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  • 7/26/2019 Syro Hittie


    Syro-Hittite statesFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    (Redirected from Neo-Hittite)

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    The states that are called Neo-Hittite, or more recently Syro-HittitewereLuwian,Aramaicand

    Phoenician-speaking political entities of theIron Agein northern Syriaand southern Anatolia

    that arose following the collapse of theHittite Empirearound !" #$ and which lasted untilroughly %"" #$& The term '(eo-Hittite' is sometimes reser)ed specifically for the Luwian-

    speaking principalities like *ilidand $archemish, although in a wider sense the +roader cultural

    term 'Syro-Hittite' is now applied to all the entities that arose in south-central Anatolia

    following the Hittite collapsesuch as Ta+aland well as those of northern and

    coastal Syria&/0


    ate ron!e "#e-arly .ron "#e transition

    / ist of 0yro-Hittite states

    1 .nscriptions

    2 0ee also

    3 Notes

    4 5ternal links

    ate ron!e "#e-arly .ron "#e transition

    +his section may require copy editingfor grammar, style, cohesion,tone, or spelling6 7o can assist *y editin# it6 (November 2014)

    Frther information8 ron!e "#e collapse

    +he &ast Hittiteempire at its ma5imm e5pansion in the lands of central "natolia
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    The collapse of the Hittite Empire is usually associated with the gradual decline of Eastern

    *editerranean trade networks and the resulting collapse of ma1or Late #ron2e Age citiesin the

    Le)antine coast, Anatolia and the Aegean&/30In the middle of the 4th century #$, great groups

    of 5reeksspeaking ancient 6oriandialects mo)ed from the north through the #alkanregion tothe south& The Thracianswho occupied this region, and northern 5reece, were forced to mo)e to

    the western coasts, and later to the inland of Anatolia,where they +ecame known asPhrygiansand *ysians& At the end of the 4th century #$, the *yceneanpalaces in inland 5reece were

    destroyed +y in)aders and almost simultaneously sea-raiders de)astated the palace at Pylos&/40/70

    A few decades later, at the +eginning of the 3th century #$, HomericTroywas destroyed/80andthe Hittite Empiresuffered a sudden de)astating attack from the 9askas, who occupied the coasts

    around the #lack Sea,and who were 1oined with the*ysians&They proceeded to destroy almost

    all Hittite sites +ut they were finally defeated +y the Assyrians+eyond the southern +orders near

    Tigris/:0These great population mo)ements in the Eastern-*editterannean are documented in the

    records of ;amesses III as an in)asion +y the so-called sea peoples&/%0*entioned as +eing among them are the people ofAdana in$iliciaand

    pro+a+ly the Troyans&Hatti,Ar2awa, Alashiya, ?garitand Alalakhweredestroyed&/!0The in)aders were defeated near the +orders of Egypt&

    It seems that the sea-peoples contri+uted to the collapse of the Empire, although they are only

    mentioned in the Egyptianrecords and the archaeological e)idence is insufficient& Their in)asion

    caused the mo)ement, +y +oth land and sea, of large populations seeking new land to settle&/@0Infact, it is recorded that theforeign countriesmade a conspiracy in their islands and that no land

    could stand +efore their arms& The Hittites were strong enough to sur)i)e the first stream of

    emigrations, +ut they didnt escape the second, where they were surrounded +y enemies& The

    Caskawere a continuous trou+le, the +orders withArzawawere ne)er considered safe, *itanni

    to the south was always an enemy and a few decades earlier the Hittites suffered a great defeatagainst the Assyrians+eyond the +orders&/"0These (eo-Hittite 9ingdoms gradually fell under

    the control of the (eo Assyrian Empire

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    continue into the Iron Age without hiatus, and those temples witness multiple re+uildings in the

    Early Iron Age&

    ist of 0yro-Hittite states

    Historical map of the Neo-Hittite states, c6 9:: $6 orders are appro5imate only6

    The Syro=Hittite states may +e di)ided into two groupsC a northern group whereHittiterulersremained in power, and a southern group where Aramaeanscame to rule from a+out """ #$&Although these states are considered somewhat unified, they were thought to actually +e

    disunified, e)en in separate kingdoms&/80/:0

    The northern group includesC

    +a*al6 .t may ha&e inclded a #rop of city states called the+yanitis(+wana,+nna, Hpisna, 0hinkht, .shtnda)

    ;amman(with %elid)



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    The southern, Aramaic, group includesC

    Palistin(cpital was pro*a*ly+ell +ayinat)[?][9]

    it >a**ari(with 0am@al)

    it-"dini(with the city of+il arsip)

    it ahiani(with >!ana)

    Pattin(also Pattina or AnBi) (with the city of ;inala, may*e modern+ell+ayinat[C])

    "in Dara, a reli#ios center

    it "#si(with the cities of "rpad, Nampi#i, and (later on) "leppo)

    Hatarikka-hti(the capital city of which was at Hatarikka)



