, you want the

    entire frame in focus, so the viewer sees it

    as if they were actually there. Smaller

    apertures give a larger DOF, focusing on

    everything in the frame.12

    12Josh, Expert Photography, http://expertphotography.com/how-when-to-use-aperture-priority-mode/, (accessed 14 Nov, 2015).

  • 26

    Shutter Priority Shutter priority mode allows you to

    manually set the shutter speed

    while the camera automatically

    sets the aperture setting13. To use

    this mode, switch the dial to S or

    Tv. The front dial changes shutter

    speed.

    There are different situations where

    using shutter priority mode can be

    very useful.

    To stop motion, you need to set the

    shutter speed faster than the

    object.

    To blur movement, set the shutter

    speed slower than the object.

    Under unpredictable lighting

    conditions.13

    13Lori Grunin, CNET, http://www.cnet.com/how-to/dslr-tips-for-beginners-how-to-use-aperture-priority-mode/ (accessed 18

    Nov, 2015).

    26

    Shutter Priority Shutter priority mode allows you to

    manually set the shutter speed

    while the camera automatically

    sets the aperture setting13. To use

    this mode, switch the dial to S or

    Tv. The front dial changes shutter

    speed.

    There are different situations where

    using shutter priority mode can be

    very useful.

    To stop motion, you need to set the

    shutter speed faster than the

    object.

    To blur movement, set the shutter

    speed slower than the object.

    Under unpredictable lighting

    conditions.13

    13Lori Grunin, CNET, http://www.cnet.com/how-to/dslr-tips-for-beginners-how-to-use-aperture-priority-mode/ (accessed 18

    Nov, 2015).

  • 27

    The best shutter speeds for general

    purpose are usually between 1/80

    to 1/125, with 1/80 being the

    slowest speed to get a quality

    photo with no camera shake.

    However, if you have a tripod, you

    can set your shutter speed to

    virtually anything, as it gets rid of

    camera shake.

    Shutter speed tips

    Shooting Stars

    Using a tripod, you can literally set you

    shutter speed to several minutes or even

    hours using bulb mode, which allows you

    to take pictures for as long as you press

    the shutter button. Including stars and

    still objects in the photo will show stars

    moving across the sky while the static

    objects stay still.14

    14Lori Grunin, CNET, http://www.cnet.com/how-to/dslr-tips-for-beginners-how-to-use-aperture-priority-mode/ (accessed 18

    Nov, 2015).

    27

    The best shutter speeds for general

    purpose are usually between 1/80

    to 1/125, with 1/80 being the

    slowest speed to get a quality

    photo with no camera shake.

    However, if you have a tripod, you

    can set your shutter speed to

    virtually anything, as it gets rid of

    camera shake.

    Shutter speed tips

    Shooting Stars

    Using a tripod, you can literally set you

    shutter speed to several minutes or even

    hours using bulb mode, which allows you

    to take pictures for as long as you press

    the shutter button. Including stars and

    still objects in the photo will show stars

    moving across the sky while the static

    objects stay still.14

    14Lori Grunin, CNET, http://www.cnet.com/how-to/dslr-tips-for-beginners-how-to-use-aperture-priority-mode/ (accessed 18

    Nov, 2015).

  • 28

    Shooting water

    Shooting water at high shutter speeds

    makes the water seem frozen. This will

    require a shutter speed of 1/500 or faster.

    Shooting birds in flight

    To freeze the movement of birds while

    theyre flying, use a shutter speed of just

    around 1/2000.

    Shooting moving vehicles

    Use a shutter speed of around 1/1000 to

    freeze the motion of moving vehicles such

    as cars and motorcycles.

    Blurring walking people

    To blur the movement of people walking,

    use a shutter speed of 1/4 or so.15

    15Lori Grunin, CNET, http://www.cnet.com/how-to/dslr-tips-for-beginners-how-to-use-aperture-priority-mode/ (accessed 18

    Nov, 2015).

    28

    Shooting water

    Shooting water at high shutter speeds

    makes the water seem frozen. This will

    require a shutter speed of 1/500 or faster.

    Shooting birds in flight

    To freeze the movement of birds while

    theyre flying, use a shutter speed of just

    around 1/2000.

    Shooting moving vehicles

    Use a shutter speed of around 1/1000 to

    freeze the motion of moving vehicles such

    as cars and motorcycles.

    Blurring walking people

    To blur the movement of people walking,

    use a shutter speed of 1/4 or so.15

    15Lori Grunin, CNET, http://www.cnet.com/how-to/dslr-tips-for-beginners-how-to-use-aperture-priority-mode/ (accessed 18

    Nov, 2015).

