Reader’s Digest - Complete Do-it-yourself Manual - Home Repair and Home Improvement - appendix1

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<p>INFORMATION SOURCE 1</p> <p>Readers Digest</p> <p>Complete Do-it-yourself ManualHome Repair and Home Improvement</p> <p>Reprinted with Permission The Readers Digest Association, Inc.</p> <p>Appendix</p> <p>Information Source 1</p> <p>A1 1</p> <p>Pleasantville, New York</p> <p>Appendix</p> <p>Information Source 1</p> <p>A1 2</p> <p>section 1: Hand tools: How to choose and use them10 12 14 16 18 20 21 22 23 Your basic tool kit Workbenches Hammers and hammering Saws and sawing Special-purpose saws Sharpening and setting saws Screwdrivers Pliers Wrenches 26 28 30 32 34 Files 36 39 40 42 Hand drills and braces Planes Special-purpose planes Chisels and gouges and filing Vises and clamps Tools for soldering Sharpening Sanding and sandpaper</p> <p>section 2: Power tools for the home workshop44 48 52 53 54 56 57 58 Electric drills Circular power saws Saber saw Special power saws The router Electric planes Power sanders The grinder 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 Belt sander Bench saw Radial arm saw Jigsaw and shaper Band saw Jointer Wood lathe Drill press</p> <p>Contents</p> <p>section 3: Fasteners, hardware, and adhesives68 69 70 71 72 74 75 76 Nail types and uses Nail selection Nailing tips Concrete and masonry nails Screws Screwing applications Nuts and bolts Attaching to hollow surfaces 77 Attaching to solid surfaces 78 Hinges 80 Door hardware 81 Door and cabinet hardware 82 Screen and storm door hardware 84 Miscellaneous hardware 86 Adhesives</p> <p>section 4: Making your own interior repairs90 91 102 104 109 118 122 Interior maintenance Walls and ceilings Baseboards and moldings Stairs Floors Double-hung windows Weather-stripping windows 123 Wood sash windows 124 Casement windows 125 Horizontal sliding windows 126 Awning and jalousie windows 127 Frame installation 128 How to make aluminum storm windows</p> <p>-6-</p> <p>Appendix</p> <p>Information Source 1</p> <p>A1 3</p> <p>130 131 134 135 136 139</p> <p>Wood sash storm windows Screens Window shades Venetian blinds Drapery hardware Doors</p> <p>142 Weather-stripping doors 150 Door locks 154 Ceramic tile 156 Basements 159 Household pests</p> <p>233 234 237 238 240 241</p> <p>Flexible plastic tubing Roughing-in Toilet installation Sink installation Tubs and showers Hot-water heaters</p> <p>242 Cloths washers 243 Dishwashers 244 Sump pumps 245 Solving special problems 246 Home water treatment 248 Sewage disposal</p> <p>section 5: Major and minor exterior repairs164 165 166 167 168 169 172 173 174 178 179 180 Exterior maintenance Roof repairs Asphalt shingles Slate shingles Flat Roof Gutters and downspouts Installing new gutters Roof drainage devices Chimneys Flashing valley and dormers How to make a roof deck Repairing damaged clapboard 181 Repairing damaged siding shingles 182 Caulking 183 Repairing rotted window sills 184 Waterproofing basement walls 185 Repairing a gate 186 Repairing fence posts 188 Repairing a wood fence 189 Hinge-type garage doors 190 Overhead garage doors 192 Electric garage-door opener 194 Patching a blacktop driveway</p> <p>section 8: Electricity: Solving power problems safelyFuses and circuit breakers Understanding electricity Defining electrical needs Planning new circuits Improving electrical service Safer electrical service Electrical repair guide Cord and plug repairs Electrical boxes and accessories 261 Wires and wiring 262 Switches and outlets 263 Special switch and outlet hardware 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 264 Wiring new circuits 265 Installing electrical boxes 266 Floor and ceiling wiring 267 Ceiling fixtures 268 Wiring switches 270 Wiring code 271 Outdoor lighting 272 Outdoor wiring 273 Lamp repair 274 Fluorescent fixtures 276 Door chimes, bells, buzzers</p> <p>section 6: Furniture: How to repair and restore it196 197 198 199 Cleaning and care of fabrics Wood repair Laminated wood Structural and functional problems 203 Warped wood 204 Upholstering 205 206 207 208 Making cushions Cane seating Recaning a chair Kitchen and dining room chairs 209 Dining room furniture 210 Patio, lawn, and den chairs</p> <p>and</p> <p>section 9: Climate control: Heating and air conditioningHeating and air conditioning 296 Electric heat systems Warm-air systems 297 Electric boilers Hot-water systems 298 Electric furnaces Piping arrangements 299 Heat pump Radiant systems 300 Insulation Steam systems 304 Air conditioning Chimneys 305 Room air conditioners Heat distribution 306 Installing room units Maintenance, various systems 308 Central air conditioning Oil burners 310 Electronic air cleaners Gas burners 311 Power humidifiers Maintenance, Oil burners 312 Dehumidification and controls 313 Ventilation 293 Maintenance, Gas burners 314 Controls for heating 278 279 280 281 282 284 285 286 288 290 291 292</p> <p>section 7: Plumbing: How to keep it in working order212 213 214 215 216 218 219 222 224 Plumbing emergencies Home plumbing systems Water supply and disposal Basic plumbing facts Clogged fixture drains Clogged main drainpipe Faucets