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Page 1: Segment Routing -  · PDF fileSeamless interworking with LDP ... segment-routing mpls segment-routing forwarding mpls area 0 interface Loopback0 passive prefix-sid absolute 16041!

Segment RoutingBerényi Áron

Page 2: Segment Routing -  · PDF fileSeamless interworking with LDP ... segment-routing mpls segment-routing forwarding mpls area 0 interface Loopback0 passive prefix-sid absolute 16041!

2© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Deployment• In CY2015, SR will be deployed in all of these markets

WEB

SP Core/Edge

SP Agg/MetroLarge Entreprise

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3© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

• Technology Overview

• Use Cases

• Control and Data Plane

• Traffic Protection

Agenda

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Technology Overview

Page 5: Segment Routing -  · PDF fileSeamless interworking with LDP ... segment-routing mpls segment-routing forwarding mpls area 0 interface Loopback0 passive prefix-sid absolute 16041!

5© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Segment Routing• Source Routing

– the source chooses a path and encodes it in the packet header as an ordered list of segments

– the rest of the network executes the encoded instructions without any further per-flow state

• Segment: an identifier for any type of instruction– forwarding or service

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6© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

IGP Prefix Segment

• Shortest-path to the IGP prefix

• Global

• 16000 + Index

• Signaled by ISIS/OSPF

DC (BGP-SR)

10

11

12

13

14

2 4

6 5

7

WAN (IGP-SR)

3

1

PEER

16005

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7© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

IGP Adjacency Segment

• Forward on the IGP adjacency

• Local

• 1XY– X is the “from”– Y is the “to”

• Signaled by ISIS/OSPF

DC (BGP-SR)

10

11

12

13

14

2 4

6 5

7

WAN (IGP-SR)

3

1

PEER

124

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8© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

BGP Prefix Segment

• Shortest-path to the BGP prefix

• Global

• 16000 + Index

• Signaled by BGP

DC (BGP-SR)

10

11

12

13

14

2 4

6 5

7

WAN (IGP-SR)

3

1

PEER

16001

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9© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

BGP Peering Segment

• Forward to the BGP peer

• Local

• 1XY– X is the “from”– Y is the “to”

• Signaled by BGP-LS (topology information) to the controller

DC (BGP-SR)

10

11

12

13

14

2

6

7

WAN (IGP-SR)

3

1

PEER

Low Lat, Low BW4

5High Lat, High BW

147

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10© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

WAN Automation Engine

• WAE collects via BGP-LS– IGP segments– BGP segments– Topology

DC (BGP-SR)

10

11

12

13

14

2 4

6 5

7

WAN (IGP-SR)

3

1

PEER

Low Lat, Low BW

BGP-LS

BGP-LS

BGP-LS

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11© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

An end-to-end path as a list of segments

• WAE computes that the green path can be encoded as– 16001– 16002– 124– 147

• WAE programs a single per-flow state to create an application-engineered end-to-end policy DC (BGP-SR)

10

11

12

13

14

2 4

6 5

7

WAN (IGP-SR)

3

1

PEER

Low Lat, Low BW

50

Default ISIS cost metric: 10

{16001,16002,124,147}

Low-Latency to 7for application …

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12© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Segment Routing Standardization• IETF standardization in SPRING working

group

• Protocol extensions progressing in multiple groups• IS-IS• OSPF• PCE• IDR• 6MAN

• Broad vendor and customer support

12

Sample IETF DocumentsSegment Routing Architecture

(draft-ietf-spring-segment-routing)

Problem Statement and Requirements(draft-ietf-spring-problem-statement)

IPv6 SPRING Use Cases (draft-ietf-spring-ipv6-use-cases)

Segment Routing Use Cases (draft-filsfils-spring-segment-routing-use-cases)

Topology Independent Fast Reroute using Segment Routing(draft-francois-spring-segment-routing-ti-lfa)

IS-IS Extensions for Segment Routing(draft-ietf-isis-segment-routing-extensions)

OSPF Extensions for Segment Routing(draft-ietf-ospf-segment-routing-extensions)

PCEP Extensions for Segment Routing(draft-ietf-pce-segment-routing)

Close to 30 IETF drafts in progress

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13© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

