spanish civil war: nationalists .ramiro ledesma ramos – trade union representative ramos received

Download Spanish Civil War: Nationalists .Ramiro Ledesma Ramos – Trade Union Representative Ramos received

Post on 14-Feb-2019




0 download

Embed Size (px)


Spanish Civil War:



Chair: Gary DePalo

Crisis Director: Sean Rastatter

Dear Delegates,

It is an honor to invite you to the 21st Virginia International Crisis Simulation, the University

of Virginias annual collegiate Model United Nations conference. VICS XXI will be held at

the University of Virginia in Charlottesville from March 31 to April 3, 2016.

VICS offers nineteen innovative and interactive crisis committees, both historical and

contemporary. We are committed to expanding the scope of what a crisis committee can

do. As I write this letter in early November, our chairs are crafting their committees around

topics ranging from the Space Race of the 1950s to a Summit of the American Gun Lobby.

We are committed to expanding the scope of what a crisis committee can do, especially in our

famous ad-hoc, the Secretary Generals Good Offices, and in our pilot ad-hoc, the Directors

General's Good Offices.

I can think of no better setting for the conference than the Grounds of the University of

Virginia. VICS provides you with opportunities to interact with the Universitys rich history

and with the many resources it has to offer. For example, on Friday morning, VICS

encourages delegates to explore Charlottesville. VICS offers a series of tours of the city's

attractions. These events extend discussion outside of committee and they give you the chance

to meet members of the International Relations Organization and of the university


We also invite you to explore Charlottesville, one of the countrys most exciting college towns.

VICS hosts four social events in the city, which take you beyond a typical Model UN

experience and provide opportunities to get to know delegates outside of committee.

I look forward to welcoming you to the University of Virginia and Charlottesville in March. If

you have any questions, please reach out to me or the Charg dAffaires, Leah Day, or by phone at (703) 344-4275.


Michael Treves

Secretary General


1. Emilio Mola Commander of Spanish Forces, the North

Originally born in the Spanish province of Cuba, Mola went to the Infantry Academy

of Toledo. Mola gained notoriety among the military elite during the Second

Moroccan War, where he became a leading authority on military tactics. Mola held

the position of Director-General of Security under King Alfonso XIII. Mola is a

skilled military tactician and key component of the Nationalist forces.

2. Gonzalo Queipo de Llano Commander of Spanish Forces, Andalusia

Initially a brigadier general under Miguel Primo de Riveras regime, Llano was

demoted and thrown in jail for criticizing the manner in which Primo de Rivera was

running the country. Llano was dismissed from the military in 1928, and became

involved in a failed plot to overthrown King Alfonso XIII in 1930. Llano despises the

Republican government and wishes to see its end by any means necessary.

3. Miguel Cabanellas Commander of Spanish Forces, Aragon

A veteran of the Rif War, Miguel Cabanellas was promoted to brigadier general

under Miguel Primo de Riveras regime. In 1926, at the age of 54, Cabanellas was

placed in the Spanish Reserve Army. This action frustrated Cabanellas and prompted

him to rebel against Riveras regime. Cabanellas represented the Radical Republican

Party in the 1934 Cortes Generales. Cabanellas experience allows him to act as a

natural mediator between the military and politician elements of the Nationalists.

4. Juan Yague Commander of Spanish Army of Morocco, First Division

Yague enrolled in the Infantry Academy of Toledo as a young adult and fought

during the Rif War. Wounded twice, Yague gained a reputation for grittiness. Yague

was a member of the task force sent to crush the Asturias Rebellion in 1934. Yague,

along with a number of military generals, plotted to overthrow the democratically

elected Popular Front, which had won a majority in the 1936 Cortes Elections. Yague

will play a key role in the fighting in the South.

5. Jose Varela Commander of Spanish Army of Morocco, Second Division

Starting out as an enlisted soldier, Varela fought in the First Moroccan War for 3

years. After his time in Morocco, Varela enrolled in infantry school and became a

lieutenant. Varela was sent back to Morocco during the Rif War, where he received

the highest military award for service to Spain (Laureate Cross of Saint Ferdinand)

on two separate occasions. Varela would later go on to organize the Requetes militia.

