Silver nano-disks: Synthesis, encapsulation, and role of water soluble starch
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<ul><li><p>Journal of Molecular Liquids xxx (2014) xxxxxx</p><p>MOLLIQ-04459; No of Pages 6</p><p>Contents lists available at ScienceDirect</p><p>Journal of Molecular Liquids</p><p>j ourna l homepage: www.e lsev ie r .com/ locate /mol l iqSilver nano-disks: Synthesis, encapsulation, and role of watersoluble starchOmmer Bashir, Zaheer Khan Nanoscience Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia (Central University), New Delhi 110025, India Corresponding author.E-mail address: email@example.com (Z. Khan).</p><p>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2014.09.0410167-7322/ 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p><p>Please cite this article as: O. Bashir, Z. Khan, Sdx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2014.09.041a b s t r a c ta r t i c l e i n f oArticle history:Received 26 May 2014Received in revised form 11 August 2014Accepted 23 September 2014Available online xxxx</p><p>Keywords:Nano-disksMorphologyCapping agentCTABSilver nano-disks have been synthesized by using starch as reducing- and stabilizing agent for the first time. UVvisible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and iodometric techniques were used to monitorthe quantitative growth, andmorphology of Ag-nanoparticles. The polyhedral nano-diskswith an average diam-eter of 500 nm contain a large number of truncated triangular nanoplates, spherical, quantum dots, and irregu-larly shaped nanosilver were formed with starch. The silver nanodisks with an average diameter 500 nmcontain a large number of truncated triangular and spherical nanoplates and quantum dots, and irregularlyshaped nanosilver were formedwith starch. The cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) markedly enhancedthe reaction path and changed themorphology (size, shape and distribution). This environmental friendlymeth-od of biological silver nanoparticle production provides the use of starch as a capping agent.</p><p> 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.1. Introduction</p><p>Nanoparticles are of great scientific interest as they are, in fact, abridge between bulk materials and atomic or molecular structures. Abulk material should have constant physical properties regardless ofits size, but at the nano-scale size-dependent properties are often ob-served [1,2]. Nanoparticles often possess unexpected optical propertiesas they are small enough to confine their electrons and produce quan-tum effects . Over the last decades silver nanoparticles have foundapplications in catalysis, optics, electronics and other areas due totheir unique size-dependent optical, electrical and magnetic proper-ties . Currently most of the applications of silver nanoparticles areas antifungal agents in biotechnology and bioengineering, textile engi-neering, water treatment, and silver-based consumer products . Sil-ver nanoparticles have gained more attention owing to their broadspectrum of antimicrobial activity and low cost of manufacturing.There is also an effort to incorporate silver nanoparticles into a widerange of medical devices, including but not limited to bone cement, sur-gical instruments, surgical masks, andwound dressings. Silver nanopar-ticles have been used as a cathode in a silver-oxide battery. There areseveral wet chemical methods for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles.Typically, they involve the reduction of a silver salt with a reducingagent like sodium borohydride in the presence of suitable colloidal sta-bilizers. Bakshi et al.  used bovine serum albumin protein as areducing-and stabilizing agent to prepare conjugated gold nanoparti-cles and explore their applications as drug delivery vehicles in systemiccirculation. These workers also reported that the sulfur-, oxygen- andilver nano-disks: Synthesis, ennitrogen-bearing groups mitigate the high surface energy of the nano-particles during their reduction. Lee and his co-workers  developeda facile method to prepare a magnetic-silver nano-composite whichpossesses a high antimicrobial activity against the model microbesEscherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The hydroxyl groups on the celluloseare reported to help in stabilizing the particles. Polydopamine-coatedmagnetic-bacterial cellulose contains multifunctional groups, whichacts as a reducing agent for in situ preparation of reusable antibacterialAg-nanocomposites . A novel wet chemistry method used to createsilver nanoparticles took advantage of D-glucose as a reducing sugarand starch as the stabilizer and also cellulosemolecular chain is appliedto employ the reducing and stabilizing features of cellulose to synthe-size nanosilver .