• Platforms: ASR9000, CRS-1/CRS-3, ASR1000, ASR9XX, ISR4XXX

• IS-IS IPv4/IPv6• Node/Adjacency SID adertisement• LDP interworking (mapping server/client)• Traffci protection (Topology Independent LFA link protection)

• OSPFv2• Node SID advertisement• Traffic Protection (LFA)

• SR Traffic Engineering manual/PCEP

• OAM ping/trace

Segment Routing Product Support

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14© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Application Engineered Routing JourneyAdding value at your own pace

Enable Segment Routing on the network (Software only)

Insert Orchestration, SDN controller

Connect with Cisco’s and third party VNFs

Network Simplification

Network Resiliency

End-User Experience

Network Optimization

Service Velocity

E2E Application Control

Benefits

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Use-Cases

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16© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

IPv4/6 VPN/Service transport• IGP only

– No LDP, no RSVP-TE

• ECMP1

2 3

4

6 5

7

Site1 Site2

pkt

16007vpn

pkt

16007vpn

pkt

pktvpn

pkt

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17© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Seamless interworking with LDP• Seamless deployment

1

2 3

4

6 5

7

Site1 Site2

pkt

pktvpn

pkt

pkt

16007vpn

pkt

16007vpn

pktvpn

LDP(7)

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18© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Topology-Independent LFA (TI-LFA)• 50msec FRR in any topology

• IGP Automated– No LDP, no RSVP-TE

• Optimum– Post-convergence path

• No midpoint backup state

• Detailed operator report– S. Litkowski, B. Decraene, Orange

• Mate Design – How many backup segments– Capacity analysis

1

2 3

4

6 5

7

pkt1600716005

pkt16007

pkt16007

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19© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Optimized Content Delivery• On a per-content, per-user basis, the content delivery application can engineer – the path within the AS– the selected border router– the selected peer

• Also applicable for engineering egress traffic from DC to peer– BGP Prefix and Peering Segments

1 2

6

4 3AS1

5

7

AS6AS5

AS7

pkt

1600316002

126

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20© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Application Engineered Routing

• Per-application flow engineering

• End-to-End– DC, WAN, AGG, PEER

• Millions of flows– No signaling– No midpoint state– No reclassification at

boundaries

DC (or AGG)

10

11

12

13

14

Push{16001,200, 147}

Low-Latency to 7for application A12

2 4

6 5

7

Default ISIS cost metric: 10Default Latency metric: 10

ISIS: 35

WAN

3

1

BSID: 200

200: pop and push {16002,16004}

PEER

Low Lat, Low BW

Low-Lat to 4

PeerSID: 147, Low Lat, Low BW

PeerSID: 147, High Lat, High BW

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21© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Application Engineered Routing

• Per-application flow engineering

• End-to-End– DC, WAN, AGG, PEER

• Millions of flows– No signaling– No midpoint state– No reclassification at

boundaries

DC (or AGG)

10

11

12

13

14

Push{16010,16001,200, 147}

Low-Latency to 7,DC Plane 0 only,for application A12

2 4

6 5

7

Default ISIS cost metric: 10Default Latency metric: 10

ISIS: 35

WAN

3

1

BSID: 200

200: pop and push {16002,16004}

PEER

Low Lat, Low BW

Low-Lat to 4

PeerSID: 147, Low Lat, Low BW

PeerSID: 147, High Lat, High BW

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Control Plane and Data Plane

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23© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

MPLS Control and Forwarding Operation with Segment Routing

23

PE1 PE2

IGPPE1 PE2

Services

IPv4 IPv6 IPv4 VPN

IPv6 VPN VPWS VPLS

Packet Transport LDP

MPLS Forwarding

RSVP BGP Static IS-IS OSPF

No changes to control or forwarding plane

IGP label distribution for IPv4 and IPv6, same forwarding plane

BGP / LDP

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24© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

SID Encoding• Prefix SID

• SID encoded as an index• Index represents an offset from SRGB base

• Index globally unique• SRGB may vary across LSRs• SRGB (base and range) advertised with router capabilities

• Adjacency SID• SID encoded as absolute (i.e. not indexed) value• Locally significant• Automatically allocated for each adjacency

SRGB = [ 16000 - 23999 ]. Advertised as base = 16,000, range = 7,999Prefix SID = 16041. Advertised as Prefix SID Index = 41Adjacency SID = 24000. Advertised as Adjacency SID = 24000