    Luwianmonumental inscriptions in Anatolian hieroglyphscontinue uninterrupted from the 4th-

    century Hittite imperial monuments to the Early Iron Age Syro-Hittite inscriptions of 9arkamish,*elid, Aleppo and elsewhere&/3"0Luwian hieroglyphs was chosen +y many of the Syro-Hittite

    regional kingdoms for their monumental inscriptions, which often appear in +i or tri-lingualinscriptions with Aramaic, Phoenicianor Akkadian)ersions& The Early Iron Age in (orthern

    *esopotamiaalso saw a gradual spread of alpha+etic writing in Aramaicand Phoenician&6uring

    the cultural interactions on the Le)antine coast of Syro-Palestine and (orth Syria in the tenththrough !th centuries #$E, 5reeks andPhrygiansadopted the alpha+etic writing from the


    HammurabiFor other ses see Hammra*i (disam*i#ation)6

    Not to *e confsed with "mmrapi6

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    Hammra*i (standin#), depicted as recei&in#his royal insi#nia from 0hamash6 Hammra*iholds his hands o&er his moth as a si#n of


    (relief on the pper part of the stele ofHammra*i@s code of laws)6

    BornE9: $a*ylonia

    Died?3: $ middle chronolo#ya*ylon

    Known for ode of Hammurabi

    Title ;in# of a*ylon

    Term 2/ years c6 ?C/ G ?3: $(middle)

    !redecessor 0in-%*allit

    Successor 0ams-ilna

    "eligion a*ylonian reli#ion

    !artner#s$ Anknown

    hildren 0ams-ilna
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    %ap showin# the a*ylonian territory pon Hammra*i@s ascension in c6 ?C/ $and pon his death in c6 ?3: $


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    +his *st, known as the Head of Hammra*i, is now tho#ht to predateHammra*i *y a few hndred years[2](Louvre)

    Hammura+i was an AmoriteBirst 6ynastyking of the city-stateof #a+ylon, and inherited the

    power from his father, Sin-*u+allit,in c& %@3 #$&/80#a+ylon was one of the many largely

    Amorite ruled city-states that dotted the central and southern *esopotamian plains and waged

    war on each other for control of fertile agriculturalland&/:0Though many cultures co-eisted in

    *esopotamia, #a+ylonian culture gained a degree of prominence among the literateclassesthroughout the *iddle Eastunder Hammura+i&/%0The kings who came +efore Hammura+i had

    founded a relati)ely minor $ity State in !@7 #$ which controlled little territory outside of the

    city itself& #a+ylon was o)ershadowed +y older, larger and more powerful kingdoms such as

    Elam,Assyria, Isin, Eshnunnaand Larsafor a century or so after its founding& Howe)er his

    father Sin-*u+allithad +egun to consolidate rule of a small area of south central *esopotamiaunder #a+ylonian hegemonyand, +y the time of his reign, had conFuered the minor city-states of

    #orsippa,9ish, and Sippar&/%0

    Thus Hammura+i ascended to the throne as the king of a minor kingdom in the midst of a

    comple geopoliticalsituation& The powerful kingdom of Eshnunnacontrolled the upper Tigris

    ;i)er while Larsacontrolled the ri)er delta& To the east of *esopotamia lay the powerfulkingdom of Elamwhich regularly in)aded and forced tri+ute upon the small states of southern*esopotamia& In northern *esopotamia, the Assyrianking Shamshi-Adad I,who had already

    inherited centuries old Assyrian colonies inAsia *inor, had epanded his territory into the

    Le)antand central *esopotamia,/!0although his untimely death would somewhat fragment his

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    The first few decades of Hammura+is reign were Fuite peaceful& Hammura+i used his power to

    undertake a series of pu+lic works, including heightening the city walls for defensi)e purposes,

    and epanding the temples&/"0In c& !" #$, the powerful kingdom of Elam,which straddled

    important traderoutes across theGagros *ountains,in)aded the *esopotamian plain&/0ithallies among the plain states, Elam attacked and destroyed the kingdom of Eshnunna,destroying

    a num+er of cities and imposing its rule on portions of the plain for the first time&/30In order toconsolidate its position, Elam tried to start a war +etween Hammura+is #a+ylonian kingdom and

    the kingdom of Larsa&/40Hammura+i and the king of Larsamade an alliance when they

    disco)ered this duplicity and were a+le to crush the Elamites, although Larsa did not contri+utegreatly to the military effort&/40Angered +y Larsas failure to come to his aid, Hammura+i turned

    on that southern power, thus gaining control of the entirety of the lower *esopotamian plain +y

    c& %:4 #$&/70

    As Hammura+i was assisted during the war in the south +y his allies from the north such as

    amhadand *ari, the a+sence of soldiers in the north led to unrest&/70$ontinuing his epansion,

    Hammura+i turned his attention northward, Fuelling the unrest and soon after crushingEshnunna&/80(et the #a+ylonian armies conFuered the remaining northern states, including