  • 29

    Panning

    This technique is where you move the

    camera from one side to the other

    following a moving object which results in

    a sharp subject and blurred background.

    Set the ISO to around 100, to get the best

    quality photo. This works best in low-light

    environments, as bright environments

    cause overexposed photos. This will need

    a shutter speed of around 1/30 to 1/60.

    Use the Al Servo autofocus mode, as it is

    designed for the purpose of tracking

    moving subjects.15

    Light Trails

    To capture the light trails of cars as they

    pass by the frame, use a shutter speed of

    around 10 seconds to a couple minutes

    depending on traffic. Use an aperture of

    about f/8 and set your ISO at 200. To

    ensure that there is no camera shake

    when you take the picture, use a tripod. If

    the photo is underexposed, bump up the

    ISO or increase the shutter speed. Try to

    use manual focus rather than autofocus,

    as autofocus may struggle with the lack of

    contrast.15

    15Lori Grunin, CNET, http://www.cnet.com/how-to/dslr-tips-for-beginners-how-to-use-aperture-priority-mode/ (accessed 18

    Nov, 2015).

    29

    Panning

    This technique is where you move the

    camera from one side to the other

    following a moving object which results in

    a sharp subject and blurred background.

    Set the ISO to around 100, to get the best

    quality photo. This works best in low-light

    environments, as bright environments

    cause overexposed photos. This will need

    a shutter speed of around 1/30 to 1/60.

    Use the Al Servo autofocus mode, as it is

    designed for the purpose of tracking

    moving subjects.15

    Light Trails

    To capture the light trails of cars as they

    pass by the frame, use a shutter speed of

    around 10 seconds to a couple minutes

    depending on traffic. Use an aperture of

    about f/8 and set your ISO at 200. To

    ensure that there is no camera shake

    when you take the picture, use a tripod. If

    the photo is underexposed, bump up the

    ISO or increase the shutter speed. Try to

    use manual focus rather than autofocus,

    as autofocus may struggle with the lack of

    contrast.15

    15Lori Grunin, CNET, http://www.cnet.com/how-to/dslr-tips-for-beginners-how-to-use-aperture-priority-mode/ (accessed 18

    Nov, 2015).

  • 30

    Milky water effect

    To give the waterfall a silky look, set the

    shutter speed to around 1-3 seconds, or

    to higher speeds to make it seem

    frozen.16

    Mastering shutter speed and

    photography in general always

    requires lots of practice, trial, and

    error so stay patient. To practice

    setting the right shutter speed, try

    taking photos of moving cars.16

    16Lori Grunin, CNET, http://www.cnet.com/how-to/dslr-tips-for-beginners-how-to-use-aperture-priority-mode/ (accessed 18

    30

    Milky water effect

    To give the waterfall a silky look, set the

    shutter speed to around 1-3 seconds, or

    to higher speeds to make it seem

    frozen.16

    Mastering shutter speed and

    photography in general always

    requires lots of practice, trial, and

    error so stay patient. To practice

    setting the right shutter speed, try

    taking photos of moving cars.16

    16Lori Grunin, CNET, http://www.cnet.com/how-to/dslr-tips-for-beginners-how-to-use-aperture-priority-mode/ (accessed 18

  • 31

    Program Mode Program mode is a semi-automatic

    mode which sets the aperture and

    shutter speed automatically for

    what it deems most appropriate,

    but allows you to change them as

    you wish to improve the quality of

    the photos17. On all dSLR cameras,

    program mode will be represented

    by a P on the main dial.

    The situations to use program mode

    include:

    When autofocus isnt choosing the

    subject you want.

    When auto-mode is jacking up the

    ISO more than necessary.

    When the subject is either too light

    or dark.

    Generally when your photos arent

    coming out the way you want it.17

    17Lori Grunin, CNET, http://www.cnet.com/how-to/dslr-tips-for-beginners-how-to-use-program-mode/, (accessed 20 Nov,

    2015).

    31

    Program Mode Program mode is a semi-automatic

    mode which sets the aperture and

    shutter speed automatically for

    what it deems most appropriate,

    but allows you to change them as

    you wish to improve the quality of

    the photos17. On all dSLR cameras,

    program mode will be represented

    by a P on the main dial.

    The situations to use program mode

    include:

    When autofocus isnt choosing the

    subject you want.

    When auto-mode is jacking up the

    ISO more than necessary.

    When the subject is either too light

    or dark.

    Generally when your photos arent

    coming out the way you want it.17

    17Lori Grunin, CNET, http://www.cnet.com/how-to/dslr-tips-for-beginners-how-to-use-program-mode/, (accessed 20 Nov,

    2015).

