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  • Quality Assurance in TertiaryQuality Assurance in Tertiary Education: Experiences in Asia

    Concepcion V. PijanoConcepcion V. PijanoPAASCU Executive DirectorPAASCU Executive DirectorPAASCU Executive DirectorPAASCU Executive Director

  • RussiaKazakhstan

    BhBhutanTaiwan

    Brunei

    Maldives..

    M b hi A i P ifi Q lit N t kMembership:AsiaPacificQualityNetwork

    75membersfrom28countries

  • Th A i P ifi Q li N kThe Asia Pacific Quality Network

    Founded in Hong Kong in January 2003.

    Current host: Shanghai Educational Evaluation Institute (SEEI)

    Australian Universities Quality Agency (AUQA): 2003 March 2009

    Fairy Godmothers: The World Bank and UNESCO

  • Accreditation:Accreditation: HowHow it all beganit all beganAccreditation: Accreditation: How How it all beganit all began

    Earl 1900s USA Early 1900s USA Late 1940s Japan and the Philippines 1960 I l d d th UK 1960s Ireland and the UK 1980s the rest of the world 1990 d d f lit 1990s decade of quality assurance 1991 International Network for Quality

    A i Hi h Ed ti (INQAAHE)Assurance in Higher Education (INQAAHE) 2003 Asia Pacific Quality Network (APQN)

  • GLOBAL AND REGIONAL NETWORKS GLOBAL AND REGIONAL NETWORKS OF QA AGENCIESOF QA AGENCIESOF QA AGENCIESOF QA AGENCIES

    ENQA

    NOQACEENet

    ASPA

    ANQAHECANQATE

    ASPA

    RIACESAfriQAn

    APQN

  • Quality Assurance A i ti f An ongoing, continuous process of

    evaluating the quality of a higher d ti t i tit tieducation system, institution, or program

    A regulatory system focusing on accountability and improvement, providing information and judgments through an agreed upon and consistent process and well-established criteria

  • Elements of Quality AssuranceElements of Quality Assurance

    Quality AssuranceQuality Assurance

    Internal External

    Monitoring

    Student Evaluation Quality Control

    Self Assessment Peer review Accountability

    Improvement

    8

    Improvement

  • Internal Evaluation/Self-evaluation

    t ti ll ti f d i i t ti systematic collection of administrative data, surveys on students and graduates

    lti i lf t d tresulting in a self-study report a collective institutional reflection and an

    opportunity for quality enhancement instruments are used for the self-

    evaluation

    9

  • E t l E l tiExternal Evaluation

    h b QA ll t a process whereby a QA agency collectsdata, information and evidence about ani tit ti t kinstitution or a program to make astatement about its quality

    external evaluation is carried out by ateam of external experts or peers andusually requires three stages

  • Stages of External Quality Assurance (EQA)

    Th i l th tThe process involves three stages : Self Evaluation and Submission of the

    Self- Evaluation report to the ExternalAgency

    Site Visit by an Expert Panel Final decision and Report of Outcomes Final decision and Report of Outcomes

  • Parties Responsible for QAParties Responsible for QAParties Responsible for QA Parties Responsible for QA

    HEIs

  • The Quality Assurance System in the Philippines

    C i i Hi h Ed ti Commission on Higher Education (CHED)

    Federation of Accrediting Agencies of the Philippines (FAAP)/

    National Network for Quality Assurance Agencies (NNQAA)g ( )

    Accrediting Agencies

  • Distribution of HEIs in the Country

    LUCs4%

    SUCs6%

    Other Gov't Schools

    1%

    Private HEIs89%89%

    Total HEIs 1 792Total HEIs - 1,792SUCs - 110LUCs - 93Private HEIs - 1,573Others - 16

  • Accrediting Agencies g gfor the Private Sector

    ACCREDITING AGENCIES YEAR ESTABLISHEDPhilippine Accrediting Association of 1957Philippine Accrediting Association of Schools, Colleges and Universities (PAASCU)

    1957

    Philippine Association of Colleges and Universities - Commission on Accreditation (PACU-COA)

    1973

    Accreditation (PACU COA)Association of Christian Schools, Colleges and Universities Accrediting

    1976

    Agency, Inc. (ACSCU-AAI)

  • Accrediting Agencies g gfor the Public Sector

    ACCREDITING AGENCIES YEAR ESTABLISHEDAccrediting Agency of Chartered 1987Accrediting Agency of Chartered Colleges and Universities of the Philippines, Inc. (AACCUP)

    1987

    Association of Local Colleges and Universities Commission on A dit ti (ALCUCOA)