    #a+ylons former ally *ari, although it is possi+le that the conFuest of *ari was a surrender

    without any actual conflict&/:0/%0/!0

    Hammura+i entered into a protracted war withIshme-6agan Iof Assyriafor control of

    *esopotamia, with +oth kings making alliances with minor states in order to gain the upperhand& E)entually Hammura+i pre)ailed, ousting Ishme-6agan I 1ust +efore his own death& *ut-

    Ashkurthe new king of Assyria was forced to pay tri+ute to Hammura+i, howe)er #a+ylon did

    not rule Assyria directly&

    In 1ust a few years, Hammura+i had succeeded in uniting all of *esopotamia under his rule&/!0

    The Assyrian kingdom sur)i)ed +ut was forced to pay tri+ute during his reign, and of the ma1or

    city-states in the region, only Aleppoand atnato the west in the Le)antmaintained theirindependence&/!0Howe)er, one stele of Hammura+i has +een found as far north as 6iyar+ekir,

    where he claims the title '9ing of the Amorites'&/@0

    Jast num+ers of contract ta+lets, dated to the reigns of Hammura+i and his successors, ha)e +een

    disco)ered, as well as 88 of his own letters&/3"0These letters gi)e a glimpse into the daily trials of

    ruling an empire, from dealing with floods and mandating changes to a flawed calendar, to

    taking care of #a+ylons massi)e herds of li)estock&/30Hammura+i died and passed the reins of

    the empire on to his son Samsu-ilunain c& %8" #$, under whose rule the #a+ylonian empire+egan to Fuickly unra)el&/330


    $ode of laws

    o 6 0i#niIcant laws in Hammra*i@s code,_Syria,_Syria
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    / e#acy and depictions

    1 0ee also

    2 Notes

    3 References

    4 Frther readin#

    ? 5ternal links

    $ode of laws

    %ain article8 $ode of Hammra*i

    $ode of Hammra*istele6 o&re %sem, Paris

    Hammura+i is +est known for thepromulgationof a new code of#a+ylonian lawCthe $ode of

    Hammura+i&Kne of the first written laws in the world,/citation needed0the $ode of Hammura+i was

    inscri+ed on a steleand placed in a pu+lic place so that all could see it, although it is thought thatfew were literate& The stele was later plundered +y the Elamites and remo)ed to their capital,

    SusaD it was redisco)ered there in @" in Iranand is now in theLou)re *useuminParis& The

    code of Hammura+i contained 3!3 laws, written +yscri+eson 3 ta+lets& ?nlike earlier laws, it

    was written in Akkadian, the daily language of #a+ylon, and could therefore +e read +y any

    literate person in the city&/340
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    The structure of the code is )ery specific, with each offense recei)ing a specified punishment&

    The punishments tended to +e )ery harsh +y modern standards, with many offenses resulting in

    death, disfigurement, or the use of the 'Eye for eye, tooth for tooth' philosophy&/370The code is also one of the earliest eamples of the idea ofpresumption of innocence, and it also suggests that the accused and accuser ha)e the opportunity

    to pro)ide e)idence&/380Howe)er, there is no pro)ision for etenuating circumstancesto alter theprescri+ed punishment&

    A car)ing at the top of the stele portrays Hammura+i recei)ing the laws from the god Shamashor

    possi+ly *arduk,/3:0and the preface states that Hammura+i was chosen +y the gods of his peopleto +ring the laws to them& Parallels +etween this narrati)e and the gi)ing of laws +y 5od in

    ewish tradition to *osesand similarities +etween the two legal codes suggest a common

    ancestor in the Semitic +ackground of the two& Bragments of pre)ious law codes ha)e +een

    found&/3%0/3!0/3@0/4"06a)id P& right argues that the ewish law used Hammura+is collection as a

    model, imitating +oth its structure and content&/40

    Similar codes of law were created in se)eral near+y ci)ili2ations, including the earlier*esopotamianeamples of?r-(ammus code, Laws of Eshnunna, and $ode of Lipit-Ishtar, and

    the later Hittite code of laws&/430

    Signi%cant laws in Hammurabi&s code

    (+e5t taken from Harper@s translation, reada*le on wikisorce)

    J3C - .f a man ct down a tree in a man@s orchard, withot the consent of theowner of the orchard, he shall pay one-half minaof sil&er6

    J33 - .f a man open his canal for irri#ation and ne#lect it and the water carryaway an adKacent Ield, he shall measre ot #rain on the *asis of theadKacent Ields6

    J49 - .f a man set his face to disinherit his son and say to the Kd#es8 . willdisinherit my son, the Kd#es shall inBire into his antecedents, and if theson ha&e not committed a crime sLciently #ra&e to ct him oM fromsonship, the father may not ct oM his son from sonship6

    J4C - .f he ha&e committed a crime a#ainst his father sLciently #ra&e toct him oM from sonship, they shall condone his Irst (oMense)6 .f he commit acrime a second time, the father may ct oM his son from sonship6

