The American Revolution. The Battles Lexington and Concord Fort Ticonderoga Bunker Hill Siege of Boston Quebec Saratoga.
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The American RevolutionThe BattlesLexington and ConcordFort TiconderogaBunker HillSiege of BostonQuebecSaratogaLexington and ConcordApril 19, 1775British General Thomas Gage dispatched 700 troops to Concord, Massachusetts.Their mission was to seize munitions that Patriots had been stockpiling.Lexington and ConcordPaul Revere and other Patriots quickly spread the word of British departure.Lexington and ConcordPatriot militia men were waiting at Lexington when the British arrived. There were approximately 70 men under Capt. John Parker.The British ordered the militia to disperse.Lexington and ConcordWhat ensued was the shot heard round the world.There was gunfire from both sides and the militia retreated.The militia formed again at Concord, now numbering a few hundred.The British did seize the gunpowder.They were under constant fire in their retreat to Boston.British casualties numbered 273 during the retreat.Fort TiconderogaMay 11, 1775Fort Ticonderoga is on the shores of Lake Champlain, a position that could cut the colonies in half.Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold both led men who were ordered to take the fort.On May 11th, all the men who could fit were loaded in boats and set off for the fort.The garrison defending the fort were asleep in their beds.Fort TiconderogaAllen called out the Lieutenant in charge. The fort, with all its heavy artillery, was surrendered without a shot ever being fired.Bunker HillJune 16, 1775The British were told to fortify Breeds Hill (a.k.a. Bunker Hill)Americans heard this and decided to try to beat them to it.The British tried twice to take Breeds Hill and were twice turned away, giving confidence to the Patriots.Bunker HillThe British then received reinforcements and artillery ammunition.They tried once again to take Breeds Hill.In this third attempt, the British broke through the Patriots and forced them to retreat. Though the British did eventually take the battle of Bunker Hill, this battle gave Patriots confidence. It showed them that if they banded together and fought as one, they could defeat the British or at least hold them at bay.Break AssignmentYou have ten minutes to complete this assignment. Each student must take the position of an American soldier right after the battle of Bunker Hill. You must write a short letter home to your loved ones.In your letter you must tell how you feel, what your morale is like, what the weather is like, and talk about some of the fighting youve witnessed.Siege of BostonJuly 1775- March 1776After Washington was appointed General, he was ordered to convert the rag tag army around Boston into a fighting force.At the same time he was to tighten the noose on the British soldiers who occupied Boston.Siege of BostonIn February 1776, after months with Boston under siege, Washington wanted to attack Boston directly.He was told instead to take Dorchester Heights.Troops under the command of General Thomas then took the heights.The British awoke the morning of the March 5th to find American troops with artillery fortified in the Heights overlooking Boston.British Commander Howe decided to surrender Boston, and by March 17th the last of the British troops left Boston.The Battle of QuebecDecember 31, 1775Congress wanted action to be taken against the British in Canada.Washington gave this task to Benedict Arnold.He gathered troops and supplies and set off September 11.The Battle of QuebecIt took Arnold and his men 45 days to reach Quebec.On December 31, the American forces attacked Quebec.600 men were led by Arnold from the North300 men were led by Richard Montgomery from the south.The British were waiting behind successive barriers.The Americans broke through the first but could not pass the second.Arnold was wounded and Montgomery was killed in the battle.The Battle of SaratogaSeptember 19, 1777General Burgoyne was planning an attack to destroy the New England armies of America. It was to be a three sided attack on the Patriot forces.Initially the plan was working as the British won at Ticonderoga and Hubbardton.Gradually the Americans began to gain ground.During the First Battle of Saratoga at Freemans Farm, Horatio Gates and his troops were defeated and pushed back by Burgoyne.Then Burgoyne attacked again at the Battle of Bemis Heights. This was known as the second Battle of Saratoga.The Battle of SaratogaGates and his forces won the second battle of Saratoga.Burgoyne desperately attacked the Rebel defenses with his tired demoralized army.Arnold led a counterattack as Burgoyne retreated. This bold move so badly wounded the British forces that Burgoyne surrendered days later at Saratoga.Victory at SaratogaHistorians consider the Battle of Saratoga to be a major turning point in the American Revolution.The American victory here showed the world that they could effectively fight a superior British army and win.End of Class activityFor the remainder of class I would like each student to now take the position of a British soldier right after the Battle of Saratoga. Keep in mind, the Americans have just won this battle and are very confident. Imagine you are one of the British soldiers and I want you to describe how you would feel after this battle. Talk about how you feel, how some of your comrades feel, and how you feel the war is going. Do you feel that the war can still be won by your army or do you feel that it is now a lost cause. You must at least write half a page on this topic.
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