Slide 1 of 27 Chemistry 1.1 Chapter 1: Introduction To Chemistry.

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Slide 1 Slide 1 of 27 Chemistry 1.1 Chapter 1: Introduction To Chemistry Slide 2 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Chemistry > Slide 2 of 27 What Is Chemistry? Why is the scope of chemistry so vast? 1.1 Slide 3 Slide 3 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry What Is Chemistry? Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. Chemistry is the study of the composition of matter and the changes that matter undergoes. 1.1 Slide 4 Slide 4 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Chemistry > What Is Chemistry? Because living and nonliving things are made of matter, chemistry affects all aspects of life and most natural events. 1.1 Slide 5 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Chemistry > Slide 5 of 27 Areas of Study What are five traditional areas of study in chemistry? 1.1 Slide 6 Slide 6 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Chemistry > Areas of Study Five traditional areas of study are organic chemistry inorganic chemistry biochemistry analytical chemistry physical chemistry 1.1 Slide 7 Slide 7 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Chemistry > Organic chemistry is defined as the study of all chemicals containing carbon. Areas of Study 1.1 Slide 8 Slide 8 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Chemistry > Inorganic chemistry is the study of chemicals that, in general, do not contain carbon. Areas of Study 1.1 Slide 9 Slide 9 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Chemistry > The study of processes that take place in organisms is biochemistry. Areas of Study 1.1 Slide 10 Slide 10 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Chemistry > Analytical chemistry is the area of study that focuses on the composition of matter. Areas of Study 1.1 Slide 11 Slide 11 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Chemistry > Physical chemistry is the area that deals with the mechanism, the rate, and the energy transfer that occurs when matter undergoes a change. Areas of Study 1.1 Slide 12 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Chemistry > Slide 12 of 27 Pure and Applied Chemistry How are pure and applied chemistry related? 1.1 Slide 13 Slide 13 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Chemistry > Pure and Applied Chemistry Pure chemistry is the pursuit of chemical knowledge for its own sake. Applied chemistry is research that is directed toward a practical goal or application. 1.1 Slide 14 Slide 14 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Chemistry > Pure and Applied Chemistry Pure research can lead directly to an application, but an application can exist before research is done to explain how it works. 1.1 Slide 15 Slide 15 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Chemistry > Pure and Applied Chemistry Nylon In the early 1930s, Wallace Carothers produced nylon while researching cotton and silk. A team of scientists and engineers applied Carotherss research to the commercial production of nylon. 1.1 Slide 16 Slide 16 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Chemistry > Pure and Applied Chemistry Aspirin Long before researchers figured out how aspirin works, people used it to relieve pain, and doctors prescribed it for patients who were at risk for a heart attack. In 1971, it was discovered that aspirin can block the production of a group of chemicals that cause pain and lead to the formation of blood clots. This is an example of pure research. 1.1 Slide 17 Slide 17 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Chemistry > Pure and Applied Chemistry Technology Technology is the means by which a society provides its members with those things needed and desired. Technology allows humans to do some things more quickly or with less effort. There are debates about the risks and benefits of technology. 1.1 Slide 18 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Chemistry > Slide 18 of 27 Why Study Chemistry? What are three general reasons to study chemistry? 1.1 Slide 19 Slide 19 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Chemistry > Why Study Chemistry? Chemistry can be useful in explaining the natural world, preparing people for career opportunities, and producing informed citizens. 1.1 Slide 20 Slide 20 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Why Study Chemistry? Explaining the Natural World Chemistry can help you satisfy your natural desire to understand how things work. 1.1 Slide 21 Slide 21 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Why Study Chemistry? Preparing For a Career Many careers require knowledge of chemistry. A photographer uses chemical processes to control the development of photographs in a darkroom. 1.1 Slide 22 Slide 22 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Why Study Chemistry? Being an Informed Citizen Knowledge of chemistry and other sciences can help you evaluate the data presented, arrive at an informed opinion, and take appropriate action. 1.1 Slide 23 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 23 of 27 1. Which of these traditional areas of study mostly involve compounds containing carbon? (1) organic chemistry (2) inorganic chemistry (3) biochemistry a.(1) and (2) b.(1) and (3) c.(2) and (3) d.(1), (2), and (3) 1.1 Section Quiz Slide 24 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 24 of 27 2. Which phrase best describes applied chemistry? a.the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake b.research that answers a general question c.addresses fundamental aspects of a question d.research directed toward a practical goal 1.1 Section Quiz Slide 25 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 25 of 27 3. Informed citizens are most likely to a.provide funds for scientific research. b.determine which areas of research are valid. c.decide who is qualified to do research. d.influence the development of technology. 