  • 32

    When you use auto mode to take

    photos, most cameras jack up the

    ISO when you shoot in low light. The

    reason for this is because most

    cameras set the ISO sensitivity high

    enough that the shutter speed does

    not need to be dropped too low, as

    it could cause motion blur. However,

    increasing the ISO to much can

    introduce unwanted noise to the

    images. You can solve this by using a

    tripod and program mode, allowing

    you to manually set the ISO and

    lower the shutter speed. Remember

    to always use the lowest ISO setting

    when you use a tripod, unless you

    want special effects.

    To use program mode, switch the

    main dial to P. After that, look

    through your viewfinder as if youre

    about to take a picture and gently

    press on the shutter release

    button.18 You should hear

    18Lori Grunin, CNET, http://www.cnet.com/how-to/dslr-tips-for-beginners-how-to-use-aperture-priority-mode/ (accessed 18

    Nov, 2015).

    32

    When you use auto mode to take

    photos, most cameras jack up the

    ISO when you shoot in low light. The

    reason for this is because most

    cameras set the ISO sensitivity high

    enough that the shutter speed does

    not need to be dropped too low, as

    it could cause motion blur. However,

    increasing the ISO to much can

    introduce unwanted noise to the

    images. You can solve this by using a

    tripod and program mode, allowing

    you to manually set the ISO and

    lower the shutter speed. Remember

    to always use the lowest ISO setting

    when you use a tripod, unless you

    want special effects.

    To use program mode, switch the

    main dial to P. After that, look

    through your viewfinder as if youre

    about to take a picture and gently

    press on the shutter release

    button.18 You should hear

    18Lori Grunin, CNET, http://www.cnet.com/how-to/dslr-tips-for-beginners-how-to-use-aperture-priority-mode/ (accessed 18

    Nov, 2015).

  • 33

    a soft click, indicating the camera

    has focused on an object and has

    set the aperture and shutter speed

    automatically. The chosen aperture

    and shutter speed should appear on

    the LCD panel. To switch between

    different aperture and shutter

    speed combinations, use the front

    dial. Spinning the front dial to the

    left will lower the shutter speed,

    introducing motion blur, whereas

    spinning it to the right will increase

    the aperture which results in a

    more shallow depth of field. Keep in

    mind, the number on the right is

    the aperture and the number on

    the left in the LCD panel is the

    shutter speed.

    33

    a soft click, indicating the camera

    has focused on an object and has

    set the aperture and shutter speed

    automatically. The chosen aperture

    and shutter speed should appear on

    the LCD panel. To switch between

    different aperture and shutter

    speed combinations, use the front

    dial. Spinning the front dial to the

    left will lower the shutter speed,

    introducing motion blur, whereas

    spinning it to the right will increase

    the aperture which results in a

    more shallow depth of field. Keep in

    mind, the number on the right is

    the aperture and the number on

    the left in the LCD panel is the

    shutter speed.

  • 34

    Metering Modes Metering is the term for how your

    camera chooses the optimal shutter

    speed and aperture, based upon

    the amount of light that enters and

    the sensitivity of the sensor1. When

    the scene you shooting is unevenly

    lit, cameras can struggle to

    determine the correct exposure of

    the photo. Most cameras take in to

    account the light levels of the entire

    frame by default, to determine an

    exposure that produces a photo

    with balanced bright and dark

    areas. In situations where the

    default does not work, other

    options are available.19

    19Nasim Mansurov, PhotographyLife, https://photographylife.com/understanding-metering-modes, (accessed 5 Dec, 2015).

    34

    Metering Modes Metering is the term for how your

    camera chooses the optimal shutter

    speed and aperture, based upon

    the amount of light that enters and

    the sensitivity of the sensor1. When

    the scene you shooting is unevenly

    lit, cameras can struggle to

    determine the correct exposure of

    the photo. Most cameras take in to

    account the light levels of the entire

    frame by default, to determine an

    exposure that produces a photo

    with balanced bright and dark

    areas. In situations where the

    default does not work, other

    options are available.19

    19Nasim Mansurov, PhotographyLife, https://photographylife.com/understanding-metering-modes, (accessed 5 Dec, 2015).

  • 35

    The 3 most common metering

    modes which most dSLR cameras

    should have are; Overall/Evaluative

    Metering, Center-Weighted

    Metering, and Spot Metering.

