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DEVELOPMENT OF A SUN TRACKERAJNAS KC
IEEE Published in:Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Latin America (ISGT LA), 2013 IEEE PES Conference, Sao Paulo
Date of Conference:15-17 April 2013
Author:Ribeiro, G.A.G. Univ. Fed. de Vicosa, Vicosa, Brazil da S Antonio, A. ; Moreira, T.M.S. ; Martins, G. ; Pereira, H.A.
The power generated by a solar panel is directly related to the level of solar irradiance on the panel. Thus a system capable of tracking the solar movement improves the efficiency in the generated power. This work presents a study of solar radiation levels and the construction of a sun tracking prototype in order to follow the movement of the sun during the day and increase the power generated by the panel.
The performance of a solar photovoltaic (PV) system is mostly dependent on climatic conditions.
Angle of incident solar irradiance Temperature
SUN TRACKERWhy a solar tracker?
To align the solar panel to the maximum power point for changes in the environment .Improves efficiency of the total system and increase power production.
SUN TRACKERHOW?Track the location of sun
altitude angle azimuth angle s
SUN TRACKER Will this make a difference?
How to track the sun ?
What we know : Sun rises in the East and sets in the WestTime of Sunrise and Sunset varies everyday
We have EQUATIONS , and we can predict all these precisely .
SUN TRACKEREquations for Theoretical Solar Irradiance :Stationary Panel
SUN TRACKEREquations for Theoretical Solar Irradiance : One and Two Axis
SUN TRACKERMATLAB SOFTWARE
MATLAB Software was used to predict characteristics of solar irradiation using the above equations Results in numerical and graphical form were obtained
SUN TRACKERBUILDING OF PROTOTYPE : Aim : To construct a simple prototype :One axis sun trackerPhysical Design Consists of : Wooden BaseA freely rotating shaftSolar PanelMotorGear and tooth pulley system
SUN TRACKERDRIVE AND CONTROL STRATEGY
It Consist of : Micro controller : PIC 16F877Motor Driver : ULN 2004Display : 16x2 LCD Stepper Motor : 15 Degrees Step Angle Battery : 12V
Side Showing Display and switches for adjusting Time SPYDER 8 : Communication channel port and power supply
SUN TRACKERHow it works? Set the TIME and DATE in the control circuit and the algorithm would take over the control of the whole system
It would align the panel correspondingly , by calculating the sun rise, sun set and geometrical position of the sun.
SUN TRACKERSYSTEM DATA ACQUISITION AND BUILT SYSTEMDAS : SPYDER 8 : An electronic measuring system for PCs8 channels for Input and OutputPrinter port PC/Master portCurrent Measurement : Honeywell CSLA1CF current sensor
SUN TRACKEREXPERIMENTAL STUDY Solar Panel used :
Stationary Panel set at inclination of 25 towards the geographical north. Moving Panel was inserted to the Prototype .
SUN TRACKERDATA COLLECTIONThe collected data for comparison between the fixed panel and tracking system were made on days 20, 21 and 22 August 2012, in the Viosa (Minas Gerais). In this period of the year it is winter in Brazil.
SUN TRACKERRESULTS Solar Irradiance Graph Using MATLAB for August 20
SUN TRACKERRESULTS Solar Irradiance Graph Using MATLAB for August 21
SUN TRACKERRESULTS Solar Irradiance Graph Using MATLAB for August 22
SUN TRACKERRESULTSCurrent generated on August 20
SUN TRACKERRESULTSPower generated on August 20
SUN TRACKERRESULTSCurrent generated on August 21
SUN TRACKERRESULTSPower generated on August 21
SUN TRACKERRESULTSCurrent generated on August 22
SUN TRACKERRESULTSPower generated on August 22
SUN TRACKERSUMMARY OF RESULTS
Average power produced during the Day
SUN TRACKERCONCLUSIONA Solar tracker improves the Power generated.Even effective on cloudy days.Increase in power generated was more than 18%.Efficiency can be further improved using a stepper motor with smaller step angles