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  • 1

    Software Quality Management

    Lecture 12

    Kristian Sandahl

    Department of Computer and Information Science

    Linkping University, Sweden

    davbr@ida.liu.se

    Software Engineering

    TDDC88/TDDC93

    Autumn 2008

    2

    Part I

    More on measurements

    Part II

    General quality

    management principles

    Kristian Sandahl

    krisa@ida.liu.se

    Part III

    Software specific

    quality initiatives

    Theory Lecture Plan

    L1 - Course Introduction and Overview

    L2 - Project Management

    L3 - Requirements

    L4 - Acceptance Testing and Quality Factors

    L5 UML

    L6 - Design Patterns

    L7 - System Design and Architecture

    L8 - Testing Theory

    L9 - Testing in Practice

    L10 - Inspection

    L11 - Software Life Cycles and Configuration Management

    L12 - Software Quality Management

    L13 - Course Summary, Exam examples, Questions

    L12 Software Quality Management

  • 2

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    Part I

    More on measurements

    Part II

    General quality

    management principles

    Kristian Sandahl

    krisa@ida.liu.se

    Part III

    Software specific

    quality initiatives

    A Software Life-cycle Model

    Which part will we talk about today?

    Requirements

    System Design(Architecture,

    High-level Design)

    Module Design(Program Design,

    Detailed Design)

    Implementationof Units (classes, procedures,

    functions)

    Unit testing

    Module Testing(Integration testing of units)

    System Testing(Integration testing of modules)

    Acceptance Test(Release testing)

    Validate Requirements, Verify Specification

    Verify System Design

    Verify Module Design

    Verify Implementation

    Project Management, Software Quality Assurance (SQA), Supporting Tools, Education

    Maintenance

    4

    Part I

    More on measurements

    Part II

    General quality

    management principles

    Kristian Sandahl

    krisa@ida.liu.se

    Part III

    Software specific

    quality initiatives

    Agenda - What will you learn today?

    Part I More on measurements Part II General quality

    management principles

    Part III Software specific

    quality initiatives

  • 3

    5

    Part I

    More on measurements

    Part II

    General quality

    management principles

    Kristian Sandahl

    krisa@ida.liu.se

    Part III

    Software specific

    quality initiatives

    Part I

    More on measurement

    6

    Part I

    More on measurements

    Part II

    General quality

    management principles

    Kristian Sandahl

    krisa@ida.liu.se

    Part III

    Software specific

    quality initiatives

    Many opinions

    Statistical

    techniques

    Many opinions

    Statistical

    techniques

    Do you remember?

    Transcendent something we learn to recognize

    Product-based measurable variable

    Usage-based in the eyes of the beholder

    Manufacturing-based conformance to requirements

    Value-based market sets the value

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    7

    Part I

    More on measurements

    Part II

    General quality

    management principles

    Kristian Sandahl

    krisa@ida.liu.se

    Part III

    Software specific

    quality initiatives

    Rehearsal: Quality factors

    Correctness

    Reliability lecture 4

    Efficiency

    Usability lecture 4

    Integrity

    Maintainability

    Flexibility

    Testability

    Security

    Portability

    Reusability

    Interoperability

    Survivability

    Safety

    Manageability

    Supportability

    Replaceability

    Functionality

    How can you measure these factors?

    Ideas: http://www.ida.liu.se/~TDDC93/timetable/metrics.html

    8

    Part I

    More on measurements

    Part II

    General quality

    management principles

    Kristian Sandahl

    krisa@ida.liu.se

    Part III

    Software specific

    quality initiatives

    Research predicting troubles

    Regression analysis from empirical material

    Often a linear combination between size and

    complexity

    Size can be measured in:

    lines of code (KLOC)

    function points

    Halstead software science

  • 5

    9

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    More on measurements

    Part II

    General quality

    management principles

    Kristian Sandahl

    krisa@ida.liu.se

    Part III

    Software specific

    quality initiatives

    Measuring complexity

    Cyclomatic number V(G) = e n + 2

    e = number of edges (arcs)

    n = number of nodes

    Due to McCabe(76)

