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Rapid Prototyping3-D PrintingAdditiveManufacturingGenerativeManufacturingProcessMaterialDepositionManufacturingLayer-by-LayerManufacturingDirect CADManufacturingSolidFreeformFabrication
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WHAT and WHY ?
RAPID PROTOTYPING is a process of manufacturingdirectly from the CAD databy adding material layer-by-layerwithout human intervention
Benefits of RAPID PROTOTYPING
Improved Product Quality and DesignImproved ConfidentialityBetter Communication
Reduced Development CostsShortened Product Development Cycle
StepsPre ProcessingInputSlicingProcessingPhoto CuringCutting & Glueing/JoiningMelting and SolidifyingSealingPolishingPaintingPost Processing
ClassificationLaminated Object Manufacturing (LOM)Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM)Multi-Jet Modelling (MJM)Solid Creation System (SCS)SolidBasedSelective Laser Sintering (SLS)3 Dimensional Printing (3DP)Electron Beam Melting (EBM)PowderBasedStereolithography Apparatus (SLA)Solid Ground Curing (SGC)LiquidBased
Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM)Developed by the California-based Helisys Inc. (nowCubic Technologies)Uses the cutting and glueing method
FUSED DEPOSITION MODELLING (FDM)Developed by StratasysUses the fusing and solidifying methodDurable, Cost-effective products with accuracies similar to stereolithographyLonger building time
SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING (SLS)Uses the fusing and solidifying methodMore material options, like thermoplastic, metal powder, ceramics, etc.Comparatively inaccurate, rough surface and lesser detail
STEREOLITHOGRAPHY APPARATUS (SLA)Uses photo-curing method to solidify liquid resins using UV light.Limited material options and colorsVery accurate, smooth parts are produced
PHOTOPOLYMERSLiquid resins which are cured and hardened with ultraviolet (UV) energy.Photo-curable materials range in colours, opacities and rigidities.Manufacturing processes: Stereolithography (SL) and PolyJet
POWDERED PLASTICSPowdered nylons are sintered, layer by layer via a laser to form dense plastic designsProperties : heat deflection, high strength and excellent elongation propertiesCapable of more complex designs, since they dont require any support
METALSThe powdered metals are heated and fused by a powerful Yb-fibre laser, whose energy essentially welds designs layer by layerRequires highly trained build engineers and post-processing teamComplex, dense parts that consolidate old designs into one fluid build
THERMOPLASTICSHigh performance, engineering-grade materials which exhibit many of the same properties of injection molded plasticsExamples: Polycarbonate (PC), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), acrylonitrile styrene acrylate (ASA), etc.Manufacturing Process:Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM)
RAPID PROTOTYPINGTHEN & NOW
SPECIFICATIONSBuild AreaExtrudersFilament WidthPrint SpeedHorizontal (XY) ResolutionVertical (Z) Resolution
CONCLUSION3D printing has been behind the scenes for decades, providing functional prototype and production parts in hundreds of industries. It will continue to benefit as methods and materials improve.
We must remember that additive manufacturing technology is not a replacement for conventional processes, rather an aid.With growing popularity of 3-D printing, there is a concern over the legalities and ethical ramifications.Little or no laws governing the fieldDigital files run a risk of being stolen/hacked
Presented by Abhishek GoraiBatch: 2012-2016National Institute of Technology, DurgapurWest Bengal, India