    J9 - .f any one steal cattle or sheep, or an ass, or a pi# or a #oat, if it *elon#to a #od or to the cort, the thief shall pay thirtyfold therefor if they*elon#ed to a freed man of the kin# he shall pay tenfold if the thief hasnothin# with which to pay he shall *e pt to death6

    JC4-/: - .f a man destroy the eye of another man, they shall destroy hiseye6 .f one *reak a man@s *one, they shall *reak his *one6 .f one destroy the
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    eye of a freeman or *reak the *one of a freeman he shall pay one manaofsil&er6 .f one destroy the eye of a man@s sla&e or *reak a *one of a man@ssla&e he shall pay one-half his price6 .f a man knock ot a tooth of a man ofhis own rank, they shall knock ot his tooth6 .f one knock ot a tooth of afreeman, he shall pay one-third manaof sil&er6

    J/9-/C - .f a physician operate on a man for a se&ere wond with a *ron!elancet and case that man@s death or open an a*scess (in the eye) of a manwith a *ron!e lancet and destroy the man@s eye, they shall ct oM his In#ers6.f a physician operate on a sla&e of a freeman for a se&ere wond with a*ron!e lancet and case his death, he shall restore a sla&e of eBal &ale6

    J//C-/1/ - .f a *ilder *ild a hose for a man and do not make itsconstrction Irm, and the hose which he has *ilt collapse and case thedeath of the owner of the hose, that *ilder shall *e pt to death6 .f it casethe death of a son of the owner of the hose, they shall pt to death a son ofthat *ilder6 .f it case the death of a sla&e of the owner of the hose, heshall #i&e the owner of the hose a sla&e of eBal &ale6 .f it destroy property,he shall restore whate&er it destroyed, and *ecase he did not make thehose which he *ilt Irm and it collapsed, he shall re*ild the hose whichcollapsed from his own property (i6e6, at his own e5pense)6

    J/ - .f a man make a *reach in a hose, they shall pt him to death in frontof that *reach and they shall thrst him therein6

    JC3 - .f a son strike his father, they shall ct oM his In#ers6

    o /6 $lassical datin#

    1 arly "ssyria, /4::G/113 $

    2 "ssyria in the "kkadian mpire and Neo-0merian mpires

    3 'ld "ssyrian ;in#dom

    o 36 Dynasty of P!r-"shr ., /:/3G9:C $, 'ld "ssyrian mpire

    o 36/ "morite Period in "ssyria, 9:CG?3: $

    o 361 "ssyria nder a*ylonian domination, ?3:G?1/ $

    o 362 "ssyrian "daside dynasty, ?1/G23 $

    o 363 "ssyria in decline, 23:G1C1 $

    4 %iddle "ssyrian mpire, 1C/G:34 $
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    o 46 "ssyrian e5pansion and empire, 1C/G:34 $

    o 46/ "ssyria drin# the ron!e "#e $ollapse, :33GC14 $

    o 461 0ociety in the %iddle "ssyrian period

    ? Neo-"ssyrian mpire, CG4/ $

    o ?6 5pansion, CG4/? $

    o ?6/ Downfall, 4/4G4:3 $

    9 "ssyria after the empire

    o 96 "chaemenid "ssyria, "thra, "ssristan, "ssyria pro&ince,"dia*ene, 'sroene and Hatra

    966 "chaemenid "ssyria (32CG11: $)

    966/ 0elecid "ssyria

    9661 Parthian "ssyria (3: $ G 4 "D) "dia*ene (4C $ G ?"D)

    9662 Roman "ssyria (4 "D G 9 "D)

    9663 Parthian "ssyria restored (C "D G //3 "D), 'sroene,Hatra

    9664 0assanid "ssyria ("ssristan (//4 "D G circa 43: "D)

    C "ssyrians after "ssyria

    : "ssyrian reli#ion


    / "rts and sciences

    1 e#acy

    2 0ee also

    3 Notes

    4 References
  • 7/26/2019 Syro Hittie


    ? iteratre

    9 5ternal links


    Assyria was also sometimes known asSu+artuprior to the rise of the city stateof Ashurafterwhich it was MMMAryu, and after its fall, from :"8 #$ through to the late %th century

    A6 )ariously as Athuraand also referenced asAtouria/70according to Stra+o, Syria,Assyria and Assuristan& After its dissolution in the mid %th century A6 it remained The

    Ecclesiastical Proince of Ator& The termAssyriacan also refer to the geographic region or

    heartland where Assyria, its empires and the Assyrian people were centered& The

    modern Assyrian$hristian ethnic minority in northernIraF, north east

    Syria, south east Turkey and north west Iranare the descendants of the ancient Assyrians &/80/:0

    Pre-history of "ssyria

    In prehistoric times, the region that was to +ecome known as Assyria was home to

    a(eanderthalculture such as has +een found at the Shanidar $a)e& The earliest(eolithicsites in

    Assyria were the armoculture c& %"" #$ and Tell Hassuna, the centre of the!assuna culture,c& :""" #$&

    6uring the 4rd millennium #$, a )ery intimate cultural sym+iosis de)eloped +etween the

