Strategies to help organise your writing and avoid plagiarism

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<ul><li><p>Strategies to help Strategies to help organise your organise your writingwriting and and avoid plagiarismavoid plagiarism</p><p>Marian ButlerMarian Butler</p></li><li><p>Breaches of academic integrity Breaches of academic integrity </p><p>happen when students:happen when students:Plagiarise authors they have readPlagiarise authors they have read</p><p>Work together &amp; submit the same work independentlyWork together &amp; submit the same work independently</p><p>Copy another students workCopy another students work</p><p>Buy, are given, or steal essays &amp; submit them Buy, are given, or steal essays &amp; submit them </p><p>Take notes into exams, or have someone else sit the Take notes into exams, or have someone else sit the </p><p>exam exam </p><p>Make up references or data Make up references or data </p><p>Hide library books, cut out pages or delete textsHide library books, cut out pages or delete texts</p><p>Lie about medical conditions to get extensions Lie about medical conditions to get extensions </p><p>Have someone make major editing and proof reading Have someone make major editing and proof reading </p><p>corrections to assignmentscorrections to assignmentsZeegersZeegers et al (2008: 106)et al (2008: 106)</p></li><li><p>What is plagiarism?What is plagiarism?</p><p>The University of Queensland definition:The University of Queensland definition:</p><p>"Plagiarism is the act of misrepresenting as "Plagiarism is the act of misrepresenting as </p><p>one's own original work the ideas, one's own original work the ideas, </p><p>interpretations, words or creative works of interpretations, words or creative works of interpretations, words or creative works of interpretations, words or creative works of </p><p>another. These include published and another. These include published and </p><p>unpublished documents, designs, music, unpublished documents, designs, music, </p><p>sounds, images, photographs, computer codes sounds, images, photographs, computer codes </p><p>and ideas gained through working in a group. and ideas gained through working in a group. </p><p>These ideas, interpretations, words or works These ideas, interpretations, words or works </p><p>may be found in print and/or electronic media." may be found in print and/or electronic media." </p></li><li><p>A word of caution:A word of caution:One of the strongest demographic One of the strongest demographic correlationscorrelations with with academic misconductacademic misconduct in the in the United StatesUnited States is with is with languagelanguage. . ESL students more often in trouble for academic ESL students more often in trouble for academic </p><p>dishonesty than native speakersdishonesty than native speakers</p><p> ESL students more likely to be caught than native ESL students more likely to be caught than native speakersspeakers</p><p>Why?Why?Why?Why? Fear of losing meaningFear of losing meaning</p><p> Difficulty with language/paraphrasing skillsDifficulty with language/paraphrasing skills</p><p> Cultural differences?Cultural differences?</p><p>In the University of California, international students In the University of California, international students make up make up 10%10% of the student body but comprise of the student body but comprise 47%47% of of academic dishonesty cases.academic dishonesty cases.</p><p>Source: WikipediaSource: Wikipedia</p></li><li><p>Some interesting facts:Some interesting facts:</p><p>2/3 of teachers in a survey in the US attributed 2/3 of teachers in a survey in the US attributed plagiarism to poor plagiarism to poor time managementtime management</p><p>There is a strong link between a very active There is a strong link between a very active extra curricular life and academic dishonestyextra curricular life and academic dishonestyincluding team membership, socialising, and including team membership, socialising, and extra curricular life and academic dishonestyextra curricular life and academic dishonestyincluding team membership, socialising, and including team membership, socialising, and other forms of entertainment like TV watchingother forms of entertainment like TV watching</p><p>One study found that students who are One study found that students who are dishonest in class are dishonest in class are more likelymore likely to engage in to engage in fraud and theftfraud and theft on the job when they enter the on the job when they enter the workplace! workplace! </p></li><li><p>In brief, you plagiarise when In brief, you plagiarise when you:you:</p><p>In brief, you plagiarise when In brief, you plagiarise when you:you:</p><p>Use anothers work and Use anothers work and do not do not referencereference the source, for example:the source, for example:** you copy without using quotation you copy without using quotation </p><p>marksmarks** you summarise without referencingyou summarise without referencing** you summarise without referencingyou summarise without referencing</p><p>the authors namethe authors name</p><p>** You use/develop someone elses idea You use/develop someone elses idea without referencing itwithout referencing it</p><p>** You use experimental results without You use experimental results without </p><p>referencingreferencing where they came fromwhere they came from</p></li><li><p>What do you think?What do you think?