    Different manufacturers and

    models will have differing ways to

    change the metering mode, so

    make sure to read the user manual

    of your camera. To change the

    metering mode on a Canon 5D

    Mark II, press the button to the

    upper left of the LCD panel and use

    the front dial to switch between

    20Nasim Mansurov, PhotographyLife, https://photographylife.com/

    understanding-metering-modes, (accessed 5 Dec, 2015).

    35

    The 3 most common metering

    modes which most dSLR cameras

    should have are; Overall/Evaluative

    Metering, Center-Weighted

    Metering, and Spot Metering.

    Different manufacturers and

    models will have differing ways to

    change the metering mode, so

    make sure to read the user manual

    of your camera. To change the

    metering mode on a Canon 5D

    Mark II, press the button to the

    upper left of the LCD panel and use

    the front dial to switch between

    20Nasim Mansurov, PhotographyLife, https://photographylife.com/

    understanding-metering-modes, (accessed 5 Dec, 2015).

  • 36

    Overall Metering

    The default mode of most cameras,

    the camera assesses everything in

    the frame, averaging the lighting in

    every zone to decide on an

    exposure.

    Center-Weighted Metering

    In this mode, the camera assesses

    lighting from several different

    metering zones around the frame,

    but focuses most of the metering

    on the center of the frame. This

    mode can be useful for shooting

    under tricky lighting conditions.

    36

    Overall Metering

    The default mode of most cameras,

    the camera assesses everything in

    the frame, averaging the lighting in

    every zone to decide on an

    exposure.

    Center-Weighted Metering

    In this mode, the camera assesses

    lighting from several different

    metering zones around the frame,

    but focuses most of the metering

    on the center of the frame. This

    mode can be useful for shooting

    under tricky lighting conditions.

  • 37

    Spot Metering

    When using this mode, the camera

    focuses its metering on a very small

    area in the frame. Rather than

    assessing information from all the

    metering zones, it focuses on one

    and ignores the others. This mode

    can be useful for tricky lighting

    conditions and when the scene is

    much brighter or darker than your

    photos subject.

    37

    Spot Metering

    When using this mode, the camera

    focuses its metering on a very small

    area in the frame. Rather than

    assessing information from all the

    metering zones, it focuses on one

    and ignores the others. This mode

    can be useful for tricky lighting

    conditions and when the scene is

    much brighter or darker than your

    photos subject.

  • 38

    Autofocus Points Using autofocus (or AF) points to

    your advantage can solve many

    common problems photographers

    encounter. Your camera analyzes

    information from the nine

    autofocus points, then chooses

    what to focus on. It then locks onto

    the closest object which coincides

    with one of the focus points. This

    may work if you want to focus on

    the closest object to the camera,

    but often times it will cause

    troubles. A more reliable method is

    to manually select one of the focus

    point you want to use, called single-

    point autofocus.21

    To change the AF point you want to

    use, click on the grid button to the

    top-right of the rear of your camera,

    and then either use the front dial or

    the joystick to switch

    21Jeff Meyer, Digital Camera World, http://www.digitalcameraworld.com/2013/02/07/af-points-how-to-take-control-of-

    autofocus-to-get-the-shots-you-want/, (accessed 11 Dec, 2015)

    38

    Autofocus Points Using autofocus (or AF) points to

    your advantage can solve many

    common problems photographers

    encounter. Your camera analyzes

    information from the nine

    autofocus points, then chooses

    what to focus on. It then locks onto

    the closest object which coincides

    with one of the focus points. This

    may work if you want to focus on

    the closest object to the camera,

    but often times it will cause

    troubles. A more reliable method is

    to manually select one of the focus

    point you want to use, called single-

    point autofocus.21

    To change the AF point you want to

    use, click on the grid button to the

    top-right of the rear of your camera,

    and then either use the front dial or

    the joystick to switch

    21Jeff Meyer, Digital Camera World, http://www.digitalcameraworld.com/2013/02/07/af-points-how-to-take-control-of-

    autofocus-to-get-the-shots-you-want/, (accessed 11 Dec, 2015)

  • 39

    between AF points. The focus point

    you have chosen will appear on

    your cameras LCD panel and in the

    viewfinder. Afterwards, you can

    click on the AF-ON button while

    looking through the viewfinder to

    see which point you chose. The AF

    point you have chosen will briefly

    be highlighted in red once you press

    the AF-ON button. Change the AF

    mode by pressing on the AF-Drive

    button.22

    22Jeff Meyer, Digital Camera World, http://

    www.digitalcameraworld.com/2013/02/07/af-points-how-to-take-control-of-

    autofocus-to-get-the-shots-you-want/, (accessed 11 Dec, 2015)

    39

    between AF points. The focus point

    you have chosen will appear on

    your cameras LCD panel and in the

    viewfinder. Afterwards, you can

    click on the AF-ON button while

    looking through the viewfinder to

    see which point you chose. The AF

    point you have chosen will briefly

    be highlighted in red once you press

    the AF-ON button. Change the AF

    mode by pressing on the AF-Drive

    button.22

    22Jeff Meyer, Digital Camera World, http://

    www.digitalcameraworld.com/2013/02/07/af-points-how-to-take-control-of-

    autofocus-to-get-the-shots-you-want/, (accessed 11 Dec, 2015)

  • 40

    You can change the cameras

    method of changing the AF point to

    make it easier for yourself.