SR-enabled Node

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25© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

SR IS-IS Control Plane Overview• Level 1, level 2 and multi-level routing

• Prefix Segment ID (Prefix-SID) for host prefixes on loopback interfaces

• Adjacency SIDs for adjacencies

• Prefix-to-SID mapping advertisements (mapping server)

• MPLS penultimate hop popping (PHP) signaling

• MPLS explicit-null label signaling

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26© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

IS-IS Configuration• Required

• Wide metrics• SR enabled under address family IPv4 unicast

• Optional• Prefix-SID configured under loopback(s) AF IPv4

• MPLS forwarding enabled automatically on all (non-passive) IS-IS interfaces

• Adjacency-SIDs are automatically allocated for each adjacency

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27© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

router isis DEFAULTnet 49.0001.1720.1625.5001.00address-family ipv4 unicastmetric-style widesegment-routing mpls

!interface Loopback0passiveaddress-family ipv4 unicastprefix-sid absolute 16041

!!interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0/0point-to-pointaddress-family ipv4 unicast!

!!

Configuring Segment Routing for IPv4 Using IS-IS (Cisco IOS XR)

Enable Segment Routing for IPv4 with MPLS data plane

Advertise prefix SID 16041 (index 41) for Loopback0

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28© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

router isis DEFAULTnet 49.0001.1720.1625.5001.00address-family ipv6 unicastmetric-style widesegment-routing mpls

!interface Loopback0passiveaddress-family ipv6 unicastprefix-sid absolute 16061

! !interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0/0point-to-pointaddress-family ipv6 unicast!

!!

Configuring Segment Routing for IPv6 Using IS-IS (Cisco IOS XR)

Enable Segment Routing for IPv4 with MPLS data plane

Advertise prefix SID 16041 (index 41) for Loopback0

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29© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

SR OSPF Control Plane Overview• IPv4 Prefix Segment ID (Prefix-SID) for host prefixes on loopback interfaces

• MPLS penultimate hop popping (PHP) signaling

• MPLS explicit-null label signaling

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30© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

OSPF Configuration• OSPFv2 control plane

• Required• Enable segment-routing under instance or area(s)

• Command has area scope, usual inheritance applies

• Enable segment-routing forwarding under instance, area(s) or interface(s)• Command has interface scope, usual inheritance applies

• Optional• Prefix-SID configured under loopback(s)

• MPLS forwarding enabled on all OSPF interfaces withsegment-routing forwarding configured

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31© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

router ospf DEFAULTrouter-id 172.16.255.1segment-routing mplssegment-routing forwarding mplsarea 0interface Loopback0passive prefix-sid absolute 16041

!interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0/0network point-to-point

!!

!

Configuring Segment Routing for IPv4 Using OSPF (Cisco IOS XR)

31

Enable Segment Routing with MPLS data plane

Advertise prefix SID 16041 (index 41) for Loopback0

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32© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

MPLS Data Plane Operation

• Packet forwarded along IGP shortest path• Packet may be leverage ECMP load balancing• Swap operation performed on input label• Input label (X) and output label (Y) will have same value when

downstream neighbor has same SRGB• Penultimate hop may perform a pop operation (PHP) if signaled by

egress LSR

Payload

SRGB [16,000 – 23,999 ]

X

Payload

Swap

Y

Payload

SRGB [16,000 – 23,999 ]

Y

Payload

Pop

Y

Adjacency SID = X

X

• Packet forwarded along IGP adjacency• Pop operation performed on input label• Input topmost label (X) and output label (Y) may or may not

have same value• Penultimate hop always pops last adjacency SID

Prefix SID Adjacency SID

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33© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Payload

VPN Label

MPLS Data Plane Operation (Prefix SID)

SRGB [16,000 – 23,999 ] SRGB [25,000 – 27,999 ] SRGB [16,000 – 23,999 ] SRGB [16,000 – 23,999 ]

Loopback X.X.X.XPrefix SID Index = 41

A B C D

Payload

16041

Payload

PushPush

Swap Pop

Payload Payload

VPN Label

25041VPN Label

Pop

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34© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Payload

VPN Label

MPLS Data Plane Operation (Adjacency SIDs)

MPLS Label Range[ 16000 – 265535 ]

