Spanish Civil War: Nationalists ?· Ramiro Ledesma Ramos – Trade Union Representative Ramos received…

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Spanish Civil War:



Chair: Gary DePalo

Crisis Director: Sean Rastatter

Dear Delegates,

It is an honor to invite you to the 21st Virginia International Crisis Simulation, the University

of Virginias annual collegiate Model United Nations conference. VICS XXI will be held at

the University of Virginia in Charlottesville from March 31 to April 3, 2016.

VICS offers nineteen innovative and interactive crisis committees, both historical and

contemporary. We are committed to expanding the scope of what a crisis committee can

do. As I write this letter in early November, our chairs are crafting their committees around

topics ranging from the Space Race of the 1950s to a Summit of the American Gun Lobby.

We are committed to expanding the scope of what a crisis committee can do, especially in our

famous ad-hoc, the Secretary Generals Good Offices, and in our pilot ad-hoc, the Directors

General's Good Offices.

I can think of no better setting for the conference than the Grounds of the University of

Virginia. VICS provides you with opportunities to interact with the Universitys rich history

and with the many resources it has to offer. For example, on Friday morning, VICS

encourages delegates to explore Charlottesville. VICS offers a series of tours of the city's

attractions. These events extend discussion outside of committee and they give you the chance

to meet members of the International Relations Organization and of the university


We also invite you to explore Charlottesville, one of the countrys most exciting college towns.

VICS hosts four social events in the city, which take you beyond a typical Model UN

experience and provide opportunities to get to know delegates outside of committee.

I look forward to welcoming you to the University of Virginia and Charlottesville in March. If

you have any questions, please reach out to me or the Charg dAffaires, Leah Day, or by phone at (703) 344-4275.


Michael Treves

Secretary General


1. Emilio Mola Commander of Spanish Forces, the North

Originally born in the Spanish province of Cuba, Mola went to the Infantry Academy

of Toledo. Mola gained notoriety among the military elite during the Second

Moroccan War, where he became a leading authority on military tactics. Mola held

the position of Director-General of Security under King Alfonso XIII. Mola is a

skilled military tactician and key component of the Nationalist forces.

2. Gonzalo Queipo de Llano Commander of Spanish Forces, Andalusia

Initially a brigadier general under Miguel Primo de Riveras regime, Llano was

demoted and thrown in jail for criticizing the manner in which Primo de Rivera was

running the country. Llano was dismissed from the military in 1928, and became

involved in a failed plot to overthrown King Alfonso XIII in 1930. Llano despises the

Republican government and wishes to see its end by any means necessary.

3. Miguel Cabanellas Commander of Spanish Forces, Aragon

A veteran of the Rif War, Miguel Cabanellas was promoted to brigadier general

under Miguel Primo de Riveras regime. In 1926, at the age of 54, Cabanellas was

placed in the Spanish Reserve Army. This action frustrated Cabanellas and prompted

him to rebel against Riveras regime. Cabanellas represented the Radical Republican

Party in the 1934 Cortes Generales. Cabanellas experience allows him to act as a

natural mediator between the military and politician elements of the Nationalists.

4. Juan Yague Commander of Spanish Army of Morocco, First Division

Yague enrolled in the Infantry Academy of Toledo as a young adult and fought

during the Rif War. Wounded twice, Yague gained a reputation for grittiness. Yague

was a member of the task force sent to crush the Asturias Rebellion in 1934. Yague,

along with a number of military generals, plotted to overthrow the democratically

elected Popular Front, which had won a majority in the 1936 Cortes Elections. Yague

will play a key role in the fighting in the South.

5. Jose Varela Commander of Spanish Army of Morocco, Second Division

Starting out as an enlisted soldier, Varela fought in the First Moroccan War for 3

years. After his time in Morocco, Varela enrolled in infantry school and became a

lieutenant. Varela was sent back to Morocco during the Rif War, where he received

the highest military award for service to Spain (Laureate Cross of Saint Ferdinand)

on two separate occasions. Varela would later go on to organize the Requetes militia.

Varela is a well-respected and trusted general.

6. Ramiro Ledesma Ramos Trade Union Representative

Ramos received a degree from the Complutense University of Madrid. Soon after

graduation, he grew interested in Benito Mussolinis movement in Italy. Captivated

by the idea of a corporate state, Ramos began publishing the fascist periodical La

Conquista del Estado in 1931. In his periodical, he attempted to bring together

nationalist and anarcho-syndicalist factions.