    Sumeriansand the SemiticAkkadiansthroughout *esopotamia, which included widespread

    +ilingualism&/%0The influence of Sumerian on Akkadian is e)ident in all areas, from leical +orrowing on a

    massi)e scale, to syntactic, morphological, and phonological con)ergence&/%0This has promptedscholars to refer to Sumerian and Akkadian in the 4rd millennium #$ as asprach"und&/%0

    etter sent *y the hi#h-priest @enna to the kin# of a#ash(may*e Arka#ina),informin# him of his son@s death in com*at, c6 /2:: $, fond in >irs6

    Akkadian gradually replaced Sumerian as the spoken language of *esopotamia somewhere after

    the turn of the 4rd and the 3nd millennium #$ , /!0+ut
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    Sumerian continued to +e used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific language in

    *esopotamia until the st century A6&

    The cities of Assur and(ine)eh, together with a num+er of other

    towns and cities, eisted since at least +efore the middle of the 4rd millennium #$ ,

    although they appear to ha)e +een Sumerian-ruled administrati)e centres at this time, rather thanindependent states&

    According to some udaeo-$hristianwriters/who#0, the city of Ashur was founded +y Ashurthe son

    of Shem, who was deified +y later generations as the citys patron god /citation needed0& Howe)er, it is

    not among the cities said to ha)e +een founded +y him in 5enesis "C=3, and the far older

    Assyrian annals make no mention of the much later udeo-$hristian figures of Shem and Ashur&

    Assyrian tradition lists an early Assyrian king named ?shpiaas ha)ing dedicated the first templeto the god Ashur in the city in the 3st century #$& It is highly likely that the city was named in

    honour of its patron Assyrian god with the same name&

    lassical dating

    5eorge Syncellusin his ChronographiaFuotes a fragment fromulius Africanuswhich dates the

    founding of Assyria to 33!7 #$&/@0The ;oman historian Jelleius Paterculusciting Aemilius Sura

    states that Assyria was founded @@8 years +eforePhilip Jwas defeated in @% #$ +y the ;omans&/"0The sum therefore @% O @@8 3@3 #$ for the

    foundation of Assyria& 6iodorus Siculusrecorded another tradition from $tesias, that dates

    Assyria ,4": years +efore !!4 #$ and so the

    sum !!4 O 4": 3!@ #$&/0The Chronicleof Euse+ius pro)ides yet another date for the

    founding of Assyria, with the accession of(inus, dating to 3"8% #$, +ut the Armenian

    translation of the Chronicleputs this figure +ack slightly to 3: #$& Another classical datingtradition found in theE$cerpta %atina &ar"aridates the foundation of Assyria, under #elus,to

    33": #$&

    arly "ssyria, /4::G/113 $

    The city of Ashur, together with a num+er of other Assyrian cities, seem to ha)e +een esta+lished+y 3:"" #$, howe)er it is likely that they were initially Sumerian dominated administrati)e

    centres& In c& the late 3:th century #$,Eannatumof Lagash, then the dominantSumerianruler in

    *esopotamia, mentions 'smiting Su+artu' &

    Similarly, in c& the early 38th century #$,Lugal-Anne-*unduthe king of the Sumerian state of

    Ada+lists Su+artu as paying tri+ute to him&

    Kf the early history of the kingdom of Assyria, little is positi)ely known& In theAssyrian 9ingList, the earliest king recorded was Tudiya& In archaeological reports from E+la, it appeared that

    Tudiyas acti)ities were confirmed with the disco)ery of a ta+let where he concluded a treaty for

    the operation of a karum in E+laite territory, with 'king' I+rium of E+la & This entire reading is now
  • 7/26/2019 Syro Hittie


    Fuestiona+le, as se)eral scholars ha)e more recently argued that the treaty in Fuestion may not

    ha)e +een with king Tudiya of Assyria, +ut rather with the unnamed king of an uncertain location

    called 'A+arsal'&

    Tudiya was succeeded on the list +y Adamuand then a further thirteen rulers &(othing concrete is yet known a+out these names, although it has +een noted that a much later

    #a+ylonian ta+let listing the ancestral lineage of Hammura+i,the Amoriteking of #a+ylon,

    seems to ha)e copied the same names from Tudiya through (ua+u, though in a hea)ily corrupted


    The earliest kings, such as Tudiya, who are recorded as kings who lied in tents, wereindependent semi-nomadic pastoralist rulers&/30These kings at some point +ecame fully ur+anised

    and founded the city stateof Ashur&/30

    "ssyria in the "kkadian mpire and Neo-0merian mpires

    6uring the Akkadian Empire the Assyrians, like all the *esopotamian Semites

    , +ecame su+1ect to the dynasty of the city state ofAkkad, centered incentral *esopotamia& The Akkadian Empire founded +y Sargon the 5reat, claimed to encompass

    the surrounding 'four Fuarters'& The region of Assyria, north of the seat of the empire in central

    *esopotamia had also +een known as Su+artu+y the Sumerians, and the name A2uhinumin

