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The Baroque (and Rococo) 1600-1750 •Action •Passion •Healthy Eaters.

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The Baroque (and Rococo) 1600-1750. Action Passion Healthy Eaters. Counter Reformation was over- Catholic Church was strong again-Protestantism was on the defensive Countries at war (30 Year’s War, Hapsburg empire) Secularization of gov’t - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Page 1: The Baroque (and Rococo)  1600-1750

The Baroque(and Rococo)


•Action•Passion•Healthy Eaters.

Page 2: The Baroque (and Rococo)  1600-1750

•Counter Reformation was over- Catholic Church was strong again-Protestantism was on the defensive•Countries at war (30 Year’s War, Hapsburg empire)•Secularization of gov’t•Worldwide markets (coffee, tea)-private wealth-buy more art!•Baroque artists were far removed from science and technology unlike during the Renaissance (too complicated)•Affected by the absolutist states (France, Germany, England)•Rome became Baroque art’s center- Popes were still largest patrons (aimed to make Rome the most beautiful city of Christendom)-ambitious artists flocked to Rome for commissions

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Caravaggio, The Calling of St. Matthew, 1599-1602

•1571-1610•Remote from both Mannerism and Renaissance•New form of art called “Naturalism”- a sacred scene painted in contemporary low life•Story of Matthew the tax collector-figure on the far right is Jesus•Light is both natural and charged with symbolic meaning•Religious monumentalism would appeal to both Catholics and Protestants (later became Rembrandt’s influence)


Page 4: The Baroque (and Rococo)  1600-1750

Caravaggio, Judith, early 17th C.

•Strong Light, action-packed paintings

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Artemesia Genteleschi, Judith and Maidservant, 1625

•Born into an artistic family which gave her an advantage over other women artists•Became one of the leading painters and personalities of her day•Subject of Judith popular during Baroque- violent and erotic scene•Immortalizes feminine courage•Very theatrical, mysterious light•Complex composition

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Carracci, Palazzo Farnese, Rome, 1597-1601

•Became so famous, that it was considered second only to Michelangelo and Raphael•Intricate narrative scenes surrounded by architecture•Subject matter is the loves of the classical gods•Color is based on the Venetians•Balance of studies from life with a revival of the classics (including the Renaissance masters)•Revived interest in illusion

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Carracci, Landscape with the Flight into Egypt, 1603

•Pastoral mood and soft light are influenced by Titian•Figures are almost inconspicuous -like northern painters (Breugal)•Early example of the ideal lasndscape

Page 8: The Baroque (and Rococo)  1600-1750

Cortona, Glorification of the Reign of Urban the VIII, 1633-39

•Ceiling Frescos became more and more popular- done mostly for patrons•Illusionistic-shows the sky behind the regular architectural scheme•Some figures are closer to the viewer and some are farther away in the sky

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Interior, St. Peters, showing Bernini’s Throne

•The decoration of the interior of St. Peters was a difficult task- to relate a vast space to a human scale•Task fell to Bernini (1598-1680) who worked on St. Peters throughout his career

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Bernini, David, 1623

•Bernini’s David and Michelangelo’s David have the same relationship as classical and Hellenistic sculpture-each drew inspiration from a different part of antiquity•Bernini shares the Hellenistic view of unison of body and spirit, motion and emotion •Implied presence of Goliath-the negative space is owned by the sculpture•During the Baroque, sculpture merged with painting and architecture like in no other time period before

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Bernini, The Ecstasy of St. Teresa, 1645-52

•Sensuous visual experience•Shows the moment where St. Teresa is pierced by an angel’s arrow and felt both emotional pain and sweetness at the same time•Because of the lighting, the sculpture looks visionary•Some outside (from above) force is blowing their clothing •Sculpture is connected in this way to a fresco directly above it

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Bernini, Throne of St. Peters, 1657-66

•In the Choir of St. Peters•Focus is a burst of heavenly light that propels all the figures towards the viewer

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Borromini, S. Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, 1665-67

•Francesco Borromini- the role of the tortured artist- died by suicide•Very complex and extravagant structures-dynamic and complex•Play of concave and convex surfaces makes structure seem pulled apart•Merges architecture and sculpture•Plan is like a half-melted cross•Combines Renaissance and Medieval structures

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Von Erlach, St. Charles Borromaeus, 1716-37

•Great architect of late Baroque•Central European (Vienna)•Pantheon-like portico, columns should look familiar to you!!•The power of the Christian faith to absorb and change the splendors of ancient art

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Rubens, The Raising of the Cross, 1609-10

•Baroque in Flanders (the Spanish Netherlands)•Peter Paul Rubens 1577-1640•Helped to break down artistic barriers between north and south•Studied art of the High Renaissance•Artist of major influence and education-court advisor to Spanish regent in Flanders•Altarpiece•Muscular figures of Italian art, lighting reflect Caravaggio•Definitely a Flemish realist•Tremendous dramatic force-almost bursts through the picture plane

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Rubens, Marie de-Medici, Queen of France, Landing in Marseilles, 1622-23

•In the Luxembourg Palace in Paris•Popularity of spectacle and wealth•Not a very exciting event, but Rubens has made it so-Neptune rises from the sea (has protected her on her journey)•Used oil sketches to prepare for his paintings- this was an important legacy for future artists

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Franz Hals, The Laughing Cavalier, 1630

•The Utrecht School-Baroque came to Holland through Rubens•Utrecht was a Catholic city- most artists traveled to Rome- •Influenced by Caravaggio•Franz Hals 1580-1666-great portrait painter•Spontaneity- twinkling eyes, SMILE!•Worked in dashing brushstrokes-immediacy of design but spent a long time (lifesize!)