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    Part II

    General quality

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    Kristian Sandahl

    krisa@ida.liu.se

    Part III

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    quality initiatives

    Example

    1

    2 3

    4 5

    6

    7 8

    910

    11

    1213 14

    I

    II

    III IV

    V VI

    VII VIII

    IX X

    XI

    V(G) = 14 11 + 2 = 5

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    Part II

    General quality

    management principles

    Kristian Sandahl

    krisa@ida.liu.se

    Part III

    Software specific

    quality initiatives

    Metrics based on change, system A

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    0 20 40 60 80 100

    Accum

    ula

    ted T

    R (

    %)

    Accumulated size (%)

    bestrandom

    opechgdenssigchgdensattrchgdens

    chgdens

    12

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    General quality

    management principles

    Kristian Sandahl

    krisa@ida.liu.se

    Part III

    Software specific

    quality initiatives

    Function points

    Language-neutral combination of size and complexity

    Mostly used for administrative information systems

    Growing interest, but still a closed community

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    Part II

    General quality

    management principles

    Kristian Sandahl

    krisa@ida.liu.se

    Part III

    Software specific

    quality initiatives

    Factors in function point analysis

    Number of user inputs - distinct input applications , not online queries. Weight: 4

    Number of user outputs distinct output applications: reports, lists. Weight: 5

    Number of user online queries requiring action by the system. Weight: 4

    Number of logical files any group of information maintained for the user. Weight: 10

    Number of external interfaces any computer-readable I/O. Weight: 7.

    Sometimes a file might be counted twice.

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    Part II

    General quality

    management principles

    Kristian Sandahl

    krisa@ida.liu.se

    Part III

    Software specific

    quality initiatives

    Example

    Source: Galin 2004Source: Galin 2004

    UI

    UI

    UO

    UO

    UO

    UOQ

    UOQ

    UOQ

    LF

    LF

    EI EI

    69CFP

    1472EI

    20102LF

    1243UOQ

    1553UO

    842UI

    pointsweightcountcomp.

  • 8

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    Kristian Sandahl

    krisa@ida.liu.se

    Part III

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    quality initiatives

    Part II

    General Quality Management Principles

    16

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    General quality

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    Kristian Sandahl

    krisa@ida.liu.se

    Part III

    Software specific

    quality initiatives

    ISO 9000-3

    A guideline to apply ISO 9001 to software industry, which is built on the principles:

    Principle 1 Customer focus

    Principle 2 Leadership

    Principle 3 Involvement of people

    Principle 4 Process approach

    Principle 5 System approach to management

    Principle 6 Continual improvement

    Principle 7 Factual approach to decision making

    Principle 8 Mutually beneficial supplier relationships

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    Part II

    General quality

    management principles

    Kristian Sandahl

    krisa@ida.liu.se

    Part III

    Software specific

    quality initiatives

    Management

    Whats get measured gets done

    Importance of feed-back

    Non-personal software

    Creating a passion for quality

    Live as you learn

    Incentive system

    Involve customers

    Set prioritized goals

    Quality is everybodys responsibility

    Document how you will work with quality

    Improve continuously

    =TQM

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    General quality

    management principles

    Kristian Sandahl

    krisa@ida.liu.se

    Part III

    Software specific

    quality initiatives

    Six sigma

    Statistical process control

    The variance of approved products should lie +/- 3 standard deviation from the mean = 3.4 faults per million

    Define

    Measure

    Analyze

    Improve

    Control

    Variant of the Shewhart cycle

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    General quality

    management principles

    Kristian Sandahl

    krisa@ida.liu.se

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    Software specific

    quality initiatives

    QFD

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    management principles

    Kristian Sandahl