quality function deployment(qfd)
Presented By: Manan Shukla(2012PMM5265) Charan Singh Meena (2012PMM5004) GeoRaju (2012PMM5114) Sandeep Chaurasia (2012PMM5276) Manoj Meena (2012PMM5088)
The phrase QFD is a literal translation of the Japanese characters Hin Shitsu Ki No Ten Kai
The true meaning of the phrase QFD is a customer driven product (or process or service ) development. Some say that QFD is a way to neutralize the voice of the executives or engineers.
The origins of the Japanese TQC are the same concept of TQC as they were both brought over from the U.S. after World War II but in Japan it was deployed as means of securing quality accountability at each level in the organization and combined with market orientation. In this vision, TQC is Company Wide Quality Control (CWQC) U.S. and European companies put a greater emphasis on problem solving and efficiency improvement during the implementation and production stage. In the CWQC approach more effort is put in designing quality at the development stage and the QCD aspect are managed by interrelation. Within this concept, QFD is a mechanism that serves as an operational definition of CWQC. It means that although quality professionals are important participants to facilitate the QFD process the marketing, development and manufacturing professionals plays an even more vital role
QFD technique consists of a series of interlocking matrices that translate customer needs into product and process characteristics. The design requirements (WHATs) serve as input to establish components characteristics (HOWs) of the product which on their turn serve to define the process and next manufacturing process operations. The How-Much is used to set target goals or values. These How Much should be ,as far as possible, a measurable quantity
STEP 1: THE PRODUCT IS IDENTIFIED In order to initiate the QFD that may pique interest from several areas of the company. A first project should be simple, but not trivial, and present a real opportunity for improvement. STEP 2: IDENTIFY CUSTOMERS This step deals with the customer to focus on. Especially for consumer products a clear customer profile is needed. A good description includes the end-user but could also include profile of persons or interest-groups who influence the purchase decision . E.g- retailers, consumers association or public authority such as environmental regulations.
3: IDENTIFYING CUSTOMER REQUIREMENT The tool which we use to identify the customer need is the Kano Model.
The Kano model categorizes customer need into three groups: i. Basic Need ii. Performance Need iii. Excitement Need
Basic needs are those that get a company in the market; they are not spoken unless violated. Basic needs, no matter how well done, can at best make the customer neutral
Performance needs are those that keep a company in the market . They are spoken by the customer and considered between purchasing decision and need.
The last category of needs per the Kano model are those that afford the greatest opportunity in terms of becoming a market leader or innovator. These needs are known as excitement needs. Like basic needs, excitement needs are unspoken. However, unlike basic needs, which are expected and known, excitement needs are beyond customer expectations. For this reason, they are generally unknown and difficult to uncover. Some of the techniques used to uncover these needs include looking upstream and downstream in a customer's process, evaluating how a product has evolved with time, looking for unconventional uses of the product, and involving people from outside the industry.
STEP 4: ASSIGN IMPORTANCE RATINGS The list of WHATs should be sufficiently detailed to make judgments about the importance of each item to the customers on whom we focus. Depending on the target group the relative importance of various requirements can be rated. This can be done using a scale from 1 (not very important) to 5 (very important)
STEP 5: COMPETITIVE BENCHMARK Customers choose between products of different brands. Therefore, it is of strategic importance to know how the products of our most important competitors match up to the customer requirements compared with our own product. Competitive Benchmarking answers the question WHY we should focus on which requirements and will allow a plan to be derived for improvement.
STEP 6: IDENTIFYING DESIGN PARAMETER The heart of the QFD methodology is the generation of the design parameter: the HOWs list. The design requirements result from the translation of customer wishes into technical specifications. To depict the strength of the relationships between the Whats and Hows, symbols and/or an importance rating can be used for prioritizing efforts and making trade-off decisions. The 9-3-1 weighing often achieves a good spread between important and less important items, although any weighing system which makes sense can be used.
The design parameter refers to the concrete
observable characteristics and methods of measurement. There will not be one-to-one relationship and the interactions vary in intensity. Thus, the weighing and completion of the relation matrix translate the project objectives into a technical priority list. This also permits us to cross-check our thinking. Blank rows or columns indicate places where our translation of WHATs into HOWs has been inadequate.
The operationalization of HOWs are the HOW MUCHs. The HOW MUCHs should be measurable as much as possible. We want HOW MUCH for the following reasons: To determine priorities improvements of HOWs and directions for
To provide an objective means of assuring that requirements have been met. To provide targets for further developments
To set the targets, it is quite common to perform a competitors analysis on technical data. The benchmarking on technical performance reveals our technical position with respect to our competitors. This kind of benchmarking provides a check for consistency of the relation matrix (step 7) and the competitive benchmarking data (step 5). For instance, a high score for customer requirement X should be reflected in high scores for design parameters which are strongly related with that requirement.
Mostly we will find interdependency between the design parameters. In the attic of the house supporting and conflicting design parameters are identified by a correlation matrix. Different degrees of interaction will be represented by symbols. The assignment of positive or negative correlations are based on the influence of Hows regardless of the direction in which the How Much values move. The positive correlations are those in which one How supports another while negative correlations are those in which one How adversely affects the achievement of another How. These conflicts are extremely important as they represent condition to direct trade-offs.
An Example of QFD
Who are customers?Customer(s) is himself, his wife, and his two children.
What do they want from the product/service/process ?
Affordable and Painless Trip. When he asked his wife what she wanted from this vacation, she answered, I dont want to be stressed. When he asked his children, they both answered unanimously, We want to have fun!
this case, the Whats are his requirements (Affordable, Painless Trip, Fun, and Worry Free), which he gathered in Step #1. matrix below shows House with the Whats completed.