    Akkadian records also seems to refer to Assyria proper&

    Assyrian rulers were su+1ect to Sargon and his successors, and the city of Ashur +ecame a

    regional administrati)e center of the Empire, implicated +y the(u2i ta+lets&/40

    6uring this period, the Akkadian-speaking Semites of *esopotamia came to rule an empireencompassing not only *esopotamia itself +ut large swathes of Asia *inor, ancient Iran, Elam,

    the Ara+ian Peninsula, $anaan and Syria&

    Assyria seems to ha)e already +een firmly in)ol)ed in trade in Asia *inor +y this timeD the

    earliest known reference to Anatolian karums inHatti, was found on later cuneiform ta+lets

    descri+ing the early period of the Akkadian Empire

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    The Akkadian Empire was destroyed +y economic decline and internal ci)il war, followed +y

    attacks from +ar+arian 5utian peoplein 387 #$&

    The rulers of Assyria during the period +etween c& 387 #$ and 33 #$ once again +ecame

    fully independent, as the 5utians are only known to ha)e administered southern *esopotamia&

    Howe)er, the king list is the only information from Assyria for this period&

    *ost of Assyria +riefly +ecame part of the(eo-Sumerian Empire founded

    in c& 33 #$& Sumerian domination etended as far as the city of Ashur, +ut appears not to ha)e

    reached (ine)eh and the far north of Assyria& Kne local ruler namedGQriFum

    is listed as paying tri+ute toAmar-Sinof ?r&

    Ashurs rulers appear to ha)e remained largely under Sumerian domination until the mid-3stcentury #$ D the king list names Assyrian rulers for this period and se)eral are

    known from other references to ha)e also +orne the title ofshakkanakkaor )assal go)ernors for

    the neo-Sumerians&

    'ld "ssyrian ;in#dom

    The first written inscriptions +y ur+anised Assyrian kings appear in the mid-3st century #$,after they had shrugged off Sumerian domination& The land of Assyria as a whole then consisted

    of a num+er of city states and small Semitic kingdoms, some of which were initially independent

    of Assyria& The foundation of the first ma1or temple in the city of Ashur was traditionally

    ascri+ed to king ?shpiawho reigned c& 3"8" #$, possi+ly a contemporary ofIsh+i-Erraof Isin

    and(aplanumof Larsa&/80He was reputedly succeeded +y kings named Apiashal,Sulili,

    9ikkiyaand Akiya

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    detain people and confiscate property& The institution of the eponym as well as the formula i''iak

    Assurlingered on as ceremonial )estiges of this early system throughout the history of the

    Assyrian monarchy&/:0

    Dynasty of !u'ur-(shur ), *+*./+0 B, 1ld (ssyrian 2mpire

    In approimately 3"38 #$ , Pu2ur-Ashur I is speculated to ha)e o)erthrown 9ikkiya and founded a new

    dynasty which was to sur)i)e for 3: years& His descendants left inscriptions mentioning him

    regarding the +uilding of temples to gods such as Ashur, AdadandIshtarin Assyria& The length

    of his reign is unknown&

    Shalim-ahum succeeded the throne at a currently unknown date& He leftinscriptions in archaic Kld Assyrian regarding the construction of a temple dedicated to the god

    Ashur, and the placement of+eer )atswithin it&

    Ilushuma /%0 took the throne in c& 3""! #$, and is known from his inscription

    where he claims to ha)e 'washed the copper' and 'esta+lished li+erty'

    for the Akkadians in Sumerian city-states as far as the Persian 5ulf& This has +een taken +y some

    scholars to imply that he made military campaigns into Southern *esopotamia to relie)e hisfellow *esopotamians from Amorite and Elamite in)asions, howe)er some recent scholars ha)e

    taken the )iew that the inscription means he supplied these areas with copper from Hatti,and that

    the word used for 'li+erty' is usually in the contet of his eempting the southern

    *esopotamian kings from tariffs&

    'The freedom/n+ 0of the Akkadians and their children I esta+lished& I purified their copper& I

    esta+lished their freedom from the +order of the marshes and ?r and (ippur, Awal,and 9ish,

    6erof the goddess Ishtar, as far as the $ity of &'/!0

    Assyria had long held etensi)e contact with Hattian, Hittite and Hurrian cities on the Anatolian

    plateau in Asia *inor& The Assyrians who had for centuries traded in the region, and possi+ly

    ruled small areas +ordering Assyria, now esta+lished significant colonies in $appadocia

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    howe)er there are references to the eponym-+ooks for his predecessors ha)ing +een destroyed at

    some point&

    Ikunum/3"0+uilt a ma1or temple for the god(ingal& He further strengthened

    the fortifications of the city of Assur and maintained Assyrias colonies in Asia *inor&

    Sargon I

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    Ishme-6agan I inherited Assyria, +ut asmah-Adad was o)erthrown +y a new

    king called Gimrilimin *ari& The new king of *ari allied himself with the Amoriteking

    Hammura+iof #a+ylon, who had made the recently created, and originally minor state of