1.1 Section Quiz Slide 26 Homework: read Section 1.1 and Pages 5-8 in your lab Manual (see lab safety powerpoint) Slide 27 Slide 27 of 27 Chemistry 1.1 Chapter 1: Section 2 Chemistry Far and Wide Slide 28 Slide 28 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Materials What impact do chemists have on materials, energy, medicine, agriculture, the environment, and the study of the universe? 1.2 Slide 29 Slide 29 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Materials Chemists design materials to fit specific needs. 1.2 Slide 30 Slide 30 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Materials In 1948, George de Mestral took a close look at the burrs that stuck to his clothing. He saw that each burr was covered with many tiny hooks. In 1955, de Mestral patented the design for the hook-and- loop tapes. These are used as fasteners in shoes and gloves. 1.2 Slide 31 Slide 31 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Materials This story illustrates two ways of looking at the worldthe macroscopic view and the microscopic view. Burrs belong to the macroscopic world, the world of objects that are large enough to see with the unaided eye. The hooks belong to the microscopic world, or the world of objects that can be seen only under magnification. 1.2 Slide 32 Slide 32 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Energy Chemists play an essential role in finding ways to conserve energy, produce energy, and store energy. 1.2 Slide 33 Slide 33 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Energy Conservation One of the easiest ways to conserve energy is through insulation. Insulation acts as a barrier to heat flow from the inside to the outside of a house or from the outside to the inside of a freezer. 1.2 Slide 34 Slide 34 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Energy SEAgel is a modern insulation that is light enough to float on soap bubbles. 1.2 Slide 35 Slide 35 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Energy Production The burning of coal, petroleum, and natural gas is a major source of energy. These materials are called fossil fuels. Oil from the soybeans is used to make biodiesel. 1.2 Slide 36 Slide 36 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Energy Storage Batteries are devices that use chemicals to store energy that will be released as electric current. For some applications, it important to have batteries that can be recharged rather than thrown away. Digital cameras, wireless phones, and laptop computers use rechargeable batteries. 1.2 Slide 37 Slide 37 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Medicine and Biotechnology Chemistry supplies the medicines, materials, and technology that doctors use to treat their patients. 1.2 Slide 38 Slide 38 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Medicine and Biotechnology Medicines There are over 2000 prescription drugs. Many drugs are effective because they interact in a specific way with chemicals in cells. Knowledge of the structure and function of these target chemicals helps a chemist design safe and effective drugs. 1.2 Slide 39 Slide 39 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Medicine and Biotechnology Materials Chemistry can supply materials to repair or replace body parts. Artificial hips and knees made from metals and plastics can replace worn- out joints and allow people to walk again without pain. 1.2 Slide 40 Slide 40 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Medicine and Biotechnology Biotechnology From 1990 to 2003, scientists worldwide worked on the Human Genome Project. They identified the genes that comprise human DNAabout 30,000. The discovery of the structure of DNA led to the development of biotechnology. 1.2 Slide 41 Slide 41 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Medicine and Biotechnology Biotechnology applies science to the production of biological products or processes. 1.2 Slide 42 Slide 42 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Agriculture Chemists help to develop more productive crops and safer, more effective ways to protect crops. 1.2 Slide 43 Slide 43 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Agriculture Productivity One way to track productivity is to measure the amount of edible food that is grown on a given unit of land. Chemists test soil to see if it contains the right chemicals to grow a particular crop and recommend ways to improve the soil. 1.2 Slide 44 Slide 44 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Agriculture Chemists also help determine when a crop needs water. If the genes from a jellyfish that glows are transferred to a potato plant, the plant glows when it needs to be watered. 1.2 Slide 45 Slide 45 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Agriculture Crop Protection Chemists sometimes use chemicals produced by insects to fight insect pests. The plastic tube wrapped around the stem of the tomato plant contains a chemical that a female pinworm moth emits to attract male moths. It interferes with the mating process so that fewer pinworms are produced. 1.2 Slide 46 Slide 46 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry The Environment A pollutant is a material found in air, water, or soil that is harmful to humans or other organisms. Chemists help to identify pollutants and prevent pollution. 1.2 Slide 47 Slide 47 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry The Environment Identify Pollutants Until the mid-1900s, lead was used in many products, including paints and gasoline. A study done in 1971 showed that the level of lead that is harmful to humans is much lower than had been thought, especially for children. Even low levels of lead in the blood can permanently damage the nervous system of a growing child. 1.2 Slide 48 Slide 48 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry The Environment Prevent Pollution The strategies used to prevent lead poisoning include testing childrens blood for lead, regulation of home sales to families with young children, and public awareness campaigns with posters. 