7. Jos Milln Astray Director of the Office of Radio, Press, and


Astray attended the Infantry Academy of Toledo and graduated at the age of 16.

Astray fought in the First Moroccan War, where he lost his left arm and right eye.

This led to his name of Glorioso Mutilado (Glorious Amputee). Astray was an

extremely reliable military commander and will prove a vital component to the

Nationalist propaganda machine.

8. Jos Antonio Primo de Rivera Parliamentary Representative

The eldest son of Miguel Primo de Rivera, Jose studied law at the University of

Madrid for 6 years. After the abdication of King Alfonso XIII and the institution of

the Second Republic, Jose formed Falange Espanola, basing it largely on fascist

principles in place in Italy at the time. In March, 1936 he was arrested and charged

with illegal firearms. He managed to break out and is now present at this meeting.

9. Manual Fal Conde Carlist Politician

Conde attended a Jesuit college in Asturias as a young adult. Conde later went on to

study law in Seville. Conde believed that his involvement in politics was a

responsibility as a Christian and a call from God. He became a staunch opponent of

the 1931 Constitution, more specifically Articles 26 and 27. Conde later went on to be

a strong supporter of the Carlist movement and an opponent of anti-clericalism.

10. Tomas Dominguez Arevalo Carlist Politician

Descended from wealthy landowners on both sides of the family, Arevalos family

had long been supporters of the Carlist Movement during the 19th Century. Arevalo

had long been privy to the prospect of the inability of the Second Republic to contain

a brewing revolution. Arevalo was integral in talks with other groups, such as

Alfonsinos, who were interested in the prospect of a joint insurgency.

11. Manuel Hedilla Falange Politician

Born in 1902, Manuel Hedilla ascended from being a Spanish mechanic to one of the

leading members of the Falange. Before the civil war, Hedilla was a close associate of

Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera, who was recognized as the leader of the Falange,

allowing him to rise amongst the ranks of his peers within the movement. Due to his

strong commitment to Falange ideals, while also being a core member, Hedilla

frequently clashed with the Carlist faction, leading to his power being frequently

checked during the war as the Carlists gained momentum within the Nationalist


12. Agustin Aznar Falange Politician

Originally a medical doctor, Agustin Aznar was a leading Falangist politician before

and during the Spanish Civil War. Along with Sancho Dvila y Fernndez de Celis,

Aznar led the group known as the legitimistas, who opposed the Hedilla faction of

the Falange. Tensions between Aznar and Hedilla led to some clashes between their

respective forces, which even got the attention of Franco, who tried to curb Aznars

belligerence towards Hedilla.

13. Sancho Davila y Fernandez de Celis Falange Politician

Sancho Davila y Fernandez de Celis rose to prominence as a Falangist politician who

became the ally of Agustin Aznar, helping form the legitimistas group within the

Falange. Besides this, Davila was also a cousin of Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera, who

gave him the job of expanding the operations of the Falange in the provinces of

Seville and Cadiz. Shortly after, Davila rose to the rank of jefe territorial for the

Andalusia region, cementing his importance to the cause.

14. Ramon Serrano Suner Falange Politician

Originally a conservative member of the Cortes Generales, Ramon Serrano Suner

became a leading politician within the falange and a close ally of Francisco Franco.

During this time, Suner rose to the position of President of the Spanish Falange

caucus in 1936, making him an important figure within the Nationalist Coalition.

Suner was arrested in July, 1936 for conspiracy to overthrow the Republic, but

managed to escape and is currently present at this meeting.

15. Carlos Asensio Cabanillas Colonel, Army of Africa

Born in 1896, Carlos Asensio Cabanillas was the General of Francos Army of Africa,

which garrisoned the Spanish protectorate in Morocco against the Moroccan

Independence Movement. Cabanillas first started out as a soldier of the Nationalist

faction, then ascended to the rank of Colonel, where he scored major victories over

the Republicans in Tetuan, Sevilla, Badajoz, Toledo, and Talavera. Cabanillas is a

well-respected general and capable leader.