    #a+ylon into a ma1or power& It was from the reign of Hammura+i onwards that southern*esopotamia came to +e known as #a+ylonia&

    Assyria now faced the rising power of #a+ylon in the south& Ishme-6agan responded +y making

    an alliance with the enemies of #a+ylon, and the power struggle continued without resolution for

    decades& Ishme-6agan, like his father was a great warrior, and in addition to repelling

    #a+ylonian attacks, campaigned successfully against the Turukkuand Lullu+iof the Gagros*ountains who had attacked the Assyrian city of Ekallatum, and against

    6adusha, king of Eshnunna, and the state of Iamhad&

    (ssyria under Babylonian domination, .3+.34* B

    Hammura+i, after first conFuering *ari, Larsa, and Eshnunna,e)entually pre)ailed o)er Ishme-

    6agans successor *ut-Ashkur, and su+1ected him to #a+ylon c& %8" #$&ith Hammura+i, the )arious karumcolonies in Anatolia ceased trade acti)itypro+a+ly+ecause the goods of Assyria were now +eing traded with the #a+ylonians& The Assyrian

    monarchy sur)i)ed, howe)er the three Amorite kings succeeding Ishme-6agan,*ut-Ashkur

    , ;imush

    and Asinum, were )assals, dependent on the #a+ylonians during the reign of

    Hammura+i, and for a short time, of his successor Samsu-iluna&

    (ssyrian (daside dynasty, .34*.5. B

    The short li)ed #a+ylonian EmpireFuickly +egan to unra)el upon the death of Hammura+i, and

    #a+ylonia lost control o)er Assyria during the reign of Hammura+is successor Samsu-iluna

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    6uring the !th and %th centuries #$, #a+ylonian astronomers de)eloped a new approach to

    astronomy& They +egan studying philosophy dealing with the ideal nature of the early uni)erse

    and +egan employing an internal logic within their predicti)e planetary systems& This was an

    important contri+ution to astronomy and thephilosophy of scienceand some scholars ha)e thusreferred to this new approach as the first scientific revolution&/@0This new approach to

    astronomy was adopted and further de)eloped in 5reek and Hellenistic astronomy&

    In Seleucidand Parthiantimes, the astronomical reports were thoroughly scientificD how much

    earlier their ad)anced knowledge and methods were de)eloped is uncertain& The #a+ylonian

    de)elopment of methods for predicting the motions of the planets is considered to +e a ma1orepisode in the history of astronomy&

    The only 5reek #a+ylonian astronomer known to ha)e supported a heliocentricmodel of

    planetary motion was Seleucus of Seleucia

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    Esagil-kin-apli disco)ered a )ariety of illnessesand diseases and descri+ed their symptoms in his

    Diagnostic !and"ook& These include the symptoms for many )arieties of epilepsyand related

    ailmentsalong with their diagnosis and prognosis&/3%0


    *esopotamian people in)ented many technologies including metal and copper-working, glassand lamp making, tetile wea)ing, flood control, water storage, and irrigation& They were also

    one of the first #ron2e agepeople in the world& They de)eloped from copper, +ron2e, and gold

    on to iron& Palaces were decorated with hundreds of kilograms of these )ery epensi)e metals&

    Also, copper, +ron2e, and iron were used for armor as well as for different weapons such asswords, daggers, spears, and maces&

    According to a recent hypothesis, theArchimedes screwmay ha)e +een used +y Sennacheri+,

    9ing of Assyria, for the water systems at the Hanging 5ardens of #a+ylonand(ine)ehin the

    %th century #$, although mainstream scholarship holds it to +e a5reekin)ention of later times&/3!0

    Later during the Parthianor Sassanidperiods, the #aghdad #attery, which may ha)e +een theworlds first +attery, was created in *esopotamia&/3@0

    Reli#ion and philosophy

    +he rney Relief, 'ld a*ylonian, arond 9:: $

    *esopotamian religionwas the first to +e recorded& *esopotamians +elie)ed that the world was

    a flat disc,/citation needed0surrounded +y a huge, holed space, and a+o)e that, hea)en& They also

    +elie)ed that water was e)erywhere, the top, +ottom and sides, and that the uni)ersewas +ornfrom this enormous sea& In addition, *esopotamian religion waspolytheistic& Although the

    +eliefsdescri+ed a+o)e were held in common among *esopotamians, there were also regional'_screw'_screw'_screw
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    )ariations& The Sumerian word for uni)erse is an-ki, which refers to the god Anand the goddess

    9i&/citation needed0Their son was Enlil, the air god& They +elie)ed that Enlil was the most powerful

    god& He was the chief god of the Pantheon, eFui)alent to the 5reek god Geusand the ;oman god

    upiter& The Sumerians also posed philosophical Fuestions, such asC ho are weV, here areweV, How did we get hereV&/citation needed0They attri+uted answers to these Fuestions to eplanations

    pro)ided +y their gods&


    5iorgio #uccellati+elie)es that the origins ofphilosophycan +e traced +ack to early