MPLS Label Range[ 32000 – 165535 ]

MPLS Label Range[ 32000 – 265535 ]

MPLS Label Range[ 16000 – 265535 ]

Payload

24000

Payload

PushPushPush

Pop Pop

Payload Payload

VPN Label

24000VPN Label

Pop

Adjacency SID = 24000Adjacency SID = 24000Adjacency SID = 24010

24000

A B C D

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35© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

MPLS LFIB with Segment Routing• LFIB populated by IGP (ISIS / OSPF)

• Forwarding table remains constant (Nodes + Adjacencies) regardless of number of paths

• Other protocols (LDP, RSVP, BGP) can still program LFIB

35

PE

PE

PE

PE

PE

PE

PE

PE

P

In Label

Out Label

Out Interface

L1 L1 Intf1L2 L2 Intf1… … …L8 L8 Intf4L9 L9 Intf2

L10 Pop Intf2… … …Ln Pop Intf5

Network Node Segment Ids

Node Adjacency Segment Ids

Forwarding table remains constant

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Traffic Protection

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37© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Topology Independent LFA (TI-LFA) –Benefits• 100%-coverage 50-msec link and node protection

• Simple to operate and understand• automatically computed by the IGP

• Prevents transient congestion and suboptimal routing• leverages the post-convergence path, planned to carry the traffic

• Incremental deployment• also protects LDP traffic

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38© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Topology Independent LFA –Implementation• Leverages existing and proven LFA technology

• P space: set of nodes reachable from node S (PLR) without using protected link L• Q space: set of nodes that can reach destination D without using protected link L

• Enforcing loop-freeness on post-convergence path• Where can I release the packet?

At the intersection between the post-convergence shortest path and the Q space• How do I reach the release point?

By chaining intermediate segments that are assessed to be loop-free

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39© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

1000

TI-LFA – Zero-Segment Example• TI-LFA for link R1R2 on R1

• Calculate LFA(s)

• Calculate post-convergence SPT

• Find LFA on post-convergence SPT

• R1 will steer the traffic towards LFA R5

Packet to Z

Default metric:10

R5

R2R1

A Z

R3

Packet to Z

R4

R5

Packet to Zprefix-SID(Z)

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40© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

TI-LFA – Single-Segment Example• TI-LFA for link R1R2 on R1

• Calculate P and Q spaces• They overlap in this case

• Calculate post-convergence SPT

• Find PQ node on post-convergence SPT

• R1 will push the prefix-SID of R4 on the backup path

Q-space

P-space

Packet to Z

prefix-SID(Z)

Packet to Z

Packet to Z

prefix-SID(Z)

prefix-SID(R4)

Default metric:10

R5

R2R1

A Z

R3

Packet to Z

R4

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41© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

TI-LFA – Double-Segment Example• TI-LFA for link R1R2 on R1

• Calculate P and Q spaces

• Calculate post-convergence SPT

• Find Q and adjacent P node on post-convergence SPT

• R1 will push the prefix-SID of R4 and the adj-SID of R4-R3 link on the backup path

P-space Q-space

1000

Packet to Z

prefix-SID(Z)

Packet to Z

Packet to Z

prefix-SID(Z)

adj-SID(R4-R3)

prefix-SID(R4)

Packet to Z

prefix-SID(Z)

adj-SID(R4-R3)Default metric:10

R5

R2R1

A Z

R3R4 R3R4

Packet to Z

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42© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

router isis DEFAULTnet 49.0001.1720.1625.5001.00address-family ipv4 unicastmetric-style widesegment-routing mpls

!interface Loopback0passiveaddress-family ipv4 unicastprefix-sid absolute 16041

!!interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0/0address-family ipv4 unicastfast-reroute per-prefixfast-reroute per-prefix ti-lfa

! !

!

Configuring Topology Independent Fast Reroute for IPv4 using Segment Routing and IS-IS (Cisco IOS XR)

42

Enable TI-LFA for IPv4 prefixes on interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0/0

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43© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

router isis DEFAULTnet 49.0001.1720.1625.5001.00address-family ipv6 unicastmetric-style widesegment-routing mpls

!interface Loopback0passiveaddress-family ipv6 unicastprefix-sid absolute 16061

! !interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0/0address-family ipv6 unicastfast-reroute per-prefixfast-reroute per-prefix ti-lfa

! !

