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Download Structure of Biological Materials - ece. ibruce/courses/EE3BA3_2012/EE3BA3notes/EE3BA3...2 5.3 Artificial organs Some of the main chemical producing or processing organs of the body

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  • ELEC ENG 3BA3:

    Structure of Biological Materials

    Notes for Lecture #15 Wednesday, October 31, 2012

  • 2

    5.3 Artificial organs Some of the main chemical producing or processing organs of the body that are candidates for artificial replacements include the:

    kidneys, liver, pancreas, glands, and organs of the GI tract.

  • 3

    Classes of artificial organs:

    Include:

    non-biological chemical processing plants

    bioartificial organs using modified xenografts or allografts

    tissue-engineered organs

  • 4

    Classes of artificial organs (cont.):

  • 5

    Housing of artificial organs:

    The majority of totally-artificial and bioartificial organs are too large to be implanted in the body ) extracorporeal housing

    Intracorporeal housing is only possible with smaller totally-artificial & bioartificial organs and tissue-engineering organs

  • 6

    Examples of totally-artificial organs:

    Hemodialysis (artificial kidney)

    Artificial pancreas

    Liver dialysis

  • 7

    Filtration and dialysis by normal kidneys:

  • 8

    Artificial hemodialysis:

  • 9

    Artificial hemodialysis (cont.):

  • 10

    Implantable artificial pancreas:

    (Medtronic MiniMed 2007)

  • 11

    Liver dialysis:

    Molecular Adsorbent Recirculation (MARS)

  • 12

    Liver dialysis (cont.):

  • 13

    Examples of bioartificial organs:

    Bioartificial liver

    Bioartificial parathyroid gland

  • 14

    Bioartificial liver:

  • 15

    Bioartificial liver using human hepatocytes:

    (Rahman et al., Artif. Organs 2004)

  • 16

    Bioartificial liver using porcine hepatocytes:

    (Lorenti et al., Artif. Organs 2003)

  • 17

    Microencapsulation of parathyroid tissue:

    (Lee et al., Artif. Organs 2004)

  • 18

    Requirements for tissue engineering organs:

    1. Scaffold (on which to grow the cells)

    2. Differentiable cells

    3. Correct chemical environment and chemical signalling

  • 19

    Scaffolding (additive methods):

  • 20

    Scaffolding (subtractive methods):

  • 21

    Examples of tissue-engineered organs:

    Liver

    Stomach

    Colon

    Bladder

  • 22

    Tissue-engineered liver:

    (Chan et al., Liver Transpl. 2004)

  • 23

    Tissue-engineered stomach and colon:

    (Maemura et al., ASAIO J. 2004)

    (Grikscheit et al., Surgery 2002)

    ELEC ENG 3BA3:Structure ofBiological Materials Slide Number 2Slide Number 3Slide Number 4Slide Number 5Slide Number 6Slide Number 7Slide Number 8Slide Number 9Slide Number 10Slide Number 11Slide Number 12Slide Number 13Slide Number 14Slide Number 15Slide Number 16Slide Number 17Slide Number 18Slide Number 19Slide Number 20Slide Number 21Slide Number 22Slide Number 23

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