    Press on the menu button to the

    top left of the preview display.

    Go to the second to last section,

    named custom functions.

    Select C. Fn. III: Autofocus/Drive

    On page 3 under AF point selection

    method select 1. Multi-controller

    direct.

    This allows you to change the AF

    point by simply moving the joystick

    in the direction of the focus point,

    without clicking on the grid button

    first. To use all AF points again, hit

    the grid button.23

    23Jeff Meyer, Digital Camera World, http://www.digitalcameraworld.com/2013/02/07/af-points-how-to-take-control-of-

    autofocus-to-get-the-shots-you-want/, (accessed 11 Dec, 2015)

    40

    You can change the cameras

    method of changing the AF point to

    make it easier for yourself.

    Press on the menu button to the

    top left of the preview display.

    Go to the second to last section,

    named custom functions.

    Select C. Fn. III: Autofocus/Drive

    On page 3 under AF point selection

    method select 1. Multi-controller

    direct.

    This allows you to change the AF

    point by simply moving the joystick

    in the direction of the focus point,

    without clicking on the grid button

    first. To use all AF points again, hit

    the grid button.23

    23Jeff Meyer, Digital Camera World, http://www.digitalcameraworld.com/2013/02/07/af-points-how-to-take-control-of-

    autofocus-to-get-the-shots-you-want/, (accessed 11 Dec, 2015)

  • 41

    Focus Point Tips

    Auto Select

    The default auto select can be the ideal

    option for when you need to react quickly

    so that you dont miss a good shot. Its

    also great for tracking movement.

    Upper AF Point

    When shooting a landscape and you want

    to focus on the distant scenery at the

    expense of the foreground, use the focus

    point at the very top.

    Central AF Point

    The focus point at the center is the most

    accurate of all, therefore its useful for

    shooting under dull or very bright lighting,

    where other AF point might not be able to

    focus properly.

    41

    Focus Point Tips

    Auto Select

    The default auto select can be the ideal

    option for when you need to react quickly

    so that you dont miss a good shot. Its

    also great for tracking movement.

    Upper AF Point

    When shooting a landscape and you want

    to focus on the distant scenery at the

    expense of the foreground, use the focus

    point at the very top.

    Central AF Point

    The focus point at the center is the most

    accurate of all, therefore its useful for

    shooting under dull or very bright lighting,

    where other AF point might not be able to

    focus properly.

  • 42

    Diagonal AF points

    Generally, portraits look best when the

    subject is placed slightly off the center of

    the frame. When taking a portrait of

    someone, choose one of the diagonal AF

    points and place it right on top of either

    of the persons eyes.

    Edge AF points

    Using the AF points at the far left or right

    can be helpful when the subject is placed

    at either end of the frame, or when you

    want to focus slightly more on the

    foreground.

    42

    Diagonal AF points

    Generally, portraits look best when the

    subject is placed slightly off the center of

    the frame. When taking a portrait of

    someone, choose one of the diagonal AF

    points and place it right on top of either

    of the persons eyes.

    Edge AF points

    Using the AF points at the far left or right

    can be helpful when the subject is placed

    at either end of the frame, or when you

    want to focus slightly more on the

    foreground.

  • 43

    Photo Composition Essentially, photo composition

    determines how successful a photo

    will be. It is what you include in the

    frame of your shot, and how you

    arrange them1. It can be difficult for

    beginners to decide on what they

    want to include in their photos, so

    here are some rules of photo

    composition.

    1, Fill the Frame

    Simply put, the less empty space filling

    the frame, the better the shot will look. It

    can sometimes be difficult to decide how

    much of the frame your subject should

    fill, and many photographers make the

    mistake of leaving too much empty space.

    When the subject is too small, it confuses

    the viewers as to what they should be

    looking at, which makes for a rather bad

    photo.24

    24Jeff Meyer, Digital Camera World, http://www.digitalcameraworld.com/2012/04/12/10-rules-of-photo-composition-and-why-they-work/,

    (accessed 8 Dec, 2015).

