seminar report(bubble sensing)
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A SEMINAR REPORT ON
Bubble-Sensing: A New Paradigm for Binding a SensingTask to the Physical World Using Mobile Phones
SUBMITTED BYMayur M Shah TE43067
Department of Computer Engineering MAHARASHTRA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY PUNE-411038 2011-2012
MAHARASHTRA ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING & EDUCATIONAL RESEARCHS
MAHARASHTRA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY PUNE.DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER ENGINEERING
CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that Mayur M Shah, Roll No. - TE43067 of T. E. Computer successfully completed seminar in
BUBBLE-SENSING to my satisfaction and submitted the same during the academic year 2011-2012 towards the partial fulfillment of degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Computer Engineering of Pune University under the Department of Computer Engineering , Maharashtra Institute of Technology, Pune.
Prof. Mrs.L.B.Bhagwat (Seminar guide)
Prof. Mrs. S.S. Paygude (Head of Computer Engineering Department)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI the undersigned is extremely obliged to present a seminar on the topic called Bubble Sensing. This seminar wouldnt have been possible without the assistance of our Computer Head of Department Prof.Mrs.S.S.Paygude, respective project guide Prof.Mrs.L.B.Bhagwat, Laboratory Administrative and all other staff who helped this seminar topic to become more informative and presentable. I repeatedly express a true sense of gratitude to the seminar guide for giving this seminar topic ,her most precious time filled with co-operation and thorough guidance which helped me understand my seminar topic and enhance my presentation skills required to present my knowledge before the world.I would also like to thank our Head Of Department for her appreciation and patience. All the staff members have truly inspired and encouraged me throughout, by providing various facilities, which enhanced my seminar and a sense of gratitude and appreciation towards all those who helped me knowingly and unknowingly and pushed me to excel the presentation for the seminar to its fullest. Last but not the least I would thank and express my gratefulness to all my friends who made this seminar look appreciable.
Shah Mayur Mohan(TE43067)
ABSTRACTThis paper presents Bubble-Sensing, a new sensor network abstraction that allows mobile phones users to create a binding between tasks (e.g., take a photo, or sample audio every hour indefinitely) and the physical world at locations of interest, that remains active for a duration set by the user. Also to envision mobile phones being able to affix task bubbles at places of interest and then receive sensed data as it becomes available in a delay-tolerant fashion, in essence, creating a living documentary of places of interest in the physical world. The system relies on other mobile phones that opportunistically pass through bubble-sensing locations to acquire tasks and do the sensing on behalf of the initiator, and deliver the data to the bubble sensing server for retrieval by the user that initiated the task. Also described is an implementation of the bubblesensing system using sensor-enabled mobile phones. Task bubbles are maintained at locations through the interaction of bubble carriers, which carry the sensing task into the area of interest, and bubble anchors, which maintain the task bubble in the area when the bubble carrier is no longer present. In the implementation, bubble carriers and bubble anchors implement a number of simple mobile-phone based protocols that refresh the task bubble state as new mobile phones move through the area. Phones communicate using the local ad hoc 802.11g radio to transfer task state and maintain the task in the region of interest. This task bubble state is ephemeral and times out when no bubble carriers or bubble anchors are in the area. The design is resilient to periods when no mobiles pass through the bubble-area and is capable of reloading the task into the bubble region. Described in this paper is the bubble-sensing system and a simple proof of concept experiment.