</p><p>Sulfur-, oxygen-, and nitrogen-containing strong andweak reducingagents have been used with polymers, surfactants, lipids, proteins,starch and cellulose as stabilizing agents . Starch is a biodegradablenatural polymer of -D-glucose produced by many plants as a source ofstored energy. Starch can be separated into two fractionsamylose andamylopectin. Among natural and synthetic polymers, the use of starch(fully biodegradable, consists 1020% amylose forms a colloidal disper-sion in hot water and amylopectin 8090% completely water insoluble).The structure of amylose consists of long polymer chains of glucoseunits connected by an alpha acetal linkage. Amylose in starch is respon-sible for the formation of a deep blue color in the presence of iodinepo-tassium iodide reagents. The iodinemolecule slips inside of the amylosecoil. If starch amylose is not present, then the color will stay orange oryellow. Starch amylopectin does not give the color, nor does cellulose,nor do disaccharides such as sucrose in sugar.</p><p>In the present study, starch coated silver nano-disks and/or nano-particles were synthesized and characterized by UV/Vis spectroscopy.capsulation, and role ofwater soluble starch, J.Mol. Liq. (2014), http://</p><p>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2014.09.041mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2014.09.041http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01677322www.elsevier.com/locate/molliqhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2014.09.041http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2014.09.041</p></li><li><p>400 450 500 550 600 650 7000.0</p><p>0.1</p><p>0.2</p><p>0.3</p><p>0.4</p><p>0.5</p><p>Abs</p><p>orba</p><p>nce</p><p>Wavelength (nm)</p><p>Fig. 1. Spectra of starch capped Ag-nanoparticles at different [CTAB]. Reaction con-ditions: [Ag+] = 25.0 104 mol dm3, [CTAB] = 0.0 (), 2.5 (), 10.0 () and12.5 104 mol dm3 (), [PS] = 5.0 (, , ) and 10.0 cm3 ().</p><p>2 O. Bashir, Z. Khan / Journal of Molecular Liquids xxx (2014) xxxxxxThis paper intends to give a clear overview of starch-capped silvernanoparticles preparation, characterization, morphology, and shape-controlling activity of CTAB. Eco friendly starch coated silver nanoparti-cle could provide a simple chemical-reductionmethod for the synthesisof silver nano-disks and prevent the spreading and persistence of end-odontic infections.</p><p>2. Experimental</p><p>2.1. Materials and preparation of solutions</p><p>Deionized double distilled, CO2 andO2 freewater used as the solventfor the preparation of stock solutions of all reagents. All glassware waswashed with aqua regia (3:1 HCl and HNO3), rinsed with water, anddrying before use. Silver nitrate (AgNO3, Merck India, 99.99%), CTAB(99%, Fluka), potassium iodide (KI, Merck India, 99%) and iodine (I2,Merck India, 99.9%) were used as received. Potatoes were purchasedfrom a local market near to the campus of Jamia Millia Islamia, NewDelhi. The 0.1 N KII2 reagents was prepared by dissolving the requiredamounts in required water, stored in an amber colored glass bottle andused to detect the presence of starch in the potato water extract. Iodineis not very soluble inwater; therefore the iodine reagent ismade by dis-solving iodine in water in the presence of KI. This makes a deep bluecomplex with starch and/or triiodide ion and iodine molecules. Thetriiodide ion slips into the coil of the starch causing an intense blue-black color.</p><p>2.2. Preparation of potato starch aqueous extracts (PSE)</p><p>The 15.0 g of potato was rinsed with deionized water, chopped intofine pieces, soaked in 250ml water, heated for 30 min on water bath at60 C, allowed to cool, stand for 24 h at room temperature, and the su-pernatant was filteredwithWhatman paper No. 1. The filtrate was usedto the reduction of Ag+ ions into Ag0. The resulting PSE containsmainlywater soluble starch which has been confirmed by the addition ofiodine-potassium iodide reagents (wide infra). In order to see the pres-ence of reducing sugars (monosaccharides) in the PSE, spot tests werenegative with PSE and Benedict reagent indicating that PSE does notcontain any monosaccharides.</p><p>2.3. Green synthesis and characterization of Ag-nanoparticle using PSE</p><p>In the present studies, an aqueous PSEwas used as reducing agent tothe bio-reduction of Ag+ ions into Ag0. To synthesize Ag-nanoparticles,PSE from 2.0 cm3 to 10.0 cm3 were added in an aqueous 10.0 cm3 of0.01 mol dm3 of AgNO3 solution. As the reaction proceeds, the color-less reaction mixture turned yellow to orange, indicating the formationof nanoparticles . Preliminary observations showed that the appear-ance of color was very fast and reaction completed within ca. 40 min atroom temperature. In all experiments, PSE was added in the required[Ag+]. UVvisible Spectrophotometer (model UV-260 Shimadzu) with1 cm light path quartz curette was used to monitor the progress of thereaction under different experimental conditions. The transmissionelectron microscopy (TEM) images were obtained on a JEOL, JEM-1011; Japan, transmission electron microscope operating at 160 kV.The samples for TEM were prepared by drop-casting one drop of theprepared silver sols onto carbon-coated copper grids and then dryingin air.