sports biomechanics reducing injury(bookfi org)

Download Sports biomechanics reducing injury(bookfi org)

Post on 15-Mar-2016

226 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

 

TRANSCRIPT

  • Sports Biomechanics: ReducingInjury and Improving Performance

  • An Imprint of Routledge

    London and New York

    E & FN SPON

    Roger BartlettSport Science Research Institute,Sheffield Hallam University, UK

    Sports Biomechanics:Reducing Injury and

    Improving Performance

  • First published 1999by E & FN Spon, an imprint of Routledge11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005. To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledgescollection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.

    Simultaneously published in the USA and Canadaby Routledge29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001 1999 Roger Bartlett

    All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized inany form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafterinvented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage orretrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.

    The publisher makes no representation, express or implied, with regard to the accuracyof the information contained in this book and cannot accept any legal responsibility orliability for any errors or omissions that may be made. British Library Cataloguing in Publication DataA catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication DataBartlett, Roger.

    Sports biomechanics: preventing injury and improving performance/Roger Bartlett.

    p. cm.Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 0-419-18440-61. SportsPhysiological aspects. 2. Human mechanics. 3. Sports

    injuriesPrevention. I. Title.RC1235.B37 1998612.044dc21 9821961

    CIP

    ISBN 0-203-47456-2 Master e-book ISBN ISBN 0-203-78280-1 (Adobe eReader Format)ISBN 0 419 18440 6 (Print Edition)

  • To Mel, Mum and my late Father

  • Contents

    Preface xiiiPermissions xv

    Part One Biomechanics of Sports Injury 1

    Introduction 11 Causes of injury and the properties of materials 3

    1.1 Causes of injury 31.2 Biological and other materials 51.3 Response of a material to load 6

    1.3.1 Stress and strain 61.3.2 Elastic modulus and related properties 111.3.3 Plasticity and strain energy 121.3.4 Toughness and crack prevention 131.3.5 Hardness 141.3.6 Creep 141.3.7 Fatigue failure 141.3.8 Non-homogeneity, anisotropy and viscoelasticity 151.3.9 Stress concentration 17

    1.4 Bone 171.4.1 Structure and composition 171.4.2 Bone: loading and biomechanical properties 18

    1.5 Cartilage 201.5.1 Structure and composition 201.5.2 Biomechanical properties 20

    1.6 Muscle properties and behaviour 211.6.1 Muscle elasticity and contractility 211.6.2 Maximum force and muscle activation 221.6.3 Mechanical stiffness 221.6.4 The stretch-shortening cycle 23

    1.7 Ligament and tendon properties 241.8 Factors affecting properties of biological tissue 27

    1.8.1 Immobilisation and disuse 271.8.2 Age and sex 271.8.3 Exercise and training 281.8.4 Warm-up 30

    1.9 Summary 311.10 Exercises 31

  • viii Contents

    1.11 References 321.12 Further reading 35

    2 Injuries in sport: how the body behaves under load 362.1 Introduction 362.2 Bone injuries 37

    2.2.1 Type of fracture 372.2.2 Magnitude of load 402.2.3 Load rate 402.2.4 Bone properties 41

    2.3 Joint and soft tissue injuries 422.3.1 Articular cartilage 422.3.2 Ligaments 422.3.3 Muscle-tendon unit 43

    2.4 Sports injuries to joints and associated tissues 452.4.1 The pelvis and the hip joint 452.4.2 The knee 452.4.3 The ankle and foot 492.4.4 The wrist and hand 502.4.5 The elbow 512.4.6 The shoulder 532.4.7 The head, back and neck 53

    2.5 Genetic factors in sports injury 562.5.1 Sex, age and growth 562.5.2 Bony alignment 57

    2.6 Fitness and training status and injury 582.7 Summary 602.8 Exercises 612.9 References 61

    2.10 Further reading 64Appendix 2.1 Musculoskeletal injury: some useful definitions 65

    3 The effects of sports equipment and technique on injury 673.1 Sports surfaces 67

    3.1.1 Introduction 673.1.2 Characteristics of sports surfaces 683.1.3 Specific sports surfaces 703.1.4 Biomechanical assessment of surfaces 713.1.5 Injury aspects of sports surfaces 74

    3.2 Footwear: biomechanics and injury aspects 763.2.1 Introduction 763.2.2 Biomechanical requirements of a running shoe 773.2.3 The structure of a running shoe 773.2.4 Footwear and injury 813.2.5 Impact and the running shoe 823.2.6 Running shoes and rearfoot control 85

    3.3 Other sports and exercise equipment and injury 87

  • ixContents

    3.3.1 The head and neck 883.3.2 The upper extremity 893.3.3 The lower extremity 903.3.4 Alpine skiing: release bindings 91

    3.4 Musculoskeletal injurytechnique aspects 913.4.1 Introduction 913.4.2 The head and trunk 923.4.3 The upper extremity 933.4.4 The lower extremity 97

    3.5 Summary 993.6 Exercises 993.7 References 1003.8 Further reading 104Appendix 3.1 Artificial surfaces 105Appendix 3.2 Other surface characteristics 108