    43

    Photo Composition Essentially, photo composition

    determines how successful a photo

    will be. It is what you include in the

    frame of your shot, and how you

    arrange them1. It can be difficult for

    beginners to decide on what they

    want to include in their photos, so

    here are some rules of photo

    composition.

    1, Fill the Frame

    Simply put, the less empty space filling

    the frame, the better the shot will look. It

    can sometimes be difficult to decide how

    much of the frame your subject should

    fill, and many photographers make the

    mistake of leaving too much empty space.

    When the subject is too small, it confuses

    the viewers as to what they should be

    looking at, which makes for a rather bad

    photo.24

    24Jeff Meyer, Digital Camera World, http://www.digitalcameraworld.com/2012/04/12/10-rules-of-photo-composition-and-why-they-work/,

    (accessed 8 Dec, 2015).

  • 44

    2. Avoid the Middle

    Putting the subject of your photo at

    the dead center of the frame is a

    very common mistake

    photographers make. Move your

    subject slightly more to one side of

    the frame, and balance it out with

    contrasting colors to avoid taking

    rather boring and uninteresting

    pictures.

    3. Leading Lines

    One way of telling if a photo is badly

    composed is if the viewers eyes

    44

    2. Avoid the Middle

    Putting the subject of your photo at

    the dead center of the frame is a

    very common mistake

    photographers make. Move your

    subject slightly more to one side of

    the frame, and balance it out with

    contrasting colors to avoid taking

    rather boring and uninteresting

    pictures.

    3. Leading Lines

    One way of telling if a photo is badly

    composed is if the viewers eyes

  • 45

    scene with no center of attention.

    Lines can be utilized to direct the

    eyes of the viewer to the subject,

    controlling how their eyes move

    around the photo. Curved lines can

    lead eyes around the frame to the

    subject, while also giving a sense of

    depth and perspective.

    4. Use Diagonals

    In a picture, vertical lines will

    suggest stability, whereas horizontal

    lines will give it a calm feel. On the

    other hand, diagonal lines can give a

    sense of uncertainty and drama,

    making the photo more interesting

    to look at.

    45

    scene with no center of attention.

    Lines can be utilized to direct the

    eyes of the viewer to the subject,

    controlling how their eyes move

    around the photo. Curved lines can

    lead eyes around the frame to the

    subject, while also giving a sense of

    depth and perspective.

    4. Use Diagonals

    In a picture, vertical lines will

    suggest stability, whereas horizontal

    lines will give it a calm feel. On the

    other hand, diagonal lines can give a

    sense of uncertainty and drama,

    making the photo more interesting

    to look at.

  • 46

    5. Space to Move

    Although photographs themselves

    dont move, they can portray a

    strong sense of movement

    nonetheless. If your subject is

    moving, make sure it has space in

    the frame to move into. It gives off

    a feeling of unease when there is no

    space to move into. Likewise with

    portraits, the persons gaze should

    have some room to move into. So

    for these types of shots, its a good

    idea to always have a bit more room

    in front of your subject than behind

    it.

    46

    5. Space to Move

    Although photographs themselves

    dont move, they can portray a

    strong sense of movement

    nonetheless. If your subject is

    moving, make sure it has space in

    the frame to move into. It gives off

    a feeling of unease when there is no

    space to move into. Likewise with

    portraits, the persons gaze should

    have some room to move into. So

    for these types of shots, its a good

    idea to always have a bit more room

    in front of your subject than behind

    it.

  • 47

    6. Backgrounds

    Before you take any photo, you

    must always look at your

    background first. If you think your

    background to be unnecessary, you

    can control it even though you most

    likely wont be able to remove it

    completely. You can either adjust

    your position to get a background

    you would like, or you can use a

    larger aperture to throw it out of

    focus.

    7. Break the Rules

    The saying goes, Rules are meant

    to be broken. These rules are

    simply tips for you to improve the

    quality of your shots. Breaking the

    rules can bring interesting new

    special effects, but you must first

    know the rules and deliberately

    break them. For every composition

    rule that has been made, there is a

    picture out there proving it wrong.

    47

    6. Backgrounds

    Before you take any photo, you

    must always look at your

    background first. If you think your

    background to be unnecessary, you

    can control it even though you most

    likely wont be able to remove it

    completely. You can either adjust

    your position to get a background

    you would like, or you can use a

    larger aperture to throw it out of

    focus.

    7. Break the Rules

    The saying goes, Rules are meant

    to be broken. These rules are

    simply tips for you to improve the

    quality of your shots. Breaking the

    rules can bring interesting new

    special effects, but you must first

    know the rules and deliberately

    break them. For every composition

    rule that has been made, there is a

    picture out there proving it wrong.

