strategies to enhance adult motivation to learn author: raymond j. wlodkowski

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  • Slide 1
  • Strategies to Enhance Adult Motivation to Learn Author: Raymond J. Wlodkowski
  • Slide 2
  • What is Needed? Need to know more about it. How to influence it? Note: Wlodrowskis article examines current knowledge/research, and how to influence adult motivation to learn
  • Slide 3
  • Levels of Positive Adult Motivation Motivational FactorsLearning DescriptionStrategic Attitudes / Actions for Teachers First Level Expectancy for success + a sense of volition Able to master learning.Maintain positive expectations. Make learning worthwhile. (move from resistance to acceptance). Second Level Expectancy for success + a sense of volition + value Looks for the benefits. (meaningful & worthwhile). Not enjoyable. Make intended benefits known. Offer choices. Third level Expectancy for success + a sense of volition + value + enjoyment Learn what value and want to learn for personal pleasure (not always easy tasks). Provide activities that generate enjoyment. (Wlodrowski, 2004, p. 93-95)
  • Slide 4
  • Slide 5
  • Planning for Learner Motivation Main FactorsDescription of FactorResult AttitudeCombines concepts, information, and emotions. Results in response toward people, groups, ideas, events, or objects. NeedInternal forces push toward reaching goal. Stronger internal forces = increased likelihood to reach goal. StimulationChange in perception or experience with environment that makes one active. Stimulates and sustains adult learning. AffectEmotional feelings while learning.Sustains involvement and interest if positive feelings exist. Harmony needed between thinking and emotions (p. 97). CompetenceCompetence theory: people strive for effective interactions Learners need to be aware of success. ReinforcementReinforcement effects the probability of the response. Positive reinforcement often leads to continued involvement/success (Wlodrowski, 2004, p. 95-97)
  • Slide 6
  • Time Continuum Model of Motivation Time PhasesLearners Six Major Motivation Factors*Instructional Design Questions** Beginning Enters process. 1) Attitude - Toward learning environment, instructor, subject matter, self. 2) Needs - Basic needs within learner. A. What can I do to establish a positive learner attitude for this learning sequence? B. How do I best meet the needs of my learners through this learning sequence? During Involved in the content. 3) Stimulation - Stimulation processes. 4) Affect - Affective or emotional experience. C. What about this learning sequence will continuously stimulate my learners? D. How is the affective experience and emotional climate for this learning sequence positive for learners? Ending Completing the process. 5) Competence - Competence value result of the behaviour. 6) Reinforcement - Reinforcement value attached to learning experience. E. How does this learning sequence increase or affirm learner feelings of competence? F. What is the reinforcement that this learning sequence provides for my learners? (Wlodrowski, 2004, p. 98- 100) *Not all motivational factors are equal. Plan for at least one motivational factor in each phase. ** Positive motivational factors needs to sustain learning.
  • Slide 7
  • Six Strategies for Motivation Attitude - Ensure successful Learning. - Safe, successful, interesting intro. to new topics. -Stress amount and quality of effort needed for success prior. -Set clear learning goals. -Provide evaluation criteria. - Allow for self- determination / autonomy. Need - Know and emphasize felt needs of learners (ask learners what they want out of experience). - Provide opportunity to publically share what learned or produced. Stimulation - Provide variety in processes and materials. - New learning experiences that connects with prior knowledge. Affect -Connect abstract content to whats personal and familiar. -Use cooperative goal structures to plan/achieve joint goals. Competence -Consistent and prompt feedback. -Use performance evaluation procedures. Reinforcement -Positive reinforcement for routine, well- learned, complex, and drill-and- practice activities. -Help learners be aware of results / natural consequences. (Wlodrowski, 2004, p. 101 - 110)
  • Slide 8
  • The teachers knowledge of learners motivation, subject matter, instructional situation, and time constraints will determine the quality and quantity of the motivational strategies employed. (Wlodrowski, 2004, p. 101)
  • Slide 9
