Pulsed Fission Fusion Propulsion System - NASA ?· Pulsed Fission‐Fusion Propulsion System ... Introduction…

Download Pulsed Fission Fusion Propulsion System - NASA ?· Pulsed Fission‐Fusion Propulsion System ... Introduction…

Post on 12-Jul-2018

212 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • MarshallSpaceFlightCenterNationalAeronauticsandSpaceAdministration

    PulsedFissionFusionPropulsionSystem

    RobertB.Adams,Ph.D.ER24/PropulsionResearchandTechnologyBranchGeorgeC.MarshallSpaceFlightCenterNationalAeronauticsandSpaceAdministration

    1

    JasonCassibry,Ph.D.PropulsionResearchCenterDepartmentofMechanicalandAerospaceEngineeringUniversityofAlabamainHuntsville

    https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140008774 2018-07-17T01:07:35+00:00Z

  • MarshallSpaceFlightCenter

    ChallengesandUnderlyingPhysicsofNuclearProcesses

  • MarshallSpaceFlightCenter

    FissionandFusionEnergyRelease

    MassDefect=Massoffreenucleons massofassemblednucleus Nuclearforce(residualstrongforce)strongerthanelectrostatic

    NuclearBindingEnergy

    Fusion Energyreleasebycombiningnuclei

    Fission Energyreleasebysplittingnuclei

    3http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_binding_energy

  • MarshallSpaceFlightCenter

    Fission Fusion

    4

    FissionandFusionReactionSpace

    http://www.mwit.ac.th/~physicslab/hbase/nucene/fisfrag.html#c1

    http://www.propagation.gatech.edu/ECE6390/project/Fall2010/Projects/group10/MANTIS_2010_SatCom/MANTIS_2010_SatCom/PowerSys/default.html

    http://fusionforenergy.europa.eu/understandingfusion/

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_fusion

  • MarshallSpaceFlightCenter

    Fission Criticalityisafunctionof

    - fissioncrosssection- Numberdensity- Andgeometry

    Neutronsmustbalance- Lostoutsidereactor- Absorbedthroughphotoncapture- Fissionevents

    Fusion Breakevenisafunctionof

    - Fusioncrosssection- Translationaltemperatureand

    distribution- density

    LawsonCriterion

    -

    5

    IgnitionRequirements

    http://t2.lanl.gov/nis/tour/sch002.htmlhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lawson_criterion

  • MarshallSpaceFlightCenter

    FusionConfinementParameterSpace

  • MarshallSpaceFlightCenter

    Fusionreactivityscaleswithn2

    Magneticfieldsuppressesthermalconductionlosses,reducingdriverpower

    ReactorvolumemuchsmallerthanMFE

    Theseeffectsleadtopotentiallymuchlowercost,smallerfusionreactor,assuggestedbyLindemuthandSiemon,Am.J.Phys.,77(5),May2009

    BenefitsofMIFParameterSpace

  • MarshallSpaceFlightCenter

    PuFF Concept

  • MarshallSpaceFlightCenter

    IntroductiontoPuFF

    9

    Magneticnozzlecoils

    Magneticfieldlines

    Lithiumlinerandradiation

    shield

    Cathode

    DTfuel

    UF6fuel

  • MarshallSpaceFlightCenter

    OperationofaZPinch

    Anode

    ICathode

    Vaporized Wire Array

    Plasma Cylinder

    Evacuated Chamber

    B, Magnetic Flux

  • MarshallSpaceFlightCenter

    FissionFusionEnergyBalance

    11

  • MarshallSpaceFlightCenter

    ResearchStatus

  • MarshallSpaceFlightCenter

    DTFRCTargetPlasma

    Fissionableliner

    AxialandRadialThermalconduction

    Fusionheatingpower

    Bremmstrahlung andCyclotronRadiation

    MagneticFieldLines

    Fissionheatingpower

    NeutroninducedFastfissionreactions

    Fission/DTFRCFusionTargetLossMechanismsincluded inModelHeatingMechanismsIncludedinModel

  • MarshallSpaceFlightCenter

    Fission FusionPowerBalance

    Parameter space for ignition

    Greatly broadened with embedded magnetic field

    Marginally improved with 6Li and thorium liners

    Significantly enhanced with uranium liners (235U and 238U)

    SynchrotronRadiationDominates

    FissionPowerDominatesasNeutronCount

    BecomesSignificant

  • MarshallSpaceFlightCenter

    Solve with Smooth Particle Electromagnetic Variant of Finite-Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method