</p><p>2.4. Experimental evidence to the complete reduction and kineticmeasurements</p><p>It has been well known that the morphology (shape, size and thesize distribution) of the silver nanoparticles depend on the experimen-tal conditions such as [reactants], reduction potentials of reactants,[stabilizers], temperature, reaction time, order of mixing and PH.Please cite this article as: O. Bashir, Z. Khan, Silver nano-disks: Synthesis, endx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2014.09.041Therefore, in order to establish the role of [Ag+], [CTAB], [extract],and reaction time, a series of experimentswere performed under differ-ent experimental conditions. In a typical experiment, 5.0 cm3</p><p>(0.01 mol dm3) NaCl was added in a reaction mixture containing PSEextract (10.0 cm3) + AgNO3 (10.0 cm3 of 0.01 mol dm3) + CTAB5.0 cm3 of (0.01 mol dm3) after appearance of the perfect transparentyellow orange color silver sol. We did not observe the white precipitateand/ or turbidity of AgCl indicating the complete reduction of Ag+ ionsto Ag0. It was also observed that atmospheric oxygen and or nitrogengashas no significant effect on thenucleation and growth of silver nano-particles. These observations are in good agreement to our previous re-sult regarding the formation of silver nanoparticles by using ascorbicacid and CTAB as reducing and stabilizing agents, respectively .</p><p>The kinetic measurements were carried out in a three neckedreaction vessel fittedwith a double surface condenser to check evapora-tion by adding the required concentrations of AgNO3, CTAB and water(for dilution maintained). The progress of the reaction was followedspectrophotometrically by adding the required concentrations of leavesextract. The absorbance of the appearance of yellowish-brown color solwas measured at 475 nm at definite time intervals. Apparent rate con-stants were calculated from the initial part of the slopes of the plots ofln (a / (1 a)) versus time by a fixed timemethod (vide infra). The re-sults were reproducible to within 5% with average linear regressioncoefficient.3. Results and discussion</p><p>3.1. Morphology of Ag-nanoparticles</p><p>In thefirst set of experiments, a solution of PSE (3 cm3)was added toa AgNO3 solution (0.01 mol dm3; 10.0 cm3, total vol. 40 cm3). Reduc-tion of the Ag+ ion to Ag0 by PSE extracts could be followed by colorchange. Fig. 1 show theUVvis spectra recorded from the reactionmedi-um as a function of different experimental conditions. It is interesting tonote that a broad band begins to develop in the whole visible region in-stead of a peak very slowly (Fig. 1;). It has been established that CTABhas strong influence on the morphology of silver and gold nanoparticles. To increase the nucleation rates, the effect of shape directing[CTAB] (from 2.5 104 to 15.0 104 mol dm3) was studied at dif-ferent [PSE] and fixed [Ag+] = 25.0 104 mol dm3. The spectra ofresulting colored silver sols are given in Fig. 1. The most interesting fea-tures of the present observations are the fast appearance of color withcapsulation, and role ofwater soluble starch, J.Mol. Liq. (2014), http://</p><p>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2014.09.041http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2014.09.041</p></li><li><p>Table 1Impacts of [starch], [CTAB], and [Ag+] on themorphology andkinetics of Ag-nanoparticles.</p><p>[Starch](cm3)</p><p>104 [CTAB](mol dm3)</p><p>104 [Ag+](mol dm3)</p><p>Morphology 104 kobs(s1)</p><p>2.0 0.0 5.0 No color3.0 0.0 25.0 No color5.0 No color10.0 Orange color; no SRP band 0.953.0 2.5 25.0 Orange; broad band 1.1</p><p>5.0 Orange; broad band 1.010.0 Orange; broad band 0.98</p><p>5.0 2.5 25.0 Bright orange; broad shoulder 1.35.0 Bright orange; sharp SRP band 0.987.5 Dark orange; broad shoulder 1.3</p><p>10.0 Dark orange; broad shoulder 0.9812.5 Brown golden; broad shoulder 1.015.0 Brown golden; broad shoulder 1.117.5 Yellowish turbidity</p><p>10.0 0.0 35.0 Yellowish turbidity50.0 Yellowish precipitate75.0 Yellowish precipitate</p><p>A</p><p>B</p><p>C</p><p>Fig. 2. TEM images and selected area electron diffraction ring patterns of silver nano-disks.</p><p>3O. Bashir, Z. Khan / Journal of Molecular Liquids xxx (2014) xxxxxxincreasing [CTAB] (Table 1). The formation of perfect transparent yellow-orange color was observed in [CTAB] N 2.5 104 mol dm3. As the[CTAB] increases, absorbance increases and a well defined peak devel-oped at 475 nm (Fig. 1; ). Such type of CTAB behavior on the growth-kinetics, shape of the spectra, stability and color of silver nanoparticlesmight be due to the solubilization and incorporation of the amylose(water soluble constituent of PSE) in the Stern- and Palisade-layers ofcationic micelles of CTAB through electrostatic and/or hydrophobicinteractions .</p><p>Figs. 2 and 3 shows TEM images for Ag-nanoparticles prepared inabsence and presence of CTAB. It is to be noted that two features areapparent from these Figs. First, quantum dots along with truncated tri-angular polyhedral nano-disks, and spherical polydispersed particleswere observed (Fig. 2A for quantum dots with nano-disks and B forspherical nanoparticles).</p><p>The nano-disks could be formed by the dissolution of the corneratoms of truncated triangular nanoplates. Fig. 2 shows the TEM imagesof silver nano-disks having length 151nmandwidth 146 nm.On carefulobservation of TEM images, a thin shell (layer = 3 to 4 nm) of amylose(main constituents of potato extract) is seen around the silver nano-disks. The capping is prominent on each particle and the same ma...</p></li></ul>
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