Toilets Plumbing noises 225 Frozen or burst pipes 226 Plumbing repairs and installations 227 Pipe fittings 228 Cast-iron pipe 229 Brass and steel pipe 230 Rigid copper pipe 231 Flexible copper tubing 232 Rigid plastic pipe</p> <p>and</p> <p>Appendix</p> <p>Information Source 1</p> <p>A1 </p> <p>4</p> <p>294 Stoker-fired burners 295 Fireplaces</p> <p>cooling systems</p> <p>-7-</p> <p>Your basic tool kitThe right tools for the jobJob to be doneCutting round hole</p> <p>Appropriate hand toolshand drill brace keyhole saw ruler keyhole saw star drill hammer Molly bolts drill drill awl cold chisel hammer saw chisel hammer nail set pliers nails hammer saw knife plaster mix pipe clamp wrench screwdriver dowels chisel hammer glaziers point screwdriver chisel hammer hammer putty knife screwdriver file compass hand drill dowel masonry bolts screwdriver hammer screwdriver mortar whiskbroom pry bar paint and brush</p> <p>Useful power toolsjig saw drill and holesaw fly cutter jig saw drill drill carbide-tipped drills drill drill</p> <p>switch (after turning off current)</p> <p>socket or switch</p> <p>Cutting square opening Fastening to masonry Fastening to hollow wall Fastening to wood Securing loose brick Repairing rotted clapboard</p> <p>circular or jig saw</p> <p>Repairing popped nails in dry wall Patching hole in plaster wall</p> <p>nail set plaster mix metal lath sandpaper primer screwdriver shims plane paint sandpaper glass chain knife string and weight wax tape</p> <p>Stopping pipe leak Loosening binding door Replacing broken windowpane Replacing sash cord (with chain) Loosening stuck window Replacing socket or</p> <p>Appendix</p> <p>Information Source 1</p> <p>A1 5</p> <p>Job to be doneReplacing defective lamp plug</p> <p>Appropriate hand toolsnew plug cutting pliers knife solder new wire screwdriver soldering gum flux tape cutting pliers knife</p> <p>Useful power toolsRemoving floorboards</p> <p>chisel hammer nail set saw hammer drill screw-type nails scraper sandpaper nail set chisel gauge hammer drill brace drill chisel dowel glue drill</p> <p>tile cement chisel pry bar countersink hammer hammer pry bar awl plane screwdriver hammer screwdriver awl awl screwdriver circular saw</p> <p>Replacing frayed lamp wire Correcting wobbly table or chair Tightening loose chair rung</p> <p>Curing a squeaky floor Sanding floor</p> <p>drill belt and disk sander vacuum cleaner drill router</p> <p>lengthen leg with wood shim, glue and brad or cut down with fine saw glue long clamp vacuum cleaner wrench pail tile rag water rag sandpaper</p> <p>Installing door</p> <p>Removing cigarette burn on rug wire brush Unclogging stopped drain Securing loose or missing ceramic wall tile or fixture Pasting down loose wallpaper Anchoring loose floor tile toilet plunger lye solution awl plaster mix wallpaper paste scissors putty knife</p> <p>Installing door lock</p> <p>drill router hole saw drill</p> <p>Fixing loose handle</p> <p>- 10 toilets have just one. The first thing to do in an emergency at a fixture is to close its shutoff valve. Most shutoffs are located just underneath the fixtures they control; some are in the basement, fixture can always be stopped by closing this shutoff valve. Close all shutoff valves by turning their handles clockwise. You should become</p> <p>Plumbing emergenciesGeneral recommendationsA correctly designed and installed home plumbing system is practically trouble-free. Should problems occur, there are standard methods for dealing with them. And there are good reasons as wella neglected leak inside a wall, on the floor, or in the ceiling can cause serious damage.</p> <p>What to do in an emergency</p> <p>Most plumbing systems provide numerous shutoff valves for controlling water flow in the supply system. Sinks and lavatories have individual shutoffs for hot and cold water;</p> <p>utility room, or crawl space below. Generally you can shut off the hotwater supply for the whole house at the hot-water heater. Whether or not a house has individual fixture controls for the water supply, you will always find a main shutoff near the water meter or at the wall where the main enters the house. Leaks or overflowing that cannot be stopped at a</p> <p>familiar with shutoffs in your house especially the main shutoffso you can get to them without delay in case of trouble. Houses served by water mains have additional shutoffs located underground near the sidewalk or lawn. Sometimes a special wrench is needed to operate the valve, which is reached through a lined hole in the ground.</p> <p>Pipe leaks: Joints that have corroded and pipes that have frozen (and burst) will leak. Tightening a threaded joint or soldering a soldered joint may cure it. Burst pipes can sometimes be mended with a clamp-on pipe patch. If not, they must be replaced. Emergency clamp can</p> <p>Appendix</p> <p>Information Source 1</p> <p>A1 6</p> <p>be made of piece of rubber and C-clamp.