    4 Calculating the loads 1094.1 Introduction 1094.2 Forces acting on a body segment in two dimensions 110

    4.2.1 Static joint and muscle forces for a singlesegment with one muscle 110

    4.2.2 Dynamic joint and muscle forces for a singlesegment with one muscle 112

    4.2.3 Assumptions underlying the above models 1154.2.4 Forces acting on a body segment with more than

    one musclethe indeterminacy problem 1164.2.5 Planar joint reaction forces and moments for a

    single segment 1164.2.6 Planar joint reaction forces and moments for

    segment chains 1194.2.7 Joint reaction forces and moments in multiple-

    segment systems 1224.3 Determination of muscle forces from inverse dynamics 124

    4.3.1 Solving the indeterminacy (or redundancy)problem 124

    4.3.2 Inverse optimisation 1254.3.3 Use of EMG to estimate muscle force 133

    4.4 Determination of ligament and bone forces 1344.5 An example of the estimation of a load causing

    traumatic injury 1354.5.1 Patellar ligament rupture 1354.5.2 Concluding comments 138

    4.6 Summary 1384.7 Exercises 1384.8 References 1414.9 Further reading 144

  • x Contents

    Part Two Biomechanical Improvement of Sports Performance 147

    Introduction 1475 Aspects of biomechanical analysis of sports performance 149

    5.1 Principles of coordinated movement 1495.1.1 How is movement controlled? 1505.1.2 Structural analysis of movement 152

    5.2 Biomechanical principles of coordinated movement1535.2.1 Universal principles 1545.2.2 Principles of partial generality 155

    5.3 Temporal and phase analysis 1565.3.1 Phase analysis of ballistic movements 1575.3.2 Phase analysis of running 1595.3.3 Phase analysis of other activities 1605.3.4 Concluding comments 161

    5.4 Kinesiological analysis of sports movements 1625.4.1 An approach to kinesiological analysis 1625.4.2 A formalised kinesiological analysis procedure 1635.4.3 The analysis chart 1665.4.4 Examples 168

    5.5 Some limitations to kinesiological analysis 1685.5.1 What muscles really do 1685.5.2 Open and closed kinetic chains 173

    5.6 Summary 1745.7 Exercises 1745.8 References 1765.9 Further reading 177

    6 Biomechanical optimisation of sports techniques 1786.1 Introduction 1786.2 The trial and error approach 1796.3 Statistical modelling 181

    6.3.1 Types of statistical model 1816.3.2 Limitations of statistical modelling 1836.3.3 Theory-based statistical modelling 1846.3.4 Hierarchical model of a vertical jump 186

    6.4 Mathematical modelling 1896.4.1 Simulation 1906.4.2 Optimisation 1926.4.3 Conclusionsfuture trends 195

    6.5 Summary 1966.6 Exercises 1966.7 References 1986.8 Further reading 200

    7 Mathematical models of sports motions 2017.1 Introduction 201

  • xiContents

    7.2 Optimal javelin release 2027.2.1 The javelin flight model 2027.2.2 Simulation 2047.2.3 Optimisation 2057.2.4 Sensitivity analysis 2057.2.5 Simulation evaluation 209

    7.3 Simple models of the sports performer 2107.3.1 Introduction 2107.3.2 The thrower model 2117.3.3 Simulation, optimisation and sensitivity analysis 2137.3.4 Simulation evaluation 2187.3.5 Concluding comments 220

    7.4 More complex models of the sports performer 2207.4.1 Introduction 2207.4.2 Linked segment models of aerial movement 2217.4.3 Hanavans human body model 2237.4.4 Hatzes anthropometric model 2267.4.5 Yeadons mathematical inertia model of the

    human body 2287.4.6 Conclusions 231

    7.5 Models of skeletal muscle 2317.5.1 Introduction 2317.5.2 The computed torque approach 2317.5.3 Muscle models 2327.5.4 A more comprehensive model of skeletal muscle 2347.5.5 Evaluation and uses of Hatzes model of skeletal

    muscle 2367.5.6 Concluding comments 239

    7.6 Summary 2397.7 Exercises 2407.8 References 2417.9 Further reading 242

    8 Feedback of results to improve performance 2448.1 The importance of feedback 2448.2 Technique assessment models and their limitations in

    feedback 2478.2.1 Live demonstrations 2488.2.2 Serial recordings 2488.2.3 Parallel representations 2488.2.4 Textbook technique 2498.2.5 Graphical (diagrammatic) models 2508.2.6 Computer simulation models 2518.2.7 Analysis charts 2518.2.8 Concluding comments 252

    8.3 The role of technique training 254

  • xii Contents

    8.3.1 Learning or relearning a technique 2558.3.2 How to plan technique training 257

    8.4 Information feedback and motor learning 2588.5 Use of computer-based feedback 260

    8.5.1 Overview 2608.5.2 The uses of computer simulation and optimisation

    in feedback 2618.6 Summary 2628.7 Exercises 2628.8 References 2638.9 Further reading 265

    Author index 267Subject index 271

  • Preface

    Sports biomec