Post on 10-Jul-2015
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BY NIKHIL KUMAR GLOBAL SCENARIO
Sugarcane is cultivated in 20.5 million ha in 121 countries. Australia, Argentina occupy 86% of area with 87% of production. Brazil (22%) is the major producer followed by India (14%) and EU (09%). Brazil, India and the EU control over 45% of the global sugar production.India is now the largest producer and consumer of sugar in the world.
There are 664 sugar factories in India.
Ownership of sugar sector 50% private sector and 50% in co-operative & Govt. Sector
Average crushing capacity about 3500 TCD(tons of cane/day)
Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra produce 60% of sugar in India.
Sugar industry is seasonal where crushing season begins in October /November and ends in April/May.
Raw materials used is sugar cane (in India) and beet roots (in other places).4
Chemical Formula & StructureChemical reaction:
C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 => C12H22O11 + H2O (Glucose)+(Fructose) => (Sucrose) + (Water)
Sucroseis produced asglucoseandfructoseare joined together by acondensation reaction.
Sucroseis commonly calledTable Sugar.Properties :1)Mol. wt. :342)Density:1.58g/cc3)Solubility: very water slightly methyl
RAW MATERIALSSugar caneWaterLimeCalcium phosphateSulphur-di-oxide gas Types Of Sugars ProducedThe sugarcane is a thick, tall, perennial grass that flourishes in tropical or subtropical regions.The reed accumulates sugar to about 15 percent of its weight. Sugarcane yields about 2,600,000 tons of sugar per year.The sugar beet is a beetroot variety with the highest sugar content, for which it is specifically cultivated. About 3,700,000 tons of sugar are manufactured from sugar beet.
The Manufacturing Process
By Products From Sugar Mills
Different Types Of Wastes1) SOLID WASTES :- A) The manufacture of sugar generates large quantities of biomass waste such as rice husk, bamboo dust, bagasse, coconut coir, jute and sticks. This waste is ideal for use as fuel to generate power.B) Press mud, which is discarded as a solid waste from sugar mills and used as a manure or as a landfill, is found to be an useful substrate for biogas production.
Sugar cane straw wastes can be recycled as active additions once calcinated in the temperature range of 800 or 1000 C.
2) LIQUID WASTES :-Cold water is required in the sugar industry mainly for machinery cooling, daily and monthly cleanings,domestic use and makeup. The quantity of raw water consumption and wastewater can be minimized considerably through proper re-circulation of machinery cooling water, reuse of condensate water.Characteristics of waste waters :-
ParametersValuesRate of flow (L/t of cane crushed)230-1640pH4.6-9.5COD mg/L600-4380BOD mg/L300-2000TSS mg/L220-800COD/BOD Ratio1.3-2.0
3) GASEOUS WASTES :-Sugar mills emit flue gases through boiler chimneys. A small quantity of sulfur dioxide gas is emitted from the juice and syrup sulphitors. Bagasse, which is the captive fuel in the sugar industry, does not contain harmful elements like sulfur and the stack gases generated by burning bagasse are free from sulfurous gases. The particulate emission is the only parameter that has to be controlled in the sugar industry with the help of fly ash arrestors. Biological Treatment
Inplant Control Measures The black strap molasses can be used for the production of ethanol in distelleires.The waste like bagasse can be used as a fuel in boilers or as a raw material as in pulp and paper industry.