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Standard Descriptors for Geosites

TOOLKIT for WATER SERVICES: Number 2.1

The purpose of this document is to establish a nationally acceptable standard for thedescription of groundwater related data being generated in the execution of groundwater

development projects funded by Government or government agencies

Standard Descriptors for Geosites

DWAF, March 2004

Published byDepartment of Water Affairs and Forestry

Directorate: Information ProgrammesPrivate Bag X313PRETORIA 0001

Republic of South AfricaTel: (012) 336 7500

This publication may be reproduced only for non-commercial purposes and only after appropriateauthorisation by the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry has been provided. No part of this

publication may be reproduced in any manner without full acknowledgement of the source.

Compiled fromReports by CSIR and Institute for Groundwater Studies

EditingPhil Hobbs and HJ Brynard

InputsJan Girman, Ernst Bertram, Paul du Plessis, Helene Mullin,

Jaco de Lange, Zbigniew Dziembowski, Ingrid Dennis,Gerrit van Tonder, Danie Vermeulen, Ricky Murray, John Weaver,

Phillip Ravenscroft, Julian Conrad, HJ Brynard, Phil Hobbs

Produced under:The NORAD-Assisted Programme for the Sustainable Development of Groundwater Sources

under the Community Water and Sanitation Programme in South Africa

,

Foreword

Toolkit for Water Services

Groundwater has historically been given limited attention, and has not been perceived asan important water resource, in South Africa. This is reflected in general statistics showingthat only 13 % of the nations total water supply originate from groundwater. However,because of the highly distributed nature of the water demand in rural and informalperi-urban settlements, regional schemes are, in most instances, not economically feasible.And because of generally increasing water scarcity and decreasing available river andspring flows during low flow and drought periods, as well as wide-spread problems ofsurface water pollution in rural areas, groundwater will be the most feasible option fora large part of the new water demand. Already it is estimated that over sixty percent ofcommunity water supply is from groundwater, making it a strategically important resource.

The NORAD-Assisted Programme for the Sustainable Development of GroundwaterSources under the Community Water and Sanitation Programme in South Africa wasmanaged by the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF) between 2000 and 2004. The Programme undertook a series of inter-related projects aimed at enhancing capacityof water services authorities and DWAF to promote and implement sustainable rural watersupply schemes based on groundwater resources and appropriate technologies.

The next page has a full list of the Programme outputs. The formats for these range fromdocuments to software programmes and an internet portal, to reference sites wherecommunities have implemented appropriate technologies. For more information on thepackage of Programme outputs contact your nearest DWAF Regional Office or HeadOffice in Pretoria.

It is our sincere hope that this Programme will contribute to the body of work that existsto enable more appropriate use and management of groundwater in South Africa.

Standard Descriptors for Geosites is Number 2.1 in theToolkit for Water Services. The purpose of this documentis to establish a nationally acceptable standard for thedescription of groundwater related data being generatedin the execution of groundwater development projectsfunded by Government or government agencies.

Toolkit for Water Services

1 Overview documentation1.1 A Framework for Groundwater Management of Community Water Supply1.2 Implementing a Rural Groundwater Management System: a step-by-step guide

2 Descriptors

3 Groundwater Protection3.1 Involving community members in a hydrocensus3.2 Guidelines for protecting springs3.3 Guidelines for protecting boreholes and wells3.4 Guidelines on protecting groundwater from contamination3.4.1 Animal kraals, watering points and dipping tanks3.4.2 Burial sites3.4.3 Informal vehicle servicing, spray painting and parts washing facilities3.4.4 Pit latrines3.4.5 Runoff water3.4.6 Subsistence agriculture3.4.7 Informal waste disposal

4 Maps4.1 Thematic Groundwater Maps

5 Software5.1 Sustainability Indexing Tool (SusIT) 5.1.1 SusIT User Guide5.1.2 SusIT Field Data Capturers User Manual5.1.3 SusIT Questionnaire5.1.4 SusIT Information Brochure5.2 AquiMon Management System5.2.1 AquiMon Information Brochure5.3 Geohydrological Data Access System (GDAS)5.3.1 GDAS Information Brochure

6 Monitoring6.1 Groundwater Monitoring for Pump Operators

7 Sustainability7.1 Sustainability Best Practices Guidelines for Rural Water Services7.2 Introductory Guide to Appropriate Solutions for Water and Sanitation7.3 Decision Making Framework for Municipalities

8 Reference Sites8.1 Genadendal Information Brochure8.2 Kammiesberg Information Brochure8.3 Maputaland Information Brochure

2.1 Standard Descriptors for Geosites

Standard Descriptors for Geosites Department: Water Affairs and Forestry VERSION 1.1 NORAD DATE: 2004-09-30

3

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREFACE. 8 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.... 9 1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................10

1.1 Introduction.........................................................................................................................................10 1.2 Necessity for Standards .....................................................................................................................10 1.3 Document Objectives ........................................................................................................................11 1.4 Document Format..............................................................................................................................11 1.5 Legal Framework ................................................................................................................................11

2 GEOSITE BASIC INFORMATION DESCRIPTORS............................................................13 2.1 Geosite Type .......................................................................................................................................13 2.2 Geosite Position..................................................................................................................................13

2.2.1 Latitude, longitude and elevation ......................................................................................13 2.2.2 Method used to determine co-ordinates ..........................................................................15 2.2.3 Accuracy of co-ordinates....................................................................................................16 2.2.4 Reference datum..................................................................................................................18 2.2.5 Date Co-ordinates Determined .........................................................................................19

2.3 Geosite Setting ....................................................................................................................................19 2.4 Geosite Selector, Method of Selection and Target Feature..........................................................20 2.5 Purpose of Geosite.............................................................................................................................22 2.6 Current Status of Geosite ..................................................................................................................23 2.7 Geosite Sketch Map ...........................................................................................................................23 2.8 Confidentiality .....................................................................................................................................24

3 GEOSITE CONSTRUCTION DESCRIPTORS ......................................................................25 3.1 Boreholes .............................................................................................................................................25

3.1.1 Drilling methods ..................................................................................................................25 3.1.2 Drilling fluids........................................................................................................................31 3.1.3 Formation sampling ............................................................................................................33 3.1.4 Drilling diameter and depth ...............................................................................................34 3.1.5 Final/total depth..................................................................................................................34 3.1.6 Drilling data quality .............................................................................................................34 3.1.7 Drilling penetration rate .....................................................................................................35 3.1.8 Drilling contractor ...............................................................................................................35 3.1.9 Drilling date..........................................................................................................................36

3.2 Dug Wells ......................................................................................