    FDTD well documented, highly accurate grid-based method for analyzing the time evolution of electric and magnetic fields

    Can interpolate charged fluid particles to grid to model conductivity or charge and current density

    Maxwells Equations

    Solve with Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) Gridless Lagrangian technique Vacuum/plasma boundary well defined Leverage same engine as Maxwell Equation Solver

    Multifluid Equations of Motions

    Both methods yield to vectorized coding, making multiprocessor (parallel) computing easy

    OurApproach:SolveMaxwell'sEquationsCoupledtoMultifluid(Ions,Electrons,Neutrals)EquationsofMotion

  • MarshallSpaceFlightCenter

    Equationsofmotion(planned)Equationsofmotion(completed)

    Transporteffects,whichcanbebasedonnonequilibrium

    distributionfunctions(kappaandpowerlaw)

  • MarshallSpaceFlightCenter

    Initial Pulsed Nozzle Model

    Test thermal expansion of gas nozzle with various initial conditions

    Nozzle geometry Gas

    Temperature Density Radius Length Composition

    Lays ground work and expectations for magnetic nozzle

    Nozzle wall

    Initial gas from z-pinch

    Direction of motion

  • MarshallSpaceFlightCenter

    Preliminaryresults

  • MarshallSpaceFlightCenter

    Preliminaryresults

  • MarshallSpaceFlightCenter

    Preliminaryresults

  • MarshallSpaceFlightCenter

    Preliminaryresults

  • MarshallSpaceFlightCenter

    Preliminaryresults

  • MarshallSpaceFlightCenter

    NIACPhaseIGoals

  • MarshallSpaceFlightCenter

    CrewedMarsMissionConcept

    24

  • MarshallSpaceFlightCenter

    MissionConcepts

    Mars90 Mars30 Jupiter 550AU

    OutboundTripTime(days) 90.2 39.5 456.8 12936ReturnTripTime(days) 87.4 33.1 521.8 n/aTotalBurnTime(days) 5.0 20.2 6.7 11.2PropellantBurned(mT) 86.3 350.4 115.7 194.4EquivalentDV(km/s) 27.5 93.2 36.1 57.2

    25Figure 3 Mars 90 Day Transfer Trajectories

    Mars OrbitEarth OrbitTransfer Traj OrbitTransfer Trajectory

    Mars OrbitEarth OrbitTransfer Traj OrbitTransfer Trajectory Polsgrove,T.etal.DesignofZPinchandDense

    PlasmaFocusPoweredVehicles,2010AIAAAerospaceSciencesMeeting

    Engine Isp =19,400sec T=38kN 10Hzpulsefreq.

    Vehicle Mdry =552mT Mpay =150mT 30%MGA

  • MarshallSpaceFlightCenter

    MatingSPFMaX andMCNP

    SPFMax gives Abilitytomodel3deffects Canpropagatemagneticfieldsinvacuum Easilyeditable

    MCNP Trackneutronlife,fissionreactions Flexiblegeometries

    SecondhalfofNIACistoruncodesconcurrently synchronizeneutronpopulationvs.time Optimizeenergyoutput

    - Asfunctionofgeometry- Asfunctionofcomposition

    MixofUF6,DT Lithiumlinerthicknesses

    26

  • MarshallSpaceFlightCenter

    Gasdynamic nozzleperformancetobecomparedwithmagneticnozzletoassesslossmechanismsinmagneticnozzles,e.g.

    Field/plasmainstabilities

    Plasmadetachment

    Direction of current

    SingleturnMagneticNozzle

  • MarshallSpaceFlightCenter

    Charger 1

    Atestfacilityforhighpowerandthermonuclearfusionpropulsionconcepts,astrophysicsmodeling,radiationphysics

    LocatedintheUAHAerophysicsLabatRedstone

    Thehighestinstantaneouspulsedpowerfacilityinacademia 572kJ(1TWat100ns)

  • MarshallSpaceFlightCenter

    LongRangePlans

    NIACPhaseII CompleteCharger1refurb IgnitePuFF plasma Continuemagneticnozzleresearch

    ChargerII ConstructbreadboardPuFF systemcapableof1020Hzoperation

    - Upgradetoflightweight hardware NASA- Optimizepulseformaximumpoweroutput DOE- Astrodynamics,radiationprotection,otherresearchgoals Various

    29

Recommended

View more >