quality control + quality assurance + quality improvement

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Group presentation for Quality Management course. Topic of discussion are on quality control, quality assurance and quality improvement.

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EMGT303 : QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN ORGANIZATION

CHAPTER 5QUALITY CONTROL, QUALITY ASSURANCE, QUALITY IMPROVEMENTPrepared by : Afizal Azzizan Masni-Azian Akiah Siti Rodhiah Abdul Aziz Umi Kalsom Kamarul Ariffin1

OVERVIEW

quality:: depends on the stakeholderMANAGEMENT wants to see improved production numbers with acceptable quality UNION wants the best conditions and highest pay for employees

EMPLOYEES want consistent work in safe environment CUSTOMER want value for their money

:: quality in manufacturing : [ product should work as intended with minimum number of faults & failures ] :: quality in service : [ customer satisfaction in the primary measure ]2

OVERVIEWQUALITY CONTROL :: Planned inspection / examination of a PRODUCT or SERVICES for a certain minimum levels of quality. QUALITY ASSURANCE QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

:: Activity to ensure that :: Effort taken to increase PROCESS implemented to efficiency of actions and produce the PRODUCT or procedures with the SERVICE satisfy customer purpose of achieving requirement in a additional benefits for the systematic and reliable organization and its users. fashion consistently. :: Process orientedExample : Internal audit 3rd party audit (ISO) Example : Kaizen 5S ICC (Innovative and Creative Circle) Hari Q

:: Product/service oriented.Example : The manufacture of products is according to the outlined specifications. The timeline of document processing is within the specified timeline.

3

OVERVIEWEXAMPLE : QC vs. QA vs. QI

ISO 9001 CERTIFIED

Engine Casting Painting Trim & Final Body Assembly

Final InspectionAUDITORSINTERNAL AUDIT

Stamping

Kaizen / ICC / 5S Program

ORGANISATION

performance

QCQA QI

CUSTOMER

4

QUALITY CONTROL

concept maintenance of standards of quality of manufactured goods process of making sure that products or services are made toconsistently high standards.

quality control can cover not just products, services, and processes, but also people. Employees are an important part of any company. If a company has employees that dont have adequate skills or training, have trouble understanding directions, or are misinformed, quality may be severely diminished.

5

QUALITY CONTROL

goal

ensures that products/services provided meet specific requirements and are dependable, satisfactory and fiscally sound (functioning).

identify products/services that do not meet a companys specified standards of quality (eliminate nonconformance)

take action is problem is identified [QC team have the right to stop production temporarily is problem persist]6

QUALITY CONTROL

implementationINSPECTION Involves the examination of a product, service or process for certain minimum levels of quality. Example : product specification, process specification MONITORING Routinely gather information on all aspect of the activity Example : Statistical Process Control (SPC) RECORD Anything (such as a document) providing permanent evidence of information about past events. Example : Employee training record for year 2003 ~ 2009

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QUALITY CONTROL

implementationTraditional QC

PROBLEM

not a value-added activity costly too late inspection done by the wrong people. not compatible with more modern production techniques. working capital is tied up in stocks which cannot be sold disagreement at to what constitutes as a quality product

inspection of products and services takes place during and at the end of the operations process

8

QUALITY CONTROL

implementationExample : ProductionInspection (denoted by symbol ) are performed at three main points in production :PRODUCTIONRaw material

Final product

QC only is not enough. Therefore, many businesses focused their efforts on improving quality by implementing quality management techniques, that is by emphasizing the role of

QUALITY ASSURANCE.9

QUALITY ASSURANCE

concept a set of activities designed to ensure the development andmaintenance process is adequate to ensure a system will meet its objectives.

the process of verifying or determining whether products orservices meet or exceed customer expectations.

a process driven approach with specific steps to help define andattain goals.

10

QUALITY ASSURANCE

goal HOW SURE ARE YOU?? :: focus on the process involves, and make sure you do the right thing.To ensure that the products/services meet the customers requirements at the highest standard. :: customer requirement/needs may change in time. Determine if the steps/process implemented to produce the product/service are appropriate with the time and conditions.

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QUALITY ASSURANCE

implementationInternal audit / First party audit :: a systematic, independent and documented process inspection conducted by members within the organization and obtain evidence and evaluate it to determine where inspection criteria are fulfilled. External audit / Second or Third party audit :: similar to internal audit, but conducted by members not within the organization. :: example - customers, independent organizations / certification body. NON-CONFORMANCE REPORT (NCR) Issued to the audited area if noncompliance are found. The audited area should reply with the correction and corrective action to closeout the NCR.

CERTIFICATION To show that the organization is complying to the quality standard. Example : ISO 9001, ISO 14001

Auditor should be able to tell if the deliverable seems acceptable based on the process used to create it. That's why project auditors can perform a quality assurance review on your project, even if they do not know the specifics of what you are delivering. They don't know your project, but they know what good processes look like.

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QUALITY ASSURANCE

implementationThe most popular tool used to determine quality assurance is the Shewhart Cycle (developed by Dr. W. Edwards Deming), also known as PDCA.Act : Apply actions necessary for improvement if the results require changes

Check : Monitor and evaluate the implemented process by testing the results against the predetermined objectives

A P C D

Plan : Establish objectives and processes required to deliver the desired results.

Do : Implement the process developed.

PDCA analyzes existing conditions and methods used to provide the product or service to customer.13

QUALITY ASSURANCE

implementationdevelopment production design installation documentation

service

QA covers all activities from design, development, production, installation, servicing and documentation. This introduced the rules: fit for purpose" and "do it right the first time". It includes the regulation of the quality of raw materials, assemblies, products and components; services related to production; and management, production, and inspection processes.

14

QUALITY ASSURANCE

QC. vs QA. Whereas quality control emphasizes testing and blocking the release of defective products, quality assurance is about improving and stabilizing production and associated processes to avoid or at least minimize issues that led to the defects in the first place. However, QA does not necessarily eliminate the need for QC: some product parameters are so critical that testing is still necessary just in case QA fails15

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

conceptKeyword : IMPROVEMENTThe continuous study and improvement of a process, system, or organization.

A continuous process that identifies problems, examines solutions to those problems, and regularly monitors the solution implemented for improvement.Example in manufacturing / industry : reduce product failures or work related injuries. Example in administration / service : increase efficiency or reducing re-work.

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QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

goal

It is aimed at improvement - measuring where you are, and figuring out ways to make things better. It specifically attempts to avoid blame, and to create systems to prevent errors from happening. QI activities can be very helpful in improving how things work. Trying to find where the defect in the system is, and figuring out new ways to do things can be challenging and fun. Its a great opportunity to think outside the box.17

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

implementation 5 crucial activities to continual improvement :

1

maintain communication

2

correct obvious problems

3

look upstream

All improvement should be planned improvement. It is important to share information before, during and after attempting to make improvements.

Study & research of the problems are required in order to identify the problems and to find solutions to them.

Must look for the causes of problems and not symptoms to problems.

4

document problems and progress

5

monitor changes

A fundamental rule for any improvement program is to document the problems and progress.

To ensure the right steps were taken to solve quality problems, or it may produce unintended consequences.

18

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

implementation:: example

KAIZENchange good

A concept of continual improvement Making changes for the better on a continual basis

Improvement aspect involves :

people

process

products

Action is taken immediately on the shop floor without hours of analysis. Results are evident in only days.

Goal : to identify waste by forcing production problems to surface so that they become visible for everyone to see. Once ide

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