    *esopotamian wisdom,which em+odied certain philosophies of life, particularlyethics, in theforms of dialectic, dialogs,epic poetry, folklore, hymns, lyrics,proseworks, andpro)er+s&

    #a+ylonian reasoningand rationalityde)eloped +eyond empiricalo+ser)ation&/4"0

    The earliest form of logicwas de)eloped +y the #a+ylonians, nota+ly in the rigorous nonergodic

    nature of their social systems& #a+ylonian thought was aiomaticand is compara+le to the

    'ordinary logic' descri+ed +yohn *aynard 9eynes& #a+ylonian thought was also +ased on anopen-systemsontologywhich is compati+le with ergodicaioms&/40Logic was employed tosome etent in #a+ylonian astronomyand medicine&

    #a+ylonian thought had a considera+le influence on early 5reekandHellenistic philosophy& In

    particular, the #a+ylonian tet6ialogue of Pessimismcontains similarities to the agonistic

    thought of the sophists, the Heracliteandoctrine of contrasts, and the dialecticand dialogs of

    Plato, as well as a precursor to the maieuticmethodof Socrates&/430The Ionianphilosopher

    Thaleswas influenced +y #a+ylonian cosmological ideas&

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    "la*asterwith shell eyes, 0merianmale worshiper, /?3:-/4:: $


    Ancient *esopotamians had ceremonies each month& The theme of the rituals and festi)als for

    each month was determined +y at least si important factorsC

    6 +he nar phase(a wa5in# moon meant a*ndance and #rowth, while awanin# moon was associated with decline, conser&ation, and festi&als of theAnderworld)

    /6 +he phase of the annal a#ricltral cycle

    16 Bino5esand solstices

    26 +he local mythos and its di&ine Patrons

    36 +he sccess of the rei#nin# %onarch

    46 +he "kit, or New 7earFesti&al (First fll moon after sprin# eBino5)

    ?6 $ommemoration of speciIc historical e&ents (fondin#, military &ictories,temple holidays, etc6)


    %ain article8 %sic of %esopotamia
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    Some songs were written for the gods +ut many were written to descri+e important e)ents&

    Although music and songs amused kings,they were also en1oyed +y ordinary people who liked

    to sing and dance in their homes or in the marketplaces& Songs were sung to children who passed

    them on to their children& Thus songs were passed on through many generationsas an oraltradition until writing was more uni)ersal& These songs pro)ided a means of passing on through

    the centurieshighly important information a+out historical e)ents&

    The Kud is a small, stringed musical instrument used +y the *esopotamians& The

    oldest pictorial record of the Kud dates +ack to the ?rukperiod in Southern *esopotamia o)er

    8""" years ago& It is on a cylinder sealcurrently housed at the #ritish *useum and acFuired +y6r& 6ominiFue $ollon& The imagedepicts a female crouching with her instruments upon a +oat,

    playing right-handed&This instrument appears hundreds of times throughout *esopotamian

    history and again in ancientEgyptfrom the !thdynastyonwards in long- and short-neck

    )arieties& The oud is regarded as aprecursorto the Europeanlute& Its name is deri)ed from the

    Ara+ic word WXYZ[ al-\]d the wood, which is pro+a+ly the name of the tree from which the oud

    was made&


    Huntingwas popular among Assyrian kings& #oingand wrestlingfeature freFuently in art, and

    some form ofpolowas pro+a+ly popular, with men sitting on the shoulders of other men rather

    than on horses&/440They also played ma-ore, a game similar to the sport rug+y, +ut played with a

    +all made of wood& They also played a +oard game similar to senetand+ackgammon, nowknown as the ';oyal 5ame of ?r&'

    7amily life

    The Babylonian marriage market*y the Cth-centry painter dwin on#

    *esopotamia, as shown +y successi)e law codes, those of ?rukagina, Lipit Ishtarand

    Hammura+i,across its history +ecame more and more apatriarchal society, one in which the

    men were far more powerful than the women& Bor eample, during the earliest Sumerian period,

    the .en., or high priest of male gods was originally a woman, that of female goddesses, a man&Thorkild aco+sen, as well as many others, has suggested that early *esopotamian society was

    ruled +y a 'council of elders' in which men and women were eFually represented, +ut that o)er

    time, as the status of women fell, that of men increased& As for schooling, only royal offspring

    and sons of the rich and professionals, such as scri+es, physicians, temple administrators, went toschool& *ost +oys were taught their fathers trade or were apprenticed out to learn a trade& /470

    5irls had to stay home with their mothers to learn housekeepingand cooking, and to look after
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    the younger children& Some children would help with crushing grain or cleaning +irds& ?nusual

    for that time in history, women in *esopotamia had rights& They could ownpropertyand, if they

    had good reason, get a di)orce&


    Hundreds of gra)esha)e +een eca)ated in parts of *esopotamia, re)ealing information a+out*esopotamian+urialha+its& In the city of?r,most people were +uried in family gra)es under

    their houses, along with some possessions& A few