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IEEE NGMAST 2008 Fixed Mobile Convergence: A Self-Aware QoS Architecture for Converging WiMAX and GEPON Access Networks Obele Brownson and Kang Minho. September 17, 2008 OBELE Brownson O . Agenda. Abstract. 1. 2. Introduction. 3. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • IEEE NGMAST 2008 Fixed Mobile Convergence: A Self-Aware QoS Architecture for Converging WiMAX and GEPON Access NetworksObele Brownson and Kang MinhoSeptember 17, 2008OBELE Brownson

    Information and Communications University

  • *AgendaAbstract1Introduction 2The Converged WiMAX-GEPON Architecture3 Simulation Results4Conclusion5References6

  • 1.1 AbstractThe access network has remained the bottleneck in efforts to deliver bandwidth intensive new-generation applications and services to subscribers

    In the wired access network, GEPON is a promising technology for relieving this bottleneck while GEPONs counterpart in wireless access networks, is WiMAX

    A converged quadruple-service (video, voice, data and mobility) enabled access network, which takes full advantage of the strengths and weaknesses of each of these remarkable technologies, no doubt makes an attractive new-generation access network solution*

  • *Needs Access networks that are robust, have high bandwidth, low cost, deep coverage, support mobility, quick to roll-out, rich QoS support Video, voice, data and mobility in the access networkApproach Integration of the pros of GEPON Low cost, low error-rate, reliability and high bandwidth with the pros of WiMAX deep coverage, mobility, rich QoS support, NLOS etc. GEPON as backhaul for connecting multiple dispersed WiMAX BSsBenefits Almost seamless integration as both GEPON and WiMAX have a broadcast-and-select style downlink and a shared uplink A cost effective and true First Mile solution with quadruple services An attractive FMC solution for new-generation access networks1.2 NABC SummaryCompetition FMC Solutions Integration of WiMAX & other PON types Integration of Wifi or other wireless techs & PON types Non FMC Solutions EPON and WiMAX deployed separately

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  • 2.1 IntroductionGEPON (IEEE 802.3ah)A promising optical-fiber based new-generation wired access network technology, which provides low-cost high bandwidth access over longer distances to the curb, FTTC; to the building, FTTB; or directly to the home, FTTHNo active elements in the signals path from source to destinationBroadcast-and-select style downstream and a shared upstreamConnectionless and provides DiffServe QoSDefines seven (7) QoS classes OLT aggregates BW requests from ONUs and schedules the shared upstream

    WiMAX (IEEE 802.16e)A promising low cost new-generation wireless access network technology with high bandwidth, mobility, NLOS, and finely provisioned QoSConnection / flow oriented technology with IntServe QoS ProvisioningDefines five (5) QoS classes: UGS, rtPS, ertPS, nrtPS, and BEBS aggregates BW requests from SSs and schedules the shared upstream


  • They both have a broadcast-and-select style downlink and a shared uplink

    They are both low-cost, high bandwidth, and far-reach new-generation access network technologies, but they operate over different interfaces (wired and wireless interfaces respectively)

    Their convergence makes a very attractive solution for low-cost, far-reach, fine-grained QoS, and QPS(video, voice, data and mobility) enabled new-generation converged wired-wireless access networks*2.2 Why Converge WiMAX and GEPON?

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  • 3.1 Proposed Convergence Architecture*Traditional GEPON / WIMAX subscribers are supported via wired / wireless connections to the ONU-BSThe OLT is retained at its CO locationGEPON ONUs and WiMAX BSs are replaced with a single CPE > ONU-BSeSSs and wSSs connected to the same ONU-BS form a LAN -> the ONU-BS switches inbound traffic between themCan be implemented over already deployed PONs; ONUs would simply be replaced by the converged ONU-BSsEliminates the network-wide single point of failure found in OLT-BS convergence modelsReduced queuing delay and probability of packet drop at the user-nodes compared with OLT-BS modelsDecentralized architecture reduces latency and enables quicker scheduling

  • 3.2 The Converged WiMAX-GEPON ArchitectureWe present a network, which studies the traffic behavior of its attached subscriber stations over time and adjusts its procedures and algorithms to suite this observed behavior

    Specifically, the network observes and learns the traffic arrival rate / behavior at the eSSs, wSSs, and ONU-BSs; and then attempts to fairly estimate instantaneous queue sizes, so as to be able to predict overall network load at any point in time

    This knowledge can be applied to improve QoS and overall network performance by dynamically adapting to the true nature of network traffic

    The converged network supports integrated multimedia (video, audio, and data) services, which is a key to revenue generation, customer satisfaction, and ultimately, the key for the survival of service providers

