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  • 1 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2004

    Chapter 4

    Psychopharmacology

    This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network, preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease or lending of the program.

  • 2 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2004

    Psychopharmacology

    Psychopharmacology: The study of the effects of drugs on the nervous

    system and on behavior.

    Drug effects: The changes a drug produces in an animals

    physiological processes and behavior.

    Sites of Action: The locations at which molecules of drugs

    interact with molecules located on or in cells of the body, thus affecting some biochemical processes of these cells.

  • 3 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2004

    Principles of PsychopharmacologyPharmacokinetics

    Pharmacokinetics: The process by which drugs are absorbed,

    distributed within the body, metabolized, and excreted.

  • 4 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2004

    Principles of PharmacologyRoutes of Administration

    Intravenous (IV) injection: Injection of a substance directly into a vein.

    Intraperitoneal (IP) injection: The Injection of a substance into the peritoneal

    cavity-the space that surrounds the stomach, intestines, liver, and other abdominal organs.

  • 5 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2004

    Principles of PharmacologyRoutes of Administration

    Intramuscular (IM) injection: Injection of a substance into a muscle.

    Subcutaneous (SC) injection: Injection of a substance into the space beneath

    the skin.

    Oral administration: Administration of a substance into the mouth, so

    it is swallowed.

  • 6 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2004

    Principles of PharmacologyRoutes of Administration

    Sublingual administration: Administration of a substance by placing it

    beneath the tongue.

    Intrarectal administration: Administration of a substance into the rectum.

    Inhalation: Administration of a vaporous substance into the

    lungs.

  • 7 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2004

    Principles of PharmacologyRoutes of Administration

    Topical administration: Administration of a substance by placing itdirectly onto the skin or mucous membrane

    Intracerebral administration: Administration of a substance directly into the

    brain.

    Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration: Administration of a substance into one of the

    cerebral ventricles.

  • 8 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2004

    Principles of PharmacologyDrug Effectiveness

    Dose-response curve: A graph of the magnitude of an effect of a drug

    as a function of the amount of the drug administered.

    Therapeutic index: The ratio between the dose that produces the

    desired effect in 50% of the animals and the dose that produces toxic effects in 50% of the animals.

  • 9 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2004

  • 10 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2004

  • 11 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2004

    Principles of PharmacologyEffects of Repeated Administration

    Tolerance: A decrease in the effectiveness of a drug that is

    administered repeatedly.

    Sensitization: An increase in the effectiveness of a drug that

    is administered repeatedly.

  • 12 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2004

    Principles of PharmacologyEffects of Repeated Administration

    Withdrawal symptom: The appearance of symptoms opposite to those

    produced by a drug when the drug is administered repeatedly and then suddenly no longer taken.

  • 13 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2004

    Principles of PharmacologyPlacebo Effects

    Placebo: An inert substance given to an organism in lieu of

    a physiologically active drug; used experimentally to control for the effects of mere administration of a drug.

  • 14 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2004

    Sites of Drug Action

    Antagonist: A drug that opposes or inhibits the effects of a

    particular neurotransmitter on the postsynaptic cell.

    Agonist: A drug that facilitates the effects of a particular

    neurotransmitter on the postsynaptic cell.

  • 15 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2004

    Sites of Drug ActionEffects on Receptors

    Direct agonist: A drug that binds with an activates a receptor.

    Receptor blocker: A drug that binds with a receptor but does not

    activate it; prevents the natural ligand from binding with the receptor.

  • 16 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2004

    Sites of Drug ActionEffects on Receptors

    Direct antagonist: Synonym for a receptor blocker.

    Noncompetitive binding: Binding of a drug to a site on a receptor; does not

    interfere with the binding site for the principal ligand.

  • 17 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2004

    Sites of Drug ActionEffects on Receptors

    Indirect antagonist: A drug that attaches to a binding site on a

    receptor and interferes with the action of the receptor; does not interfere with the binding of the principal ligand.

    Indirect agonist: A drug that attaches to a binding site on a

    receptor and facilitates the action of the receptor; does not interfere with the binding site of the principal ligand.

  • 18 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2004

  • 19 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2004

  • 20 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2004

    Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsAcetylcholine

    The first transmitter to be discovered.

    The primary neurotransmitter secreted by the efferent axons of the central nervous system.

    All muscular movement is accomplished by the release of acetylcholine.

    Appears to be involved in regulating REM sleep, perceptual learning, and memory.

  • 21 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2004

    Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsAcetylcholine

    Botulinum toxin: An acetylcholine antagonist; prevents release by

    terminal buttons.

    Black widow spider venom A poison produced by the black widow spider

    that triggers the release of acetylcholine