  • 48

    Rules of Thumb Certain rules of thumb can be very

    useful to keep at the back of your

    mind when you shoot, to make sure

    your photos come out the way you

    want it to.

    1. Sunny 16

    During bright or sunny days, aperture

    should be f/16 and shutter speed 1/ISO.

    2. Moony 11

    Shutter: 1/ISO

    Full Moon: f/11

    Half Moon: f/8

    Quarter Moon: f/5.6

    2. Camera Shake

    Shutter Speed: 1/focal length of lens.

    3. Flash Range

    Double the distance, 4x the ISO

    48

    Rules of Thumb Certain rules of thumb can be very

    useful to keep at the back of your

    mind when you shoot, to make sure

    your photos come out the way you

    want it to.

    1. Sunny 16

    During bright or sunny days, aperture

    should be f/16 and shutter speed 1/ISO.

    2. Moony 11

    Shutter: 1/ISO

    Full Moon: f/11

    Half Moon: f/8

    Quarter Moon: f/5.6

    2. Camera Shake

    Shutter Speed: 1/focal length of lens.

    3. Flash Range

    Double the distance, 4x the ISO

  • 49

    4. Stopping Action

    If the movement is perpendicular to the

    lens, use a shutter speed 2 stops faster

    than the movement. Use 1 stop faster if

    the action is at a 45-degree angle to the

    lens.

    5. Shutter Speed with Flash

    Use 1/60 shutter speed all the time.

    6. Depth of Field

    For maximum DOF use f/16 and for

    minimum DOF use f/2.

    7. Focus

    Focus on the eyes if your subject has

    them.

    8. Sunsets

    Take your metering from the area just

    above the sun and use it for your

    exposure. Decrease the aperture by one

    stop to give it the effect of a photo taken

    half and hour later.

    9. Doubt

    25Peter Liu, Swiss Army Nerd, http://peterliu47.com/12-photography-rules-of-thumb/, (accessed 11 Jan, 2015).

    49

    4. Stopping Action

    If the movement is perpendicular to the

    lens, use a shutter speed 2 stops faster

    than the movement. Use 1 stop faster if

    the action is at a 45-degree angle to the

    lens.

    5. Shutter Speed with Flash

    Use 1/60 shutter speed all the time.

    6. Depth of Field

    For maximum DOF use f/16 and for

    minimum DOF use f/2.

    7. Focus

    Focus on the eyes if your subject has

    them.

    8. Sunsets

    Take your metering from the area just

    above the sun and use it for your

    exposure. Decrease the aperture by one

    stop to give it the effect of a photo taken

    half and hour later.

    9. Doubt

    25Peter Liu, Swiss Army Nerd, http://peterliu47.com/12-photography-rules-of-thumb/, (accessed 11 Jan, 2015).

  • 50

    Beginner photographers can often

    feel lost without a sense of

    direction as they familiarize

    themselves with their camera. So

    here are some tips to follow if you

    ever feel hopeless or if youre

    struggling to take good photos.

    1) Dont be afraid to make

    mistakes.

    The best professional photographers out

    there didn't immediately start taking

    great photos. Photography needs practice

    just like everything else.

    2) Look at the background first

    The quality of the background can either

    make or break your photo. Beware of

    things that draw attention away from

    your subject, such as colorful and bright

    objects or other elements that distract

    the audience.

    Tips for Beginners

    50

    Beginner photographers can often

    feel lost without a sense of

    direction as they familiarize

    themselves with their camera. So

    here are some tips to follow if you

    ever feel hopeless or if youre

    struggling to take good photos.

    1) Dont be afraid to make

    mistakes.

    The best professional photographers out

    there didn't immediately start taking

    great photos. Photography needs practice

    just like everything else.

    2) Look at the background first

    The quality of the background can either

    make or break your photo. Beware of

    things that draw attention away from

    your subject, such as colorful and bright

    objects or other elements that distract

    the audience.

    Tips for Beginners

  • 51

    3) Keep the beep

    The beep you hear when your camera

    focuses can make it much more enjoyable

    for you as well as those around you when

    taking pictures.

    4) Dont stress about the quality

    of your camera

    At the end of the day, the quality of a

    photo will always come down to the

    photographer and the composition of the

    photo, so theres no need to buy the most

    expensive camera that you can find.

    5) Wait for the right light

    Shooting under soft and diffused light can

    reduce the contrast and reveal detail in a

    photo, while bright but overcast weather

    is great for outdoor portraits and macro

    photos.