    2003

    Accreditation (ALCUCOA)

  • Accreditation Levels based on CHED Memo Order No. 1, s. 2005

    STATUS TERM BENEFITSSTATUS TERM BENEFITSLevel I Initial accreditation

    for three yearsFull administrative and financial deregulation; grants y g gand funding assistance Level II Formal accreditation

    for five years

    L l III R dit ti f All th b fit f L l I/IILevel III Re-accreditation for five years

    All the benefits for Levels I/II; curricular deregulation; privilege to offer distance education and extensioneducation and extension classes

    Level IV Re-Accreditation for All the above benefits;five years Full autonomy for the program

  • Framework for Higher Education Quality Assurance Principles in the Asia Pacific Region (Chiba Principles)Principles in the Asia Pacific Region (Chiba Principles)

    2008

    A: Internal

    B:Quality

    C:Quality

    Quality Assurance

    Assessment AssuranceAgencies

  • A: Internal Quality AssuranceA: Internal Quality Assurance

    QA culture is created, defined, supported, and promulgated.

    Embedded within the institution's unique goals and objectives. Q IQA policies and procedures are in place.

    Periodic approval, monitoring and review of programs

    Strategy for the continuous enhancement of quality is developed and implementedquality is developed and implemented.

  • B Q alit Assessment

    QA acti ities ndertaken on a c nical basis

    B: Quality Assessment

    QA activities undertaken on a cynical basis Stakeholders participate in activities St d d / it i il bl d li d Standards/criteria are available and applied

    consistently N fli t f i t t No conflict of interest Assessment includes: Institutional self-

    t t l l tiassessment; external evaluation; publication of a report and follow-up procedureprocedure.

    Appeals mechanism is available

  • C: Quality Assurance AgenciesC: Quality Assurance Agencies

    Independent and a tonomo s Independent and autonomous Clearly defined mission statement, goals and

    objectivesobjectives Adequate human and financial resources F ll di l f li i d i Full disclosure of policies, procedures, reviews

    and assessment reports Clear standards assessment methods Clear standards, assessment methods,

    processes and decision criteria. Cooperates with other agencies and key Cooperates with other agencies and key

    players across national borders.

  • GENERALFRAMEWORKFORQUALITYEVALUATION

    Government

    Social Equity Social Responsibility

    Universities

    Quality AssuranceAcademic System

    Efficiency

    Markets

    Market productivity

    Academic

    Standards

    Research c e cy

    Excellence

    Productivity

    A t bilit

    Market productivity

    EfficiencyTeaching

    (Innovation,

    creativity learning) Accountabilitycreativity, learning)

    Source:HigherEducationinAsia/Pacific TerenceW.BigalkeandDeaneE.Neubauer,2009.

    Quality assurance as a broker of signals and interests

  • A N P di f QAA New Paradigm for QA

    Seen as an o tcome operating ithin a signal Seen as an outcome operating within a signalsystem composed of the government, themarket and the universities themselvesmarket and the universities themselves.

    Helps the market and policy makers makechoices about multiple aspects of higherp p geducation.

    Highly interactive role of system components:many factors influence quality issues andvarious sectors have different notions of

    litquality.

  • Global Initiative for Quality Assurance Capacity (GIQAC)

    a partnership between World Bankp pand UNESCO launched in March 2008 to support capacity building in quality assurance of higher education in developing countries and countries in transition.

  • Countries where workshops, conferences and training programs were conducted

    AustraliaBangladesh

    MalaysiaMongolia

    ChinaFiji

    New ZealandPakistan

    IndiaJapan

    PhilippinesVietnam

    Lao PDR Indonesia

  • Internship and Cross-regional E h PExchange Program:

    Bangladesh China

    Malaysia Mongolia China

    Nepal India

    Mongolia Pakistan Vietnam India

    Cambodia Lao PDR

    Vietnam Indonesia Timor Leste Lao PDR Timor Leste

  • Lessons LearnedLessons Learned

    P i ibilit f QA t ith th

    Lessons LearnedLessons Learned

    Primary responsibility for QA rests with the HEIs themselves.

    EQA l i t t l i ti EQA plays an important role in promoting higher education reform

    f The subject of educational quality is global, but the work of QA, for the most part, is local.

  • Lessons LearnedLessons Learned A regional approach is an efficient and cost A regional approach is an efficient and cost

    effective mechanism to deliver capacity building across a wide and diverse regionbuilding across a wide and diverse region.

    The regional approach has led to greater capacity to learn and share.capacity to learn and share.

    International cooperation and commitment towards building capacity in QA astowards building capacity in QA as demonstrated by

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