INDEXChapter 1: Sensors...................................................................................11.1 1.2 Introduction Sensors in Smartphones 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 1.2.5 1.2.6 Microphone Accelerometer Ambient Light Sensor Proximity Sensor Gyroscope GPS
Chapter 2: Sensor Networks.....................................................................42.1 Intoduction to Sensor Networks 2.2 Applications
Chapter 3: Bubble-Sensing63.1 Introduction 3.2 Bubble Creation 3.3 Bubble Maintenance 3.3.1 3.3.2 Location Based Mobility Based
3.4 Challenges to Bubble Maintenance 3.5 Bubble Restoration
Chapter 4: Implementation........................................................................114.1 Programming Language 4.2 Communication 4.3 Sensors and Classifiers 4.4 Localization 4.5 System Integration
Chapter 5: Test-Bed Evaluation.145.1 Experiment Setup 5.2 Results
Chapter 6: Simulation..................................................................................186.1 Experiment Setup 6.2 Results
Chapter 7: Related Work.227.1 Code In The Air 7.2 Online Sensing Task Optimization for Shared Sensors 7.3 NotiSense: An Urban Sensing Notification System to improve Bystander Privacy
Chapter 1 Sensors
1.1 IntroductionA sensor (also called detector) is a converter that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an (today mostly electronic) instrument. Sensors are used in everyday objects such as touch-sensitive elevator buttons (tactile sensor) and lamps which dim or brighten by touching the base. There are also innumerable applications for sensors of which most people are never aware. Applications include cars, machines, aerospace, medicine, manufacturing and robotics. The tremendous growth of sensor technology in Smartphone increases day by day and will experience fabulously over the next few years. Success of smart phones is leading to an increasing amount of MEMS & sensors in mobile phones to provide new features/ services to end-users, to reduce cost through more integration or to improve hardware performance.
1.2 Sensors In Smartphones 1.2.1 MicrophoneMany mobile devices, specially mobile phones, come equipped with a microphone. Microphones are high-fidelity sensors that can pick up sounds relating to a range of physical phenomena. Using simple feature extraction methods, parameters can be found that sensibly map to synthesis algorithms to allow expressive and interactive performance. For example blowing noise can be used as a wind instrument excitation source. Also other types of interactions can be detected via microphones, such as striking. Hence the microphone, in addition to allowing literal recording, serves as an additional source of input to the developing field of mobile phone performance.
1.2.2 AccelerometerThe accelerometer allows the device of Smartphone to detect the orientation of the device and adapts the content to suit the new orientation. For example, when you rotate your device sideways, the Web browser 1
Bubble Sensingautomatically switches the screen to landscape mode so that you now have a wider viewing space. Similarly, the camera relies on the accelerometer to tell it whether you are taking a picture in portrait or landscape mode. The accelerometer in smart devices measures the acceleration of the device relative to freefall. A value of 1 indicates that the device is experiencing 1 g of force exerting on it (1 g of force being the gravitational pull of the earth, which your device experiences when it is stationary). The accelerometer measures the acceleration of the device in three different axes: X, Y, and Z.
1.2.3 Ambient Light SensorAn ambient light sensor to portable devices such as tablets, smart phones, and laptops extends battery life and enables easy-to-view displays that are optimized to the environment. basically an ambient light sensor adjusts the display brightness which in turn saves battery power in Smartphone; it saves power by adjusting the brightness of the display based on how much ambient light is present.
1.2.4 Proximity SensorA proximity sensor is very much useful in Smartphone. It detects how close the screen of the phone is to your body. This allows the phone to sense when you have brought the phone up to your ear. At that point, the display turns off in order to save battery. It also stops detecting touches, as to avoid unwanted input, until you take the phone away from your ear. Proximity Sensor can turn off the screen to avoid accidental touch of the screen by ear. Besides it is useful for detecting towers and sources of interference. So in a word, The proximity sensor in Smartphone senses how close the phone is to the users cheek/face, so that it can pause whatever activity it is in the middle of (playing music or browsing the web, for example) so the user can take a phone call. When the phone is removed from the ear after the call, the phone resumes its previous activity.
Bubble Sensing1.2.5 GyroscopeA gyroscope is a device for measuring or maintaining orientation, based on the principles of angular momentum. Gyroscopic sensors used in navigation systems and gesture recognition systems in Smartphones and tablet PCs. Gyroscopes are used in Smartphones and tablet PCs for finding the position and orientation of devices. . Combining a gyroscope with an accelerometer allows the device to sense motion on six axes left, right, up, down, forward and backward, as well as roll, pitch and yaw rotations allowing for more accurate motion sensing abilities comparable to a g