    In the converged network, communication between the ONU-BS and wSSs is via WiMAX PDUs; while for ONU-BS eSS OLT, its via Ethernet PDUs*

  • 3.3 QoS Mapping and ONU-BS QueuesProposed Mapping of GEPON and WiMAX QoS Queues

    * Proposed set of Queues for both the OLT, and the Converged ONU-BS

  • 3.4 Converged ONU-BS Architecture*

  • 3.5.1 Proposed Amendments to GEPONUnlike in normal GEPON, REPORTs dont have to come at the end of a GRANT window

    All ONU-BSs in the network, work co-operatively to ensure an improved overall network performance

    When there are newly arriving high priority traffic or an increased arrival rate of packets during an ONU-BSs GRANT window, the ONU-BS should send a timely request to the OLT for a possible extension of its GRANT window or an earlier rescheduling

    This is based on the assumption that the OLT has sufficient information regarding the network (obtained through the network learning process) to suggest that other nodes will not fully utilize their minimum guaranteed grant


  • The OLT grants this extension request, if and only if the probability of other ONU-BSs starving is within an agreed acceptable range for the network

    REPORTs contain time within which the queued packets arrived; enabling the OLT better predict the arrival of more packets before the REPORT is served

    A network-wide fair, minimum grant time per ONU-BS, which is based on the UGS queues is computed at the OLT

    ONU-BSs are sequentially polled to transmit for at least this minimum time slot with the actual GRANT time depending on observed total network load

    ONU-BSs with nothing to send, working co-operatively, will promptly inform the OLT during their minimum time slot, so their allocated slot can be terminated and the next ONU-BS polled*3.5.2 Proposed Amendments to GEPON

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  • 4.1 Simulation Results*Fig. 4. Average End-to-End Delay in Seconds

    Fig. 5. Throughput of the OSC to OLT uplink

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  • 5.1 Conclusion*Weve reviewed WiMAX and GEPON access networks; and discussed the enormous benefits and good market sense we believe their convergence brings;

    Weve proposed a self-aware QoS architecture for such a convergence, which requires some modifications to the traditional GEPON to make it self-aware and thus helps to improve both the performance of the converged network and GEPON;

    We showed the results of simulation experiments conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of our proposed converged network; and

    As future work, we are deriving closed form mathematical expressions of the queuing time and end-to-end delay per QoS class under both Poisson and Self-Similar traffic conditions, because it helps the understanding of the network and facilitates the provisioning of tightly bound QoS parameters to end-users

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  • ReferencesShen, G., Tucker, R. S., Chae, C. J., Fixed Mobile Convergence Architectures for Broadband Access: Integration of EPON and WiMAX, IEEE Communications Magazine, August 2007Luo, Y., Yin, S., Wang, T., Suemura, Y., Nakamura, S., Ansari, N., Cvijetic, M., Qos-Aware Scheduling over Hybrid Optical Wireless Networks, OFC/NFOEC 2007, March 25-29, 2007Luo, Y., Wang, T., Weinstein, S., Cvijetic, M., Nakamura, S., Integrating Optical and Wireless Services in the Access Network, OFC/NFOEC, 2006Luo, Y., Ansari, N., Wang, T., Cvijetic, M., Nakamura, S., A QoS Architecture of Integrating GEPON and WiMAX in the Access Network, IEEE Sarnoff Symposium 2006, Princeton, New Jersey, March 2006Luo, Y., Yin, S., Ansari, N., Wang, T., Resource Management for Broadband Access Over Time-Division Multiplexed Passive Optical Networks, IEEE Network, September/October 2007Kramer, G., Mukhejee, B., Pesavento, G., IPACT: A Dynamic Protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON), IEEE Communications Magazine, February 2002*

  • ReferencesKramer, G., Mukhejee, B., Supporting differentiated classes of service in Ethernet passive optical networks, Journal of Optical Networking, vol. 1, Nos. 8&9, August/September 2002Rajen Datta, WiMAX 802.16e timing requirements & TimeMAX,, July 2007WiMAX Forum, Mobile WiMAX Part I: A Technical Overview and Performance Evaluation, August 2006WiMAX Forum, Mobile WiMAX Part II: A Comparative Analysis, May 2006Xhafa, A. E., Kangude, S., Lu, X., MAC Performance of IEEE 802.16e, IEEE 62nd Vehicular Technology Conference, Vol. 1, pp. 685-689, September 2005Bhandari, B. N., Kumar, R. V. R., Maskara, S. L., Uplink Performance of IEEE802.16 Medium Access Control (MAC) Layer Protocol, IEEE International Conference on Personal Wireless Communications, 2005*

  • *AcronymsUGSUnsolicited Grant Serv


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