1.2 Slide 49 Slide 49 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry The Environment The percentage of children with elevated blood levels has decreased since the 1970s. 1.2 Slide 50 Slide 50 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry The Universe To study the universe, chemists gather data from afar and analyze matter that is brought back to Earth. 1.2 Slide 51 Slide 51 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry The Universe Chemists have analyzed more than 850 pounds of moon rocks that were brought back to Earth. Some of these rocks are similar to rocks formed by volcanoes on Earth, suggesting that vast oceans of molten lava once covered the moon's surface. 1.2 Slide 52 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 52 of 27 1.2 Section Quiz. 1. Choose the correct words for the spaces. To meet the demand for energy, chemists find ways to __________ energy and __________ energy. a.conserve, produce b.conserve, use c.produce, use d.convert, store Slide 53 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 53 of 27 1.2 Section Quiz. 2. Which of the following is an example of biotechnology? a.using soybeans to produce biodiesel b.replacing diseased arteries with plastic tubes c.testing the lead content of blood d.transferring a jellyfish gene into a potato plant Slide 54 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 54 of 27 1.2 Section Quiz. 3. To understand how a burr could stick to clothing, George de Mestral had to take which view of a burr? a.chemical b.material c.macroscopic d.microscopic Slide 55 Homework: Read Section 1.2 and pages 9-11 in your lab manual Slide 56 Slide 56 of 27 Chemistry 1.1 Chapter 1: Section 3 Thinking Like a Scientist Slide 57 Slide 57 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Thinking Like a Scientist In 1928, Alexander Fleming noticed that bacteria he was studying did not grow in the presence of a yellow- green mold. In 1945, Fleming shared a Nobel Prize for Medicine with Howard Florey and Ernst Chain, who led the team that isolated penicillin. 1.3 Slide 58 Slide 58 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Alchemy How did alchemy lay the groundwork for chemistry? 1.3 Slide 59 Slide 59 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Alchemy Alchemists developed the tools and techniques for working with chemicals. 1.3 Slide 60 Slide 60 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Alchemy Alchemists developed processes for separating mixtures and purifying chemicals. They designed equipment that is still in use today including beakers, flasks, tongs, funnels, and the mortar and pestle. Mortar and Pestle 1.3 Slide 61 Slide 61 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry An Experimental Approach to Science How did Lavoisier help to transform chemistry? 1.3 Slide 62 Slide 62 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry An Experimental Approach to Science Lavoisier helped to transform chemistry from a science of observation to the science of measurement that it is today. 1.3 Slide 63 Slide 63 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry An Experimental Approach to Science Lavoisier designed a balance that could measure mass to the nearest 0.0005 gram. He also showed that oxygen is required for a material to burn. Reconstruction of Lavoisiers Laboratory 1.3 Slide 64 Slide 64 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry The Scientific Method What are the steps in the scientific method? 1.3 Slide 65 Slide 65 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry The Scientific Method The scientific method is a logical, systematic approach to the solution of a scientific problem. Steps in the scientific method include making observations, testing hypotheses, and developing theories. 1.3 Slide 66 Slide 66 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry The Scientific Method Making Observations When you use your senses to obtain information, you make an observation. Suppose you try to turn on a flashlight and it does not light. An observation can lead to a question: Whats wrong with the flashlight? 1.3 Slide 67 Slide 67 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry The Scientific Method Testing Hypotheses A hypothesis is a proposed explanation for an observation. You guess that the flashlight needs new batteries. You can test your hypothesis by putting new batteries in the flashlight. If the flashlight lights, you can be fairly certain that your hypothesis is true. 1.3 Slide 68 Slide 68 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry The Scientific Method An experiment is a procedure that is used to test a hypothesis. When you design experiments, you deal with variables, or factors that can change. The variable that you change during an experiment is the manipulated variable, or independent variable. The variable that is observed during the experiment is the responding variable, or dependent variable. 1.3 Slide 69 Slide 69 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry The Scientific Method Developing Theories Once a hypothesis meets the test of repeated experimentation, it may become a theory. A theory is a well-tested explanation for a broad set of observations. A theory may need to be changed at some point in the future to explain new observations or experimental results. 1.3 Slide 70 Slide 70 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry The Scientific Method Scientific Laws A scientific law is a concise statement that summarizes the results of many observations and experiments. A scientific law doesnt try to explain the relationship it describes. That explanation requires a theory. 1.3 Slide 71 Slide 71 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Steps in the Scientific Method The Scientific Method 1.3 Slide 72 Slide 72 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Collaboration and Communication What role do collaboration and communication play in science? 