  • Table5.1: Six Questions Based on the Time Continuum Model of Motivation as Applied by an Adult Basic Education Instructor Instructional Objective: After 2 weeks, learners will add and subtract mixed fractions at a 90% achievement level. QuestionWhen UsedMotivational StrategyLearning Activity or Instructor Behaviour 1. What can I do to establish a positive learner attitude for this learning sequence? Beginning of the learning sequence.Positively confront the possible erroneous beliefs, expectations, and assumptions that may underly a negative. Ask learners how many have heard that fractions are really difficult to do and discuss with them their feelings and expectations. 2. How do I best meet the needs of my learners through this learning sequence? Beginning of the learning sequence.Reduce or remove components of the learning environment that lead to failure or fear. Organize a tutorial assistance plan by which learners who are having difficulty can receive immediate help from the instructor or a fellow learner. 3. What about his learning sequence will continuously stimulate my learners? During the main phase of the learning sequence. Whenever possible, make learner reaction and involvement essential parts of the learning process, i.e. problem solving, games, role- playing, simulation. Use games and creative problems to challenge and invite daily learner participation. 4. How is the affective or emotional climate for this learning sequence positive for the learners? During the main phase of the learning sequence. Use a cooperative goal structure to maximize learner involvement and sharing. Have teams of learners solve fraction problems with one member of the team responsible for diagnosing the problem, another responsible for finding the common denominator, another working it through, and another for checking the answer, alternate roles. 5. How does this learning sequence increase or affirm learner feelings of competence? Ending o the learning sequence.Provide consistent feedback regarding mastery of learning. Use answer sheets and diagnostic and formative tests to give feedback and assistance to learners. 6. What is the reinforcement that this learning sequence provides for my learners? Ending of the learning sequence.When learning has natural consequences, allow them to be congruently evident. Construct a class test where each learner creates a mixed fraction word problem for the other learners to solve. Each learner is responsible for checking and, if necessary, helping the other learners to solve the problem. (Wlodrowski, 1985, as cited in Wlodrowski, 2004, p. 102-103 )
  • Slide 10
  • Template: Applying Motivational Strategies to Learning Activity / Instructor Behaviour Table: Instructional Objective: QuestionWhen UsedMotivational StrategyLearning Activity or Instructor Behaviour 1. What can I do to establish a positive learner attitude for this learning sequence? 2. How do I best meet the needs of my learners through this learning sequence? 3. What about his learning sequence will continuously stimulate my learners? 4. How is the affective or emotional climate for this learning sequence positive for the learners? 5. How does this learning sequence increase or affirm learner feelings of competence? 6. What is the reinforcement that this learning sequence provides for my learners? (Adapted from Wlodrowski, 1985, as cited in Wlodrowski, 2004, p. 102-103 )
  • Slide 11
  • Whether these strategies are offered as part of a motivation plan or as part of some other instructional approach, they have their best chance for success if they are within the repertoire of a person who teaches with enthusiasm. (Wlodrowski, 1984, as cited in Wlodrowski, 2004, p. 110)
  • Slide 12
  • Extension Learning
  • Slide 13
  • Main Motivation Factors to Connect and Apply Training to Workplace Trainee attitudes, interest, values, expectation (Neo, 1986) Follow-up from manager anticipated (Baldwin, Mgjuka, and Lohrer, 1991). Opportunities for advancement and rewards for teamwork (Kontoghiorphest, 2001) Reflected as positive performance, chance for future advancement/promotion (Clark, Dobbins, Ladd, 1993) Mutual decision between supervisor and employee (part of training plan) Workplace credibility Self-efficacy (Bandara, 1991; Schwoerer et al., 2005) Post-training / sharing with peers or management / feedback (Daffon & North, 2006) Characteristics abilities, aptitudes, personality traits (Broad & Newton, 1992) Supportive climate: individual coaching, peer mentoring, involvement of participants in planning (Merriam & Leahy, 2005) (as cited in Alahaweh, 2008)
  • Slide 14
  • Need to develop programs that aim to increase and sustain motivation. Thus, schools leaders may examine some of the following concepts; Epsteins learner-oriented model Four pillars practice: Team/partnering with colleagues, teacher leadership roles, shared leadership, inquiry, mentoring (Drago- Severson, 2006). Kegans constructive-developmental model Means of communication / feedback Other?
  • Slide 15
  • Additional Resources Drago-Severson, E. (2006). Learning-oriented leadership. Independent Journal, 65(4), 58-65. Drago, Severso