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Leyster, Self Portrait, 1630

•Follower of Hals•Poetic quality of life•Celebration of self

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Rembrandt, The Night Watch, 1642

•Art effected by Caravaggio-sharply lit•Painted mostly Old Testament scenes at first and was a well-sought-after portrait painter•Night Watch- a group portrait-Some people say that people were angry for being portrayed in shadow so he lost popular opinion-had financial difficulties

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Rembrandt, Self Portrait, 1658

•Did many self portraits- always reflects the view of himself and his inner development•Influenced by Titian and Van Eyke•Use of light- hallmark of style

Page 21: The Baroque (and Rococo)  1600-1750

Willem Claesz Heda, Still Life 1634

•Most art buyers preferred landscapes and still lifes•Vanitas, Vanitas!- all is vanity•disguised symbolism is back!!!•The passing of all earthly pleasures

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Vermeer, Girl in Blue Reading a Letter, 1663-64

•Jan Vermeer- master of the genre paintings- but no narrative•Usually solitary, usually women-almost like still-lifes•Light always filters in from an implied window-everyday world seems fresh and new•Made up of rectangles, no undefined empty spaces•Know very little about his life- died when he was 43, lived in Delft•Genius not recognized until 100 years ago

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Velasquez, The Water Carrier of Seville, c.1619

•Baroque in Spain---did not happen natively, but through the spread of ideas from Italy and the Netherlands

•Caravaggio-esque, but focused more on genre scenes•This was done at the age of 20•Moved to Madrid and became court painter- portraits of the royal family

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Velazquez, The Maids of Honor, 1656

•Valazquez’s style at its fullest- a self portrait, a group portrait and a genre scene •Mirror in the back of the room- is it on the canvas or behind?•Fascination with light and its optical mysteries-reflected and direct•Light creates the visual world

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De La Tour, Joseph the Carpenter, 1645

•France was the most powerful state in Europe- culturally too!•Art center changed from Rome to Paris because of large projects (Versailles)•Also called “Style of Loius XIV” or the “Classic” style- links to other high points in culture•De La Tour- oriented towards Caravaggio- both a religious and genre scene- intimate and tender

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Poussin, The Rape of the Sabine Women, 1636-37

•Classicism reigned supreme•Earliest French painter in history to gain international fame•Freezes action, like statues, Roman architecture in the background•Shows emotion but doesn’t touch the viewer•Logical and serious•Thought that the viewer should be able to “read” the exact emotions of each figure•Not very accessible

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Perrault, Louvre, 1667-70

•All art had to be made to glorify the king- very restrictive “royal” style•Design meant to link the king with Roman emperors-Roman temple front -ground floor serves as the podium•Showed victory of French “royal” style over Italian classicism

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Lebrun, Hall of Mirrors, Palace of Versailles, 1678

•Louis XIV interested in lavish interiors rather than the exterior•Entire interior decorated by Lebrun, a painter-became the dictator of the arts in France•All art became for the glorification of the king- reflects Italian Baroque style (ceilings)

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Louis Le Vau, Hardouin Mansart, Palace of Versailles, 1669-85

•Design grew and grew to accommodate the royal family’s wishes•Garden is most impressive aspect of the palace-meant to serve as the background for the King’s official appearances

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Watteau, Delights of Life, 1717

•Royal Academy- new system of educating artists founded in 1648-very rigid- had a grading system for all artists including past-Greeks came first, then Raphael-Flemish ranked low•Produced no significant artists!•Became an argument over drawing v. color (Poussinistes V. Rubenistes)•educated v. lay •Watteau was a Rubeniste-violates all academy canons

•Admitted to the academy anyway because it had lost a lot of clout by this time•Slim and graceful rather than round like Rubens

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Fragonard, The Bolt, 1778

•Rococo Style- after the death of Louis XIV, people became less centralized- art made for interiors and private collection•Means “playful decoration”•Fragonard sensual in style and subject, lacks emotional depth, graceful•Style ends with the Revolution

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Chardin, Still life, c.1731•Rubenistes cleared way for revival of Dutch painting-Chardin is a master•Sense of spatial order- each object seems very important-respect for everyday objects- symbols, but not religious- everyday people

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Wren, St. Paul’s Cathedra, 1675-1710l

•Sir Christopher Wren- Very intellectual -like a Renaissance man but no apparent direct link between his scientific and artistic ideas•design classical in nature•Great fire of London in 1666 destroyed the old St. Paul’s•Named to the Royal commission for rebuilding the city•Effected by the design for the Louvre•Wanted it to be the St. Peters of England

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Hogarth, The Rake’s Progress, c. 1734•England never accepted Rococo style- became the object of satire•English painting became more important than it had been since the Middle Ages•William Hogarth was a “Dramatist”-paintings and prints came in sets-morality plays that espoused middle class virtues- very narrative in nature

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Thomas Gainsborough, Blue Boy

•Portraiture was constant source of income for English painters- Gainsborough became a master at this-a a favorite of high society•Cool elegance•Rubenesque technique •Enlightenment- painting must include both nature and art- Hume’s “Natural Man”- free of excessive pride or humility

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Sir Joshua Reynolds, Mrs. Siddon as the Tragic Muse, 1784

•Great rival of Gainsborough•Believed in the French Academy’s academic approach•Had his own written art rules•Painted allegorical portraits•Rembrandt-like lighting•Unlike Gainsborough, Reynolds believed that art must conform to the example of poetry, be it epic or tragic (Horace)•Borrowed poses from antiquity to elevate the individual to a universal type