!

Configuring Topology Independent Fast Reroute for IPv6 using Segment Routing and IS-IS (Cisco IOS XR)

43

Enable TI-LFA for IPv6 prefixes on interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0/0

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44© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

• Simple routing extension to enable source routing

• Packet path is determined by prepended segment identifiers (one ore more)

• Dataplane agnostic (MPLS, IPv6)

• Nework Scalability and agility by reducing network state and simplifying control plane

• Traffic protection with 100% coverage with more optimal routing

Conclusion

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Thank you

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SR and LDP Interworking

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48© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

LDP to SR• When a node is LDP capable but its next-

hop along the SPT to the destination is not LDP capable• no LDP outgoing label

• In this case, the LDP LSP is connected to the prefix segment

• C installs the following LDP-to-SR FIB entry:• incoming label: label bound by LDP for FEC Z • outgoing label: prefix segment bound to Z• outgoing interface: D

• This entry is derived automatically at the routing layer

A

CB D

Z

16066

LDP SR

Input Label (LDP)

Out Label (SID), Interface

32 16066, 1

Prefix Out Label (LDP), Interface

Z 16, 0

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SR to LDP• When a node is SR capable but its next-hop

along the SPT to the destination is not SR capable• no SR outgoing label available

• In this case, the prefix segment is connected to the LDP LSP• Any node on the SR/LDP border installs SR-to-

LDP FIB entry(ies)

A

CB D

Z

16066

SR LDP

Input Label (SID)

Out Label (LDP), Interface

? 16, 1

Prefix Out Label (SID), Interface

Z ?, 0

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Mapping Server• A wants to send traffic to Z, but

• Z is not SR-capable, Z does not advertise any prefix-SID

à which label does A have to use?

• The Mapping Server advertises the SID mappings for the non-SR routers• for example, it advertises that Z is 16068

• A and B install a normal SR prefix segment for 16066

• C realizes that its next hop along the SPT to Z is not SR capable hence C installs an SR-to-LDP FIB entry

• incoming label: prefix-SID bound to Z (16066)• outgoing label: LDP binding from D for FEC Z

• A sends a frame to Z with a single label: 16066

A

CB D

ZZ(16066)

Input Label (SID)

Out Label (LDP), Interface

? 16, 1

Prefix Out Label (SID), Interface

Z ?, 0

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Active Mapping Policy Preferences• Active SID Mapping policy

• A set of non-overlapping SID mapping entries derived from locally configured SID mappings and SID mappings received from other nodes

• Backup SID Mapping policy• SID mapping entries that overlap with at least one Active SID mapping entry

• When two or more SID mapping entries overlap, which one will be used?• Sort all overlapping entries according to preference rules*

• Locally configured entries are treated the same as remote entries

• Only the most preferred entry is inserted in the Active SID mapping policy• The other SID-entries are inserted in the Backup SID mapping policy

* Highest router-id > smallest prefix numerical value > smallest first SID value > largest range > latest received

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router isis DEFAULTnet 49.0001.1720.1625.5001.00address-family ipv4 unicastmetric-style widesegment-routing mplssegment-routing prefix-sid-map receivesegment-routing prefix-sid-map advertise-local

!

...

!segment-routingaddress-family ipv4prefix-sid-map172.16.255.1/32 4041 range 8

!!

!

Configuring a Mapping Server for SR and LDP Interworking for IPv4 Using IS-IS (Cisco IOS XR)

52

Local prefix-to-SID mapping policy172.16.255.1/32 – 4041

:172.16.255.8/32 - 4048

Construct active mapping policy using remotely learned and locally configured

mappings (mapping client)

Advertise local mapping policy (mapping server)

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53© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

router isis DEFAULTnet 49.0001.1720.1625.5001.00address-family ipv4 unicastmetric-style widesegment-routing mplssegment-routing prefix-sid-map receive

!interface Loopback0passiveaddress-family ipv4 unicastprefix-sid absolute 16041

!!interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0/0point-to-pointaddress-family ipv4 unicast!

!!

Configuring a Mapping Client for SR and LDP Interworking for IPv4 Using IS-IS (Cisco IOS XR)

53

Construct active mapping policy using remotely learned and locally configured

mappings (mapping client)