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Snorri Sturluson

EddaSkldskaparml 1

Snorri Sturluson

EddaSkldskaparml

1. Introduction, Text and Notes

Edited by

ANTHONY FAULKES

VIKING SOCIETY FOR NORTHERN RESEARCHUNIVERSITY COLLEGE LONDON

1998

Anthony Faulkes 1998

First published by Viking Society for Northern Research 1998Reprinted with minor corrections 2007

ISBN:978 0 903521 36 9 Volume 1978 0 903521 38 3 Volume 2

Printed by Short Run Press Limited, Exeter

Contents of Volume 1

Introduction ............................................................................. vii

Title ....................................................................................... vii

Synopsis ............................................................................... viii

The composition of the work ............................................... x

Date and authorship.............................................................. xi

The verse quotations .......................................................... xiii

The flulur .............................................................................. xv

The dialogue frame...........................................................xviii

The prose narratives .......................................................... xxii

The analysis of poetic diction .......................................... xxv

Purpose ............................................................................xxxvii

Manuscripts ..................................................................... xxxix

This edition ............................................................................ li

Table of verse quotations and their preservation .............. lv

Bibliographical references ...................................................... lx

Manuscript sigla ..................................................................... lxx

Glossary of technical terms ................................................. lxxi

Text ............................................................................................. 1

Textual notes ......................................................................... 135

General notes ......................................................................... 153

Contents of Volume 2

Glossary ................................................................................. 231

Index of names ...................................................................... 443

PREFACE

These two volumes contain the second part of Snorri SturlusonsEdda, Skldskaparml. Part I, Prologue and Gylfaginning, was pub-lished by the Clarendon Press, Oxford, in 1982, and reissued inpaperback by the Viking Society for Northern Research in 1988. Asecond, corrected edition was published by the Viking Society in2005. Part III, Httatal, was published by the Clarendon Press in1991, and reissued in paperback with addenda and corrigenda by theViking Society in 1999. Part II thus makes the work complete.

Skldskaparml contains a lot of poetry that was composed mainlyin Norway and Iceland in the ninth to twelfth centuries. Thoughmuch of it is quoted in short extracts, it constitutes an anthology ofverse of various kinds, including mythological, historical, lyricaland other types of verse, selected and commented on by one of themajor authors of thirteenth-century Iceland. This edition providesthese examples of Old Norse verse with extensive explanatory notesand, in volume 2, a full glossary and index. It is hoped that it willbe useful to students as an introduction to a wide variety of earlyScandinavian poetry, presented in an authentic context and reflect-ing the taste and interests of an educated Icelander of the great ageof saga-writing, himself a practised poet.

I am grateful for the comments and corrections of Peter Foote,Richard Perkins and Mats Malm on the final draft of this book.

A. F.

INTRODUCTION

Title

Skldskaparml (the language of poetry) is the second major partof Snorri Sturlusons Edda (Treatise on poetry; sometimes calledthe Prose Edda), coming in those manuscripts that include morethan one part of the work between Gylfaginning and Httatal. Thename is not found as the heading of this part of the text in any earlymanuscript (R and W have large ornamental initials at 1/2, thoughneither they nor T have any heading at 1/1; see textual note), but isused in the rubric at the head of the whole text in the Uppsalamanuscript (U): Er fyrst fr sum ok Ymi, flar nst Skldskaparml ok heiti margra hluta. At 3/10 this manuscript also includes thewords hr hefr [or hefir] mjk setning skldskapar and in theversion of the beginning of ch. 3 that it has before before ch. 2 (SnE184887, II 302) Hr hefr Skldskapar ml ok heiti margra hluta.In fact the editors of the Arnamagnan edition (SnE 184887) tookthe first narrative sections of Skldskaparml as a continuation ofGylfaginning, and numbered the first chapters 558 accordingly,entitling this section Bragarur (speeches of Bragi), labelling5/256/29 the Eptirmli (Epilogue; placed at 5/8) and beginningSkldskaparml itself at 5/9 (this arrangement of the text followsthat of Rask (SnE 1818),where Skldskaparml is often called Sklda).Their chapters 558, however, do not continue the dialogue of Gylfa-ginning; they open a new narrative frame, a conversation betweenthe god Bragi and gir, a personification of the sea, which seems tocontinue through much of Skldskaparml. Though the indicationsof the speakers peter out in the course of this section as they do inHttatal, and there is little sign of dialogue from ch. 43 onwards,several later chapters are introduced by a question, and the whole ofthe rest of Skldskaparml, to the end of ch. 74, can be taken as thewords of Bragi. Apart from the opening chapter, only in 5/256/29is the voice clearly authorial, and though ch. 33 does not really fit intothe scheme (see below), chapters G5558 seem designed as anintroduction to Skldskaparml even if they were perhaps writtenafter the bulk of the rest of the section. The word skldskaparmlappears also at 5/15 and in the passage in A which introduces a list ofkennings which is placed immediately before the extracts from Skld-skaparml in that manuscript (see p. xlvii below; note also TGT 104).

viii Skldskaparml

Synopsis

Chapter G55: (The chapter numbers are those of SnE 184887, andthe first four are a continuation of the chapter numbers of Gylfaginning):inn and the sir entertain gir to a feast.

