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  • Study on the Integrated Holistic Rural Development and Soil Conservation Programme in the Schoonoord Area in

    Sekhukhune District, Limpopo Province, Republic of South Africa

    Final Report

    March 2007

    JAPAN INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AGENCY

    IC NET LIMITED

    TAIYO CONSULTANTS CO. LTD.

    Limpopo Department of Agriculture National Department of Agriculture Republic of South Africa

    No.

    JR

    07-20

    RD

  • PREFACE

    In response to a request from the Government of the Republic of South Africa, the Government of Japan decided to conduct the Study on the Integrated Holistic Rural Development and Soil Conservation Programme in the Schoonoord Area in Sekhukhune District, Limpopo Province and entrusted the study to the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). JICA selected and dispatched a study team headed by Mr. Hiroaki Yonesaka, IC Net Ltd., during the period from October 2002 until February 2007. The team held discussions with the officials concerned of the Government of the Republic of South Africa, and conducted a series of field surveys in the country. After the team returned to Japan, further studies were also conducted and the present report has been prepared. I hope that this report will contribute to the sustainable development of poverty rural areas in Limpopo Province as well as in the other areas in the country, and to the enhancement of friendly relationship between our two countries. I wish to express my sincere appreciation to the officials concerned of the Government of the Republic of South Africa for their close cooperation extended to the Study.

    March 2007

    Ariyuki Matsumoto Vice President Japan International Cooperation Agency

  • March 23. 2007 Mr. Ariyuki Matsumoto Vice President Japan International Cooperation Agency Tokyo, Japan

    LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

    Dear Sir

    We are pleased to submit to you herewith the report on the Study on the Integrated Holistic

    Rural Development and Soil Conservation Programme in the Schoonoord Area in Sekhukhune

    District, Limpopo Province, Republic of South Africa. The report presents the results of all works

    performed in both South Africa and Japan during a total period of 55 months from September 2002

    to March 2007.

    In line with the development framework of the Republic of South Africa known as

    “Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiatives for South Africa (ASGISA),” also based on the lessons

    learned from the 2-years implementation of eight pilot projects during the Study, the Team prepared

    a development plan for the target area in Skehukhune District, Limpopo Province, as which has been

    designated as one of the “poverty node” in the country. The pilot projects were successfully

    completed with remarkable results, and the Report proposes “Centers of Excellence Project (CEP),”

    which is continuation and expansion of the activities initiated by the Study to Limpopo Department

    of Agriculture. We sincerely hope that CEP as to be implemented by Limpopo Department of

    Agriculture as early as possible.

    We wish to express our deep appreciation and sincere gratitude to your Agency, the

    Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of the Government of

    Japan for the courtesies and cooperation kindly extended to our team.

    We also wish to express our deep appreciation and sincere gratitude to the South Africa

    Office of your Agency, the Embassy of Japan in South Africa, the National Department of

    Agriculture of South Africa and other authorities concerned for their close cooperation and

    assistance extended to our team during our field investigation and studies in South Africa.

    Very truly yours,

    Hiroaki Yonesaka Leader of the Study team Study on the Integrated Holistic Rural Development and Soil Conservation Programme in the Schoonoord Area in Sekhukhune District, Limpopo Province, Republic of South Africa

  • Limpopo Province

    Target Area

  • Olifants river Lepellane irrigation scheme Open grazing in the dry season

  • Traditional mad oven (Women Business Promotion Project) Bread baking in a new baking house (Women Business Promotion Project) Fodder crop production in a back yard garden with water harvesting

    (Livestock Owner Group Support Project)

  • Low cost chicken house for local free range chicken (Livestock Owner Group Support Project) A target group in Radingwana (0.1 ha Integrated Farming Project) Farmer to farmer training by the leader of the Radingwana group (0.1 ha Integrated Farming Project)

  • Participatory soil mapping (Community Soil Conservation Project) Protection structure with used tires (Community Soil Conservation Project) Graduates of a training cource for small scale integrated farming at Tompi Seleka Agricultural Training Center (PRIDE 2)

  • Abbreviation

    AMS : Agriculture Management Service

    ARDC : Agriculture and Rural Development Corporation

    ARC : Agricultural Research Council

    ASGISA : Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa

    BASED : Broadening Agricultural Services and Extension Delivery

    CASP : Comprehensive Agricultural Support Programme

    CEP : Centers of Excellence

    DHSD : Department of Health and Social Development

    DWAF : Department of Water Affairs and Forestry

    HOD : Head of the Department

    IDP : Integrated Development Plan

    JICA : Japan International Cooperation Agency

    JIPSA : Joint Initiative for Priority Skills Acquisition

    LADEP : Limpopo Agricultural Development Programme

    LDA : Limpopo Department of Agriculture

    MAFISA : Micro-Agricultural Finance Institution of South Africa

    NDA : National Department of Agriculture

    PEA/PDA: Participatory Extension Approach / Participatory Development Approach

    PTO : Permission to Occupy

    RESIS : Revitalization and Strengthening of Irrigation Scheme

    PRA : Participatory Rural Appraisal

    PRIDE : Participatory Rural Integrated Development

    RSA : Republic of South Africa

    SAR : South African Rand

  • i

    Executive Summary

    1 Background of the Study The goal of the Study is to pursue smallholder development to create stable income sources and improve living standards in the target area of semi-arid and poverty area. The Study will prepare a Rural Development Master Plan (M/P). The target area of the Study is the catchment area of the Lepellane River within Sekhukhune District and this area is split into two Local Municipalities of Fetakgomo and Makhuduthamaga, including 85 villages. The Study was conducted during the period from September 2002 to March 2007. In the first phase, the team conducted basic studies in the target area, and formulated eight project proposals, and then implemented them in the second phase. The followings are the eight pilot projects. 1) 0.1ha Integrated Farming Project, 2) Livestock Owners Group Support Project, 3) Community Soil Conservation Project, 4) Community Forestry Project, 5) Women Business Promotion Project, 6) Practical Farmers’ Training Project , 7) Mobile Information Unit Project, and 8)Local capacity development project. 2 The Target Area The target area is about 1,200Km2 in area and includes 85 villages with an estimated population of about 180,000. Annual rainfall is 400-600mm, but recently the rainfall has been less than this, with two droughts during this study period alone. The vegetation is being increasingly depleted throughout the area as the result of overgrazing and logging. As the vegetation decreases, the soil is also increasingly eroded, and there are signs of surface erosion and gully erosion, called “donga.”

    The national government in early 2001 identified 13 areas with extreme poverty and lack of services and facilities to be targeted for accelerated rural development; these “nodal area” include Sekhukhune District. Labor force statistics indicate that there is very low economic activity in Sekhukhune District. Only 31% of its adult (16-65 years) population is economically active. A high proportion of households (38%) in Sekhukhune District records pensions and grants as the main source of income, while only 21% on salaries and wages. Household incomes are very low in the District, with 84% of households having received less than SAR 800 (poverty line income). This is a little higher than the average for nodal areas (77%) and much higher than the national figure (51%). Workforce data in the Integrated Development Plans (IDPs) for Fetakgomo and Makhuduthamaga Local Municipalities show that the economy of the target area is poorly developed. Unemployment is very high and occupations come mainly in

  • ii

    the public sector. The village profile study conducted in this study indicated that about 70% of the population of target of this study was unemployed. The average annual revenue of the households surveyed

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