Painless TripHave Fun Worry Free
will he ensure all of the Whats are addressed (will occur)? in other words, what steps/actions/goods/services do he need to perform/acquire/purchase to ensure that the Whats are all met? Affordable Painless Trip Have fungeneral boating (exploring the islands), fishing, snorkeling, tubing, and wakeboarding
Affordable Painless Trip Have Fun Worry Free5 4 2 1
Cost < $ 1,000 Leave prior 10am with DVDs in car Take boat & Do local activities Make & Use predeparture list
are correlated when they tend to go up and down together. For example, Cost < $1,000 and Take boat and local activities trend together . is, as we take our boat and do local activities, the cost will go up. Since an increase in the use of the boat is desirable and an increase in cost is not desirable, they are negatively correlated.
Affordable Painless Trip Have Fun Worry Free5 1
Cost < $ 1,000
-Take boat & Do local activities Make & Use predeparture list
Leave prior 10am with DVDs in car
Correlation = 9 Moderate Correlation = 3 Weak Correlation = 1 No Correlation = 0 (or blank)
Affordable Painless Trip Have Fun Worry Free5 9 8% 16% 32% 45% 92 18 = 9 9 94 = 36 95+32 = 51 91 = 9 4 2 1
Cost < $ 1,000
Leave prior 10am with DVDs in car Take boat & Do local activities Make & Use predeparture list
creation of the checklist will ensure that we dont forget key items that would be required on the trip ( for example DVDs and snacks,). this reason, he assigned this a value of 3 for painless trip.
without correlations. If a row (What) is completely empty, then we are missing a How. This might be a clerical error or worse; it might be that we cant fulfill the What. without correlations. If a column (How) doesnt have a correlation, again, it might be a clerical error. But if it is not, then do we need that How?
we missing any Whats or Hows? In the process of creating this first house, you probably will discover some additional customer requirements. If this happens, add some rows.
he had not gone through the QFD process, he wouldnt have considered making a pre-departure checklist, taking the boat, or leaving prior to 10am with DVDs for the Kids. using the Pareto he definitely dont want to forget to make the checklist.
the entire house, Whats, Hows, roof, correlations, Pareto, and the journey are all the deliverable or answer from the process. We have a much better understanding of our market segment and what will lead to a successful vacation.
product is the FRP cooling tower manufactured in GEM EQUIPMENTS LIMITED, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu. FRP cooling tower has recorded a maximum of 60 percent cooling efficiency which is comparatively very low with regard to other products in market.
Mills Pvt. ltd- Coimbatore
Prakash & Company Hisar Cylinders Pvt. Ltd. Masuri
Gears Limited Coimbatore
Alloys Foundry Coimbatore
Textile Process - Tirupur
Based on market survey, sales records, interviews and marketing engineering of whole QFD team, ten customers requirements has been considered to prepare the QFD table. The results yield the following technical requirements to improve the design characteristics of FRP cooling tower: i. Implement low power motor ii. To select the suitable fan for proper working condition. iii. To selects the suitable feed pump for proper working pressure iv. Check the solenoid valve v. Proper arrangements of fills inside the tower. vi. Fan balancing vii. Proper coating of resins inside the basin viii. Change the fills angle ix. Coat the metal surface with an appropriate coating x. Proper sealing in between inlet of cold water and pumps
VERY WEAK 2 WEAK 3 MORE OR LESS WEAK 4 MEDIUM 5 MORE OR LESS STRONG 6 STRONG 7 VERY STRONG1
CUSTOMER COMPLAINTS 1-30% 31-50% 51-70% 71-80% 81-100%
SCALE FACTOR (IMPORTANCE) 1 VERY LOW 2- LOW 3 MEDIUM 4 HIGH 5 VERY HIGH
SCALE RATING FOR MARKET SCORE 1. WEAK 2. FAIR 3. STRONG SCALE RATING EVALUATIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. POOR FAIR GOOD EXCELLENT PERFECT FOR COMPETITIVE
FORMULAE USED ABSOLUTE WEIGHT (W) = CnjIn Where W = absolute weight C = requirement correlation of the customer and technical
I = importance of customer requirement
NORMALIZED INDIVIDUAL WEIGHT = Absolute individual value/ maximum absolute individual weight
ABSOLUTE WEIGHT OF CUSTOMER = importance to customer * market score
ABSOLUTE WEIGHT IN % = individual resultant weight/ absolute weight
RELATIVE WEIGHT OF CUSTOMER = interrelationship matrix * absolute weight of customer
web based questionnaire, the QFD was prepared and the results shows the A>B>F>J>C>H>E>D>G>I.
is observed that all the technical requirements belonging to the FRP cooling tower has to be analyzed and appropriate design characteristics has to be improved based on customer requirement.
and Earlier Changes Shorter Development Time Fewer Start-up Problems Lower Start-up Cost Warranty Reduction Knowledge Transfer Customer SatisfactionThe bottom line of QFD is higher quality, lower cost, shorter timing and a substantial marketing advantage.
Charantimath, P.M., 2006. Total Quality Management, Pearson Publication, India Basterfield Dale, Total Quality Management, Prentice Hall, INDIA Govers C.P.M, 1996. What and How about Quality Function Deployment(QFD), Int. J. Of Prod. Economics, 46-47, pp. 575-585 Chen Jacob and Chen Joseph, 2002. QFD - Based Technical Textbook Evaluation Procedure And A Case Study, International Journal of Industrial Technology, Vol. 18. Sivadas Aniyan T.S., 2011. QFD in Manufacturing Industry (Improving Existing SB CNC 40/60 Slant Bed Turning Centre in HMT,Kalamassery), Tenth International Conference On Operation and Quantitative Management Organized By Symbiosis Institute of Operations Management, Nashik, India, pp. 609-617.