16. Juan Alberto March Ordinas Nationalist Supporter

Juan Alberto March Ordinas was a businessman and the wealthiest man in Spain at

the time of the Spanish Civil War. After being convicted of committing illegal

dealings, March was imprisoned by the Second Spanish Republic, leading to his later

backing of the Nationalist Party during the civil war. As a comparative outsider,

March has been crucial in arranging meetings with outside groups up to this point.

17. Antonio Castejon Espinosa Captain, Spanish Legion

Antonio Castejon Espinosa was a commander of the Spanish Legion and participated

in the military uprising against the Second Spanish Republic. Espinosa was

notorious for his iron-fisted leadership, and is a big proponent of pragmatic military

strategy. Castejon is not afraid to take the gloves over and fight dirty.

18. Isidro Goma y Tomas Archbishop of Toledo, Primate of Spain

Born in 1869, Isidro Goma y Tomas was a high-ranking member of the Catholic

Church who supported the Nationalist Party during the Spanish Civil War. After

being appointed by Pope Pius XI as Bishop of Tarazona, Goma was then appointed

by the Pope in 1935 as Cardinal-Priest of San Pietro in Montorio, a church in Rome.

As a priest, Goma was a fundamentalist, or integrista, who opposed the modernist

faction of the Catholic Church.

19. Manuel Irurita y Almandoz Archbishop of Barcelona

Almandoz received doctoral degrees in Theology and Philosophy from the Pontifical

University of Spain. Almandoz was prominent in the urban coastal cities of Spain,

specifically Barcelona and Valencia. Almandoz was a strong opponent of the Second

Republics anti-clericalism, but was unable to rally support for the Nationalist

Movement in Barcelona. Barcelona was largely dominated by Republican and

anarchist factions looking to break away from Spain.

20. Eustaqio Ilundain y Esteban Cardinal & Archbishop of Seville

Esteban was ordained as a priest in 1886, and was appointed as bishop of Ourense in

1904. Esteban was involved in a debacle with the local population of Ourense in 1909

which resulted in the death of seven villagers. The debacle stemmed from Estebans

attempt to renovate the local church of Santa Maria la Real de Oseira, which was

beloved by the townsfolk. Esteban was promoted to Cardinal the next year in 1925.

He has significant influence in the Catholic Church.

21. Armindo Montiero Minister of Foreign Affairs, Portugal

Montiero is the minister of foreign affairs for Portugal, a county sympathetic to the

cause of the nationalists. Montierno has an important role in the Estado Novo

regime, and has influence over decisions made by Antnio de Oliveira Salazar, the

Prime Minister of Portugal. He has influence over many Portuguese politicians and

is vital in the consideration of aid from Portugal.

22. Jos Mara Gil-Robles y Quiones de Len Leader, CEDA

A lifetime politician, Gil-Robles was the founder and leader of the Spanish

Confederation of the Autonomous Right (CEDA), a political party that won the

elections of 1933 and 1935, marking his rise to power. In 1936, the Popular Front

beat CEDA in elections, and CEDA all but dissolved. Gil-Robles was aware of the

coup that took place in July of 1936, although he was not actively part of it. He has

always been sympathetic to both nationalist and republican causes.

23. Manuel Gimenez Fernandez CEDA Politician

A professor of canon law, Gimenez Fernandez was also a respected politician and

member of CEDA, aligning him with both the liberal and conservative wings of the

party. He was the Minister of Agriculture from October 1934 to April 1935, being

forced to resign after attacks from the radical wing of CEDA. He was again elected to

parliament in 1936 for the district of Segovia. Gimenez Fernandez is an effective

compromiser, and was able to work across the aisle while he was in the Spanish


24. Jos Moscard e Ituarte Military Governor, Toledo Province

Moscard was the Military Governor of Toledo, a province 30 miles south of Madrid.

Moscard was a very gritty leader of the Toledo Province, fighting to the last man if

the situation required it. Moscard is methodical with the execution of his military

plans, and is extremely thorough in his planning. He will play an essential in

consolidating power in the crucial central region of Spain surrounding Madrid.

25. Antonio Goicoechea Leader, Renovacin Espaola

Goicoechea is the leader of the Renovacin Espaola political party in Spain. He

served briefly as the Minister of the Interior in 1919, and negotiated a military

agreement with Benito Mussolini that promised Italian help for the Nationalists in

the war against the Republicans in the event of a civil war. Unfortunately, this

agreement did not go forward when the Civil War did bre...


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