</p><p>1.1. If you rewrite the argument from an article in your own words, are If you rewrite the argument from an article in your own words, are you still expected to provide a reference? you still expected to provide a reference? Yes, you still need to acknowledge where you got your ideas Yes, you still need to acknowledge where you got your ideas from.from.</p><p>2.2. A friend says that you do not have to provide a reference for a A friend says that you do not have to provide a reference for a statistic because a statistic is just a fact and not someones ideas. statistic because a statistic is just a fact and not someones ideas. Are they correct? Are they correct? Are they correct? Are they correct? No, its still someone elses work and the reader will want to know No, its still someone elses work and the reader will want to know where you got your information from to assess its credibility.where you got your information from to assess its credibility.</p><p>3.3. Even if they contain specific, factual material, introductions to Even if they contain specific, factual material, introductions to essays are not required to have references in them.essays are not required to have references in them.FalseFalse</p><p>4.4. If you write a general overview of the main ideas that you have If you write a general overview of the main ideas that you have got from reading a number of different articles, are you required to got from reading a number of different articles, are you required to provide references? provide references? Yes, you are still using some elses ideas.Yes, you are still using some elses ideas.</p></li><li><p>But arent I supposed to use the ideas and </p><p>results of other people in my writing?</p><p>Yes, to develop a credible and informed opinion, </p><p>you must build on and use the works of other </p><p>people. </p><p>The other important thing is that you transform The other important thing is that you transform </p><p>the work of others so that you can say of your </p><p>writing, that is my work, not just a summary of </p><p>the work of others.</p></li><li><p>IntentionalIntentional vs vs carelesscareless plagiarismplagiarism</p><p>If found to be intentional, the penalties can be If found to be intentional, the penalties can be quite severe, including exclusion from the quite severe, including exclusion from the university. university. </p><p>There are penalties, such as loss of marks, even There are penalties, such as loss of marks, even There are penalties, such as loss of marks, even There are penalties, such as loss of marks, even for careless plagiarism, which may arise from for careless plagiarism, which may arise from being lazy or careless about using sources being lazy or careless about using sources appropriately.appropriately.</p><p>For more information, see the full policy at: For more information, see the full policy at: http://www.uq.edu.au/hupp/indexhttp://www.uq.edu.au/hupp/index. . </p></li><li><p>It can be unintentional when.It can be unintentional when.</p><p>I couldnt think of a better way to explain itI couldnt think of a better way to explain it</p><p>Inadequately referencing multiple points from Inadequately referencing multiple points from </p><p>one authorone author</p><p>Inadequately referencing ideas from more than Inadequately referencing ideas from more than Inadequately referencing ideas from more than Inadequately referencing ideas from more than </p><p>one author in one sentence. one author in one sentence. </p><p>But it is important to sort it out But it is important to sort it out </p><p>Ignorance is no defenceIgnorance is no defence</p></li><li><p>Referencing multiple points from one Referencing multiple points from one </p><p>author:author:Use signal words and phrases to Use signal words and phrases to showshow the the reader reader that the points belong to the same that the points belong to the same authorauthor::</p><p> According to Jones (2007), working in teams has According to Jones (2007), working in teams has the the following advantages and disadvantagesfollowing advantages and disadvantages. The . The advantages advantages includeinclude such things as . such things as . In contrastIn contrast to to advantages advantages includeinclude such things as . such things as . In contrastIn contrast to to these potential benefits, working in teams may result these potential benefits, working in teams may result in in disadvantagesdisadvantages such as .such as .</p><p> According to Smith (2005), According to Smith (2005), there are three main there are three main problemsproblems with this approach. with this approach. FirstlyFirstly, it neglects, , it neglects, SecondlySecondly, . , . FinallyFinally, this approach may result in ., this approach may result in .