Chapter G56: Bragi tells gir the story of the giant fijazis theft ofIunn and her golden apples, their recovery by Loki and how thesir killed fijazi and compensated his daughter Skai; and howfijazi and his brothers had taken their fathers inheritance.

Chapter G57: The origin of the mead of poetry in the blood of Kvasir.Chapter G58: How inn brought the mead of poetry to the sir.Chapter 1: The categories of poetry.Eptirmli (Epilogue, 5/256/29): The meaning and purpose of the

work. The story of Troy as an allegory of Norse myths.Chapter 2: Kennings for inn. Verses 126.Chapter 3: Kennings for poetry. Verses 2741.Chapter 4: Kennings for firr. Verses 4258.Chapter 5: Kennings for Baldr.Chapter 6: Kennings for Njrr. Verse 59.Chapter 7: Kennings for Freyr. Verses 6063.Chapter 8: Kennings for Heimdallr.Chapter 9: Kennings for Tr.Chapter 10: Kennings for Bragi.Chapter 11: Kennings for Viarr.Chapter 12: Kennings for Vli.Chapter 13: Kennings for Hr.Chapter 14: Kennings for Ullr.Chapter 15: Kennings for Hnir.Chapter 16: Kennings for Loki. Verse 64.Chapter 17: firrs duel with Hrungnir. Verses 6571 (Haustlng 1420).Chapter 18: firrs journey to Geirrargarar. Verses 72, 7391

(firsdrpa 115 , 1720).Chapter 19: Kennings for Frigg.Chapter 20: Kennings for Freyja.Chapter 21: Kennings for Sif.Chapter 22: Kennings for Iunn. Verses 92104 (Haustlng 113).Chapter 23: Kennings for the sky. Verses 10516.Chapter 24: Kennings for the earth. Verses 11722.Chapter 25: Kennings for the sea. Verses 12334.Chapter 26: Kennings for the sun. Verses 1356.

Introduction ix

Chapter 27: Kennings for the wind. Verse 137.Chapter 28: Kennings for fire.Chapter 29: Kennings for winter. Verses 1389.Chapter 30: Kennings for summer. Verse 140.Chapter 31: Kennings for man and woman.Chapter 32: Kennings for gold.Chapter 33: Gold = girs fire; girs feast for the gods. Verse 141.Chapter 34: Gold = Glasirs foliage. Verse 142.Chapter 35: Gold = Sifs hair. The dwarfs make treasures for the gods.Chapter 36: Gold = Fullas head-band. Verse 143.Chapter 37: Gold = Freyjas tears; her daughter Hnoss. Verses 1449.Chapter 38: Gold = giants words. Verse 150.Chapter 39: Gold = otter-payment. The origin of this kenning.Chapter 40: Gold = Ffnirs lair. Sigurrs slaying of the serpent

Ffnir. Verses 1512 (from Ffnisml).Chapter 41: Sigurr and Brynhildr; his marriage to Gurn and

death.Chapter 42: Deaths of the Niflungar, Atli and Jrmunrekkr. Verses

1538 (Ragnarsdrpa 18, 37).Chapter 43: Gold = Fris meal. The mill Grotti. Verses 15982

(Grottasngr), 1834.Chapter 44: The origin of Hrlfr krakis nickname. Gold = Krakis

seed. Hrlfrs expedition to Uppsala. Verses 1856.Chapter 45: Gold = Hlgis mound-roof. The old lay of Bjarki.

Verses 187, 18890 (Bjarkaml 46).Chapter 46: Gold = fire of the hand, etc. Verses 1915.Chapter 47: Kennings for man and woman as givers of gold and as

trees. Verses 196218.Chapter 48: Kennings for battle. Verses 21925.Chapter 49: Kennings for weapons and armour. Verses 22649.Chapter 50: Battle = the Hjanings storm. Hjaningavg. Further

kennings for battle and weapons. Verses 25054 (Ragnarsdrpa812), 255.

Chapter 51: Kennings for ship