1.3 Slide 73 Slide 73 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Collaboration and Communication No matter how talented the players on a team, one player cannot ensure victory for the team. Individuals must collaborate, or work together, for the good of the team. When scientists collaborate and communicate, they increase the likelihood of a successful outcome. 1.3 Slide 74 Slide 74 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Collaboration and Communication Collaboration Scientists choose to collaborate for different reasons. Some research problems are so complex that no one person could have all of the knowledge, skills, and resources to solve the problem. Scientists might conduct research for an industry in exchange for equipment and the time to do the research. 1.3 Slide 75 Slide 75 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Collaboration and Communication Collaboration isnt always a smooth process. You will likely work on a team in the laboratory. If so, you may face some challenges. But you can also experience the benefits of collaboration. 1.3 Slide 76 Slide 76 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Collaboration and Communication Communication Scientists communicate face to face, by e-mail, by phone, and at international conferences. Scientists publish their results in scientific journals. Articles are published only after being reviewed by experts in the authors field. 1.3 Slide 77 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 77 of 27 1.3 Section Quiz. 1. Lavoisier is credited with transforming chemistry from a science of observation to a science of a.speculation. b.measurement. c.hypotheses. d.theories. Slide 78 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 78 of 27 1.3 Section Quiz. 2. A hypothesis is a.information obtained from an experiment. b.a proposed explanation for observations. c.a concise statement that summarizes the results of many of experiments. d.a thoroughly tested explaination for a broad set of observations. Slide 79 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 79 of 27 1.3 Section Quiz. 3. Why are articles in scientific journals the most reliable source of information about new scientific discoveries? a.The articles are reviewed by experts in the author's field. b.Any article that is submitted is published. c.Everyone has access to the information. d.The articles are short and easy to read. Slide 80 Homework: read Section 1.3 and pages 13-16 in your lab manual Do Pre-lab questions for Lab techniques Part A Slide 81 Slide 81 of 27 Chemistry 1.1 Chapter 1: Section 4 Problem Solving in Chemistry Slide 82 Slide 82 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Skills Used in Solving Problems What is a general approach to solving a problem? 1.4 Slide 83 Slide 83 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Solving Numeric Problems What are the three steps for solving numeric problems? 1.4 Slide 84 Slide 84 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Solving Numeric Problems The steps for solving a numeric word problem are analyze, calculate, and evaluate. 1.4 Slide 85 Slide 85 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Solving Numeric Problems Analyze To solve a word problem, you must first determine where you are starting from (identify what is known) and where you are going (identify the unknown). After you identify the known and the unknown, you need to make a plan for getting from the known to the unknown. 1.4 Slide 86 Slide 86 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Solving Numeric Problems Calculate If you make an effective plan, doing the calculations is usually the easiest part of the process. Evaluate Check that your answer is reasonable and makes sense. Check that it has the correct unit and the correct number of significant figures. 1.4 Slide 87 Slide 87 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry 1.1 Slide 88 Slide 88 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry 1.1 Figure 1.25 Map of Indianapolis Slide 89 Slide 89 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Solving Numeric Problems 1.1 Slide 90 Slide 90 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Solving Numeric Problems 1.1 Slide 91 Slide 91 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Solving Numeric Problems 1.1 Slide 92 Slide 92 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Solving Numeric Problems Problem Solving 1.27 Solve Problem 27 with the help of an interactive guided tutorial. for Sample Problem 1.1 Slide 93 Slide 93 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Solving Conceptual Problems What are the two steps for solving conceptual problems? 1.4 Slide 94 Slide 94 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Solving Conceptual Problems The steps for solving a conceptual problem are analyze and solve. 1.4 Slide 95 Slide 95 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Slide 96 Slide 96 of 27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Chemistry Solving Conceptual Problems Slide 97 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 97 of 27 1.4 Section Quiz 1. Effective problem solving always involves developing a plan and then a.evaluating the plan. b.doing calculations. c.making an estimate. d.implementing the plan. Slide 98 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 98 of 27 1.4 Section Quiz 2. During the analyze step for solving a numeric word problem, you a.make an estimate of the answer using correct units. b.rearrange an equation to solve for an unknown. c.identify what is known and unknown and make a plan. d.convert a measurement from one unit to another. Slide 99 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 99 of 27 1.4 Section Quiz 3. The steps for solving a conceptual problem are a.solve and evaluate. b.analyze, solve, and evaluate. c.analyze and solve. d.analyze, calculate, and evaluate. Slide 100 Homework: Read 1.4, do 1.4 review Do pre-lab part B

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