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  • SUSE LinuxEnterprise Server 11SP4

    www.suse.com

    May 12, 2015 Storage Administration Guide

  • Storage Administration GuideLegal Notices

    Copyright 20062015 SUSE Linux GmbH. and contributors. All rights reserved.

    Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNUFree Documentation License, Version 1.2 or (at your option) version 1.3; with the Invariant Sectionbeing this copyright notice and license. A copy of the license version 1.2 is included in the sectionentitled GNU Free Documentation License.

    All information found in this book has been compiled with utmost attention to detail. However, thisdoes not guarantee complete accuracy. Neither SUSE LINUX GmbH, the authors, nor the transla-tors shall be held liable for possible errors or the consequences thereof.

    Trademarks

    For Novell trademarks, see the Novell Trademark and Service Mark list [http://www.novell.com/company/legal/trademarks/tmlist.html].Linux* is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds. All other third party trademarks are the propertyof their respective owners.A trademark symbol (, , etc.) denotes a Novell trademark; an asterisk (*) denotes a third partytrademark.

    http://www.novell.com/company/legal/trademarks/tmlist.htmlhttp://www.novell.com/company/legal/trademarks/tmlist.html

  • ContentsAbout This Guide xi

    1 Overview of File Systems in Linux 11.1 Terminology ........................................................................................ 2

    1.2 Major File Systems in Linux ................................................................. 2

    1.3 Other Supported File Systems .............................................................. 18

    1.4 Large File Support in Linux ................................................................ 19

    1.5 Linux Kernel Storage Limitations ......................................................... 21

    1.6 Managing Devices with the YaST Partitioner ......................................... 22

    1.7 Additional Information ........................................................................ 22

    2 Whats New for Storage in SLES 11 252.1 Whats New in SLES 11 SP4 ............................................................... 25

    2.2 Whats New in SLES 11 SP3 ............................................................... 25

    2.3 Whats New in SLES 11 SP2 ............................................................... 30

    2.4 Whats New in SLES 11 SP1 ............................................................... 31

    2.5 Whats New in SLES 11 ...................................................................... 35

    3 Planning a Storage Solution 433.1 Partitioning Devices ............................................................................ 43

    3.2 Multipath Support .............................................................................. 43

    3.3 Software RAID Support ...................................................................... 44

    3.4 File System Snapshots ......................................................................... 44

  • 3.5 Backup and Antivirus Support .............................................................. 44

    4 LVM Configuration 474.1 Understanding the Logical Volume Manager .......................................... 48

    4.2 Creating LVM Partitions ..................................................................... 50

    4.3 Creating Volume Groups ..................................................................... 52

    4.4 Configuring Physical Volumes ............................................................. 54

    4.5 Configuring Logical Volumes .............................................................. 56

    4.6 Automatically Activating Non-Root LVM Volume Groups ....................... 60

    4.7 Tagging LVM2 Storage Objects ........................................................... 61

    4.8 Resizing a Volume Group ................................................................... 69

    4.9 Resizing a Logical Volume with YaST .................................................. 71

    4.10 Resizing a Logical Volume with Commands ......................................... 72

    4.11 Deleting a Volume Group .................................................................. 73

    4.12 Deleting an LVM Partition (Physical Volume) ...................................... 74

    4.13 Using LVM Commands ..................................................................... 74

    5 Resizing File Systems 795.1 Guidelines for Resizing ....................................................................... 79

    5.2 Increasing the Size of an Ext2, Ext3, or Ext4 File System ......................... 81

    5.3 Increasing the Size of a Reiser File System ............................................ 82

    5.4 Decreasing the Size of an Ext2 or Ext3 File System ................................ 83

    5.5 Decreasing the Size of a Reiser File System ........................................... 84

    6 Using UUIDs to Mount Devices 876.1 Naming Devices with udev .................................................................. 87

    6.2 Understanding UUIDs ......................................................................... 88

    6.3 Using UUIDs in the Boot Loader and /etc/fstab File (x86) ........................ 89

    6.4 Using UUIDs in the Boot Loader and /etc/fstab File (IA64) ...................... 91

  • 6.5 Additional Information ........................................................................ 93

    7 Managing Multipath I/O for Devices 957.1 Understanding Multipath I/O ............................................................... 96

    7.2 Planning for Multipathing .................................................................... 96

    7.3 Multipath Management Tools ............................................................. 113

    7.4 Configuring the System for Multipathing ............................................. 126

    7.5 Enabling and Starting Multipath I/O Services ....................................... 130

    7.6 Creating or Modifying the /etc/multipath.conf File ................................ 131

    7.7 Configuring Default Policies for Polling, Queueing, and Failback ............ 136

    7.8 Blacklisting Non-Multipath Devices .................................................... 138

    7.9 Configuring User-Friendly Names or Alias Names ................................ 140

    7.10 Configuring Default Settings for zSeries Devices ................................. 144

    7.11 Configuring Path Failover Policies and Priorities ................................. 145

    7.12 Configuring Multipath I/O for the Root Device ................................... 162

    7.13 Configuring Multipath I/O for an Existing Software RAID ................... 167

    7.14 Scanning for New Devices without Rebooting ..................................... 170

    7.15 Scanning for New Partitioned Devices without Rebooting ..................... 173

    7.16 Viewing Multipath I/O Status ........................................................... 175

    7.17 Managing I/O in Error Situations ...................................................... 177

    7.18 Resolving Stalled I/O ....................................................................... 178

    7.19 Troubleshooting MPIO .................................................................... 179

    7.20 Whats Next ................................................................................... 181

    8 Software RAID Configuration 1838.1 Understanding RAID Levels .............................................................. 184

    8.2 Soft RAID Configuration with YaST .................................................. 186

    8.3 Troubleshooting Software RAIDs ....................................................... 188

    8.4 For More Information ....................................................................... 189

  • 9 Configuring Software RAID1 for the Root Partition 1919.1 Prerequisites for Using a Software RAID1 Device for the Root Partition ............................................................................................................. 191

    9.2 Enabling iSCSI Initiator Support at Install Time .................................... 192

    9.3 Enabling Multipath I/O Support at Install Time ..................................... 193

    9.4 Creating a Software RAID1 Device for the Root (/) Partition .................. 193

    10 Managing Software RAIDs 6 and 10 with mdadm 19910.1 Creating a RAID 6 .......................................................................... 199

    10.2 Creating Nested RAID 10 Devices with mdadm .................................. 201

    10.3 Creating a Complex RAID 10 .......................................................... 206

    10.4 Creating a Degraded RAID Array ..................................................... 216

    11 Resizing Software RAID Arrays with mdadm 21911.1 Understanding the Resizing Process ................................................... 219

    11.2 Increasing the Size of a Software RAID ............................................. 221

    11.3 Decreasing the Size of a Software RAID ............................................ 227

    12 Storage Enclosure LED Utilities for MD SoftwareRAIDs 23512.1 Supported LED Management Protocols .............................................. 236

    12.2 Supported Storage Enclosure Systems ..............................................

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