    6) A photo is either a hell yes or

    no

    7) Try to take atleast a photo per

    day

    8) Adding clarity, vignette, and

    51

    3) Keep the beep

    The beep you hear when your camera

    focuses can make it much more enjoyable

    for you as well as those around you when

    taking pictures.

    4) Dont stress about the quality

    of your camera

    At the end of the day, the quality of a

    photo will always come down to the

    photographer and the composition of the

    photo, so theres no need to buy the most

    expensive camera that you can find.

    5) Wait for the right light

    Shooting under soft and diffused light can

    reduce the contrast and reveal detail in a

    photo, while bright but overcast weather

    is great for outdoor portraits and macro

    photos.

    6) A photo is either a hell yes or

    no

    7) Try to take atleast a photo per

    day

    8) Adding clarity, vignette, and

  • 52

    make a photo better.

    9) Buy books, not gear

    10) The bigger your camera, the

    less likely you are to carry it

    around with you everyday,

    meaning you will shoot less

    photos.

    11) Always have backups (lens,

    battery, etc.) when travelling

    and taking photos.

    12) Be patient.

    You will need to be patient as you learn to

    take photographs. Photography can often

    times be incredibly frustrating, and some

    days you will feel like quitting

    photography. But as you gain more

    experience, the photos will come a lot

    easier.

    52

    make a photo better.

    9) Buy books, not gear

    10) The bigger your camera, the

    less likely you are to carry it

    around with you everyday,

    meaning you will shoot less

    photos.

    11) Always have backups (lens,

    battery, etc.) when travelling

    and taking photos.

    12) Be patient.

    You will need to be patient as you learn to

    take photographs. Photography can often

    times be incredibly frustrating, and some

    days you will feel like quitting

    photography. But as you gain more

    experience, the photos will come a lot

    easier.

  • 53

    Index aperture 6, 10, 11, 12, 13, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22

    23, 24, 25, 26, 29, 31, 33, 34, 47, 48, 50

    autofocus 24, 29, 31, 38

    AF mode 39

    Al Servo 29

    Bulb mode 27

    Camera shake 13, 20, 21, 27, 29, 48

    Color 9

    Exposure 7, 12, 19, 20, 34, 36, 49

    Focus 7, 9, 11, 20, 23, 24, 25, 29, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 47, 49

    53

    Index aperture 6, 10, 11, 12, 13, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22

    23, 24, 25, 26, 29, 31, 33, 34, 47, 48, 50

    autofocus 24, 29, 31, 38

    AF mode 39

    Al Servo 29

    Bulb mode 27

    Camera shake 13, 20, 21, 27, 29, 48

    Color 9

    Exposure 7, 12, 19, 20, 34, 36, 49

    Focus 7, 9, 11, 20, 23, 24, 25, 29, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 47, 49

  • 54

    ISO 7, 9, 11, 20, 23, 24, 25, 29, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 47, 49

    Lighting 8, 14, 18, 20, 21, 26, 36, 37, 41

    LCD panel 17, 33, 35, 39

    Metering 35, 36, 37, 49

    Noise 16, 18, 32

    One Shot AF 24

    photo composition 8, 43

    Rule of Thirds 7

    single-point autofocus 38

    shutter speed 6, 12, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 26,

    27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 48, 49

    54

    ISO 7, 9, 11, 20, 23, 24, 25, 29, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 47, 49

    Lighting 8, 14, 18, 20, 21, 26, 36, 37, 41

    LCD panel 17, 33, 35, 39

    Metering 35, 36, 37, 49

    Noise 16, 18, 32

    One Shot AF 24

    photo composition 8, 43

    Rule of Thirds 7

    single-point autofocus 38

    shutter speed 6, 12, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 26,

    27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 48, 49

  • 55

    Acknowledgements Thank you to

    Mr. Raja Sen

    For guiding me through this

    project and assisting me when I

    needed help.

    All my models!

    Teo Kitahara Bigot

    Tengis Battur

    Tsommo Zorigtbaatar

    Misheel Enkhbayar

    Temuujin Munkhbat

    Buyanaa Boldbaatar

    Nyamrinchin Amarsaihan

    Samanda Anandbazar

    55

    Acknowledgements Thank you to

    Mr. Raja Sen

    For guiding me through this

    project and assisting me when I

    needed help.

    All my models!

    Teo Kitahara Bigot

    Tengis Battur

    Tsommo Zorigtbaatar

    Misheel Enkhbayar

    Temuujin Munkhbat

    Buyanaa Boldbaatar

    Nyamrinchin Amarsaihan

    Samanda Anandbazar

  • 56

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  • 60

    60