</p> <p>Leak in wall: Most often caused by faulty riser pipe to a shower or to fixtures on the next floor. Best to get professional help. Plumber will tell you whether he can make the repair installing new pipewith or without cutting hole in the covering wall. Some communities insist upon access panels to pipes located behind walls. Sluggish or stopped sink drain: First try a rubber force cup. If this doesnt work, try a chemical drainopener, following directions on container. If this doesnt work either, put a pail under the trap and remove the plug. Use a wire to remove the debris, usually hair and grease. Replace plug and run water scalding hot to clean the drain and keep it clean. - 212</p> <p>Overflowing toilet tank: A toilet tank overflowing into the bowl will be heard running long after flushing. Close the tank shutoff valve between tank and floor. See p. 222 for information on correcting this trouble. Take care when removing porcelain topit is easily damaged. Place on heavy towel or pile of newspaper. Overflowing dishwasher: The first thing to do: Turn off the valve controlling water supply to the dishwasher. Then check the screen around the drain. It may be clogged with grease or a rag. If water keeps flowing in before shutoff valve has been turned off, electrical controls may be at fault. Turn off current, or pull the plug if it is a portable model.</p> <p>-</p> <p>Scale-restricted supply pipes are a problem in old houses and hard-water areas. Turn water on full force, first making sure all valves are fully open. If the water comes out fast and then slows, there is a restriction in the pipe. The cure? Replace all affected pipes. Avoid galvanized pipes; they are prone to scaling. Use brass pipe or copper tubing instead.</p> <p>Appendix</p> <p>Information Source 1</p> <p>A1 </p> <p>7</p> <p>DishwashersRepairs and maintenanceThe most common complaint with dishwashers is that they are not washing properly. Before calling a serviceman to remedy this, study the machines operating instructions to be sure you are following the pre-cleaning, loading, and detergent specifications recommended by the manufacturer. If you are doing everything properly, the next most probable cause for poor washing is too low a water temperature. Water flowing into a dishwasher should be between 140 and 160 degrees. Check the gauge on the hot-water tank or heater to see if it is set properly. Dishwashers occasionally require some simple maintenance such as cleaning out the drain strainer. If a residue of coarse food particles is left on dishes following a wash cycle, a clogged strainer is the most likely cause. Rinse it under a tap. Another common dishwasher complaint is about leaks around the door during the wash cycle. This is a minor problem usually found in older machines. The rubber seal, or gasket, around the door deteriorates with age and loses its sealing qualities. On most machines, this is a simple replacement task. Buy a new gasket through a dealer in the appropriate brand and install it by reversing the steps you took in removing the old one. If the machine will not start at all, check the fuse or circuit breaker before calling a serviceman. If a newly replaced fuse blows immediately, you can be sure that servicing is required. Faulty timer switches are often the cause of dishwasher breakdown. This switch controls the machines various wash cycles and automatically regulates the length of time for each cycle. The following symptoms indicate a faulty timer switch: Machine will not turn on (fuses or circuit breakers okay); machine runs through one or more cycles, then stops; machine continues to operate on one cycle and will not switch to the next one. Timer switch replacement is fairly simple. First check the machines make and model number. Obtain a replacement switch from a local dealer. The timer switch has numerous wires running to and from it. Reconnecting them will be easier if you draw a diagram showing the position of each before disconnecting them from the old switch. For problems that do not seem to be related to the timer switch or cannot be solved by the simpler repairs mentioned, it is best to call in a repairman.</p> <p>Dishwasher Service ChartTROUBLEMachine fails to start</p> <p>POSSIBLE CAUSEDoor partly open Defective switch or timer Check switch linkage Open circuit Wrong soap used Improper loading Not properly pre-cleaned Low water temperature Not enough water Strainer clogged Timer faulty Solenoid coil inoperative </p> <p>REMEDYClose door securely Replace Adjust, if necessary Check fuse or circuit breaker Use only recommended detergent Load dishes as per instructions Pre-clean dishes Adjust water-heater thermostat Unclog water inlets Remove strainer and clean Replace timer unit Replace solenoid coil (call serviceman) Replace or repair as required (call serviceman) Tighten flange on drain valve Adjust linkage, have solenoid repaired or replaced as required Realign core to assure perpendicular and centered action Realign motor (call serviceman Machine not on solid footing Check and adjust as necessary</p> <p>Dishes do not come clean</p> <p>To expose the timer switch on most models, first remove the cycle control knob, then remove all screws holding the front panel in place.</p> <p>Measuring coil inoperative or out of adjustment</p> <p>Water does not stay in tank Machine noisy</p> <p>Leaking drain valve Inlet valve not opening Solenoid cor...</p>