</p><p> JaytJayt (2006) argues that. She (2006) argues that. She alsoalso suggests suggests that. that. In additionIn addition she emphasises the fact thatshe emphasises the fact that</p></li><li><p>More signal wordsMore signal words</p><p>Similar ideasSimilar ideas -- similarly, in the same way, similarly, in the same way, along similar linesalong similar lines</p><p>Different ideasDifferent ideas on the other hand, by on the other hand, by contrast, alternative views suggestcontrast, alternative views suggestcontrast, alternative views suggestcontrast, alternative views suggest</p><p>Results Results therefore, consequentlytherefore, consequently</p><p>ListsLists firstly, additionally, a further firstly, additionally, a further exampleexample</p><p>Also Also pick up wordspick up words used earlier and use used earlier and use pronouns (this, these, those..)pronouns (this, these, those..) to help linkto help link</p></li><li><p>Referencing ideas from more than one Referencing ideas from more than one </p><p>author in one sentence: author in one sentence: </p><p>Smiths (1994) theory about the acquisition of Smiths (1994) theory about the acquisition of faith suggests.while other factors faith suggests.while other factors include.., nevertheless there is agreement that include.., nevertheless there is agreement that the principles of .. and.are necessary the principles of .. and.are necessary the principles of .. and.are necessary the principles of .. and.are necessary preconditions.preconditions.</p><p>Smiths (1994) theory about the acquisition of Smiths (1994) theory about the acquisition of faith suggests.while faith suggests.while Jones (2005) suggestsJones (2005) suggestsother factors other factors whichwhich include.., nevertheless include.., nevertheless there is agreement there is agreement (Jones, 2005; Smith,1994 (Jones, 2005; Smith,1994 and White, 2006)and White, 2006) that the principles of .. that the principles of .. and.are necessary preconditions.and.are necessary preconditions.</p></li><li><p>It gets worse when..It gets worse when..</p><p>A paraphrase is so close to the original A paraphrase is so close to the original that it is considered to be plagiarism that it is considered to be plagiarism even even when you have referenced the source!when you have referenced the source!</p><p>You plagiarise yourself!You plagiarise yourself!</p><p> By handing in the same assignment for two By handing in the same assignment for two </p><p>different subjectsdifferent subjects</p></li><li><p>Students frequently overuse direct quotations in taking Students frequently overuse direct quotations in taking </p><p>notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the </p><p>final research paper. Probably only about 10% of your final research paper. Probably only about 10% of your </p><p>final manuscript should appear as directly quoted final manuscript should appear as directly quoted </p><p>matter. Therefore you should strive to limit the amount matter. Therefore you should strive to limit the amount </p><p>of exact transcribing of source materials while taking of exact transcribing of source materials while taking </p><p>notes (James,1976:46notes (James,1976:46--47).47).</p><p>Plagiarised versionPlagiarised versionPlagiarised versionPlagiarised version</p><p>StudentsStudents often use too many often use too many direct quotationsdirect quotations when they when they take notes,take notes, resulting in too many of them in the resulting in too many of them in the final final researchresearch paperpaper. In fact, . In fact, probably only about 10% of the probably only about 10% of the final copy shouldfinal copy should consist of consist of directly quoted materialdirectly quoted material. So it . So it is important tois important to limit limit the the source materialsource material copied copied while while taking notes.taking notes.</p></li><li><p>When When paraphrasingparaphrasing an authors an authors </p><p>work:work:</p><p>Write without looking at the originalWrite without looking at the original</p><p>Use your own words and style of writingUse your own words and style of writingUse your own words and style of writingUse your own words and style of writing</p><p>Aim to keep the length similar or shorterAim to keep the length similar or shorter</p><p>Capture the meaning of the originalCapture the meaning of the original</p></li><li><p>Students frequently overuse direct quotations in taking Students frequently overuse direct quotations in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the </p><p>final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your </p><p>final manuscript should appear as directly quoted final manuscript should appear as directly quoted </p><p>matter. Therefore you should strive to limit the amount matter. Therefore you should strive to limit the amount </p><p>of exact transcribing of source materials while taking of exact transcribing of source materials while taking </p><p>notes (James,1976:46notes (James,1976:46--47).47).</p><p>Your turn!Your turn!Your turn!Your turn!</p><p>Summarised:Summarised:Students should take just a few notes in direct Students should take just a few notes in direct </p><p>quotations from sources to help minimise the quotations from sources to help minimise the </p><p>amount of quoted material in a research amount of quoted material in a research </p><p>paper.paper.</p></li><li><p>Plagiarism is the act of misrepresenting as one's own original work the ideas, Plagiarism is the act...</p></li></ul>