spotting & washing

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SPOTTING & WASHINGIdentification of stains characteristics and historySelection criteria of spotting chemicalsFactors for spotting

Washing MachinesTypes: Automatic, Semi-automatic, wringer styleProgrammed cycles: Eg. Perma-press


SLOWLAUNDRY PROCEDURESSortingSelecting washing timeWater temperaturePre-treating spots & stainsSelecting laundry productsPre- treatment for soil lines formed around perma-press areas like oncollars, cuffs

STAIN REMOVALLonger a stains stays on a garment , harder is it to remove the same.Composition of the stained fabric.Fabric StructureTesting of the fabric for its compatibility with the stain removerPlease look in to the hand out provided to you that lists down a number of stains and the remedy for their removal

DryingTime and temperature settingsLine drying or automatic dryerHeat sensitive fabrics, natural rubber elastics.caution---Read Care labelDurable press and synthetic fibre fabrics to be removed immediately after completion of drying cycle---why?

PRESSINGChecking temperature on an inconspicuous part of the garmentSteam press or slightly dampDark colored fabrics of all fibres to be pressed on the reverse side or over a press cloth to avoid shinePressing of wool fabricsPressing of silkPressing of textured fabricsWhat is a needle board used for pressing

Needle Board

A flat board consisting of a rigid top nap formed by short,blunt wires imbedded upright in a base.

-To avoid crushing the pile or nap of the fabric which isplaced face down against the needle board during press-ing or steaming.-To prevent pile fabrics from matting and flattening.-To prevent the impressions of a seam ridge from appearing on the face or right side of pile fabrics when pressed.-To press velvet, velveteen, corduroy, fleece, Ultrasuede,fake fur, pile and napped fabricsCommercial launderingSorting as per color, fiber content, degree of soil etc.Washing with detergents and added alkali at 125 F to 165 F.Chlorine bleaching at 160F, 3-5 mins3-4 rinsesAcid sour and blueingStarch addition

Why acid sour?Neutralize, remove iron stains, destroy excess bleach, kill bacteriaUse of acetic acid, Sodium bisulfite, Sodium acid fluoride and oxalic acidLaundering of white goods vis a vis, light colored vis s vis dark colored goodsCommercial laundering of Wool and silk garments-Neutral soaps and detergents used, no added alkali, gentle agitation, acid sourDry CleaningOrigin----1825Agents: Benzene, per chloro ethyleneReusing solventsChecking for spots, stainsWet cleaning is treating fabrics with small amounts of water to remove soil

Storage of Textile productsLonger wear may be effected if given a chance to rest between usesFolding items at different place and not at the same crease lineClean before storageAttack of moth or fungi easier on soiled fabrics, darkening of spots/stainsNever to store with pins left in garmentsMoth repellents for wool

Storing historic costumes & textilesMade of natural fibresShould be stored away from light and in acid-free conditionsAvoid use of plastic bags to avoid off-gassingIdeal: 70 deg F, 60% RHWool and silk garment not to be laundered except by an expert historianLoose dust removed by vacuum keeping synthethic netting in between

Care LabelingLabeling requirementsThe dress that cant be cared forRefer: Federal Trade Commission Article-Self Study

Scouring machines for woollen fabrics may be used as washing machines

The DOLLY- a rope washing machine

Continuous Rope Washing

Open width Washing machine Beneks

Continuous Washing Range-Beneks

Slack rope or tight rope washingOpen width washing machines----a series of compartments fitted with a squeezing device and a series of guide rolls

Laboratory washing Machine

Rope Opening Machine

Refer: J T Marsh,Tortora & Collier, FTC link given in this ppt.Chemicals used in souringDry Cleaning