Varela is a well-respected and trusted general.

6. Ramiro Ledesma Ramos Trade Union Representative

Ramos received a degree from the Complutense University of Madrid. Soon after

graduation, he grew interested in Benito Mussolinis movement in Italy. Captivated

by the idea of a corporate state, Ramos began publishing the fascist periodical La

Conquista del Estado in 1931. In his periodical, he attempted to bring together

nationalist and anarcho-syndicalist factions.

7. Jos Milln Astray Director of the Office of Radio, Press, and


Astray attended the Infantry Academy of Toledo and graduated at the age of 16.

Astray fought in the First Moroccan War, where he lost his left arm and right eye.

This led to his name of Glorioso Mutilado (Glorious Amputee). Astray was an

extremely reliable military commander and will prove a vital component to the

Nationalist propaganda machine.

8. Jos Antonio Primo de Rivera Parliamentary Representative

The eldest son of Miguel Primo de Rivera, Jose studied law at the University of

Madrid for 6 years. After the abdication of King Alfonso XIII and the institution of

the Second Republic, Jose formed Falange Espanola, basing it largely on fascist

principles in place in Italy at the time. In March, 1936 he was arrested and charged

with illegal firearms. He managed to break out and is now present at this meeting.

9. Manual Fal Conde Carlist Politician

Conde attended a Jesuit college in Asturias as a young adult. Conde later went on to

study law in Seville. Conde believed that his involvement in politics was a

responsibility as a Christian and a call from God. He became a staunch opponent of

the 1931 Constitution, more specifically Articles 26 and 27. Conde later went on to be

a strong supporter of the Carlist movement and an opponent of anti-clericalism.

10. Tomas Dominguez Arevalo Carlist Politician

Descended from wealthy landowners on both sides of the family, Arevalos family

had long been supporters of the Carlist Movement during the 19th Century. Arevalo

had long been privy to the prospect of the inability of the Second Republic to contain

a brewing revolution. Arevalo was integral in talks with other groups, such as

Alfonsinos, who were interested in the prospect of a joint insurgency.

11. Manuel Hedilla Falange Politician

Born in 1902, Manuel Hedilla ascended from being a Spanish mechanic to one of the

leading members of the Falange. Before the civil war, Hedilla was a close associate of

Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera, who was recognized as the leader of the Falange,

allowing him to rise amongst the ranks of his peers within the movement. Due to his

strong commitment to Falange ideals, while also being a core member, Hedilla

frequently clashed with the Carlist faction, leading to his power being frequently

checked during the war as the Carlists gained momentum within the Nationalist


12. Agustin Aznar Falange Politician

Originally a medical doctor, Agustin Aznar was a leading Falangist politician before

and during the Spanish Civil War. Along with Sancho Dvila y Fernndez de Celis,

Aznar led the group known as the legitimistas, who opposed the Hedilla faction of

the Falange. Tensions between Aznar and Hedilla led to some clashes between their

respective forces, which even got the attention of Franco, who tried to curb Aznars

belligerence towards Hedilla.

13. Sancho Davila y Fernandez de Celis Falange Politician

Sancho Davila y Fernandez de Celis rose to prominence as a Falangist politician who

became the ally of Agustin Aznar, helping form the legitimistas group within the

Falange. Besides this, Davila was also a cousin of Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera, who

gave him the job of expanding the operations of the Falange in the provinces of

Seville and Cadiz. Shortly after, Davila rose to the rank of jefe territorial for the

Andalusia region, cementing his importance to the cause.

14. Ramon Serrano Suner Falange Politician

Originally a conservative member of the Cortes Generales, Ramon Serrano Suner

became a leading politician within the falange and a close ally of Francisco Franco.

During this time, Suner rose to the position of President of the Spanish Falange

caucus in 1936, making him an important figure within the Nationalist Coalition.

Suner was arrested in July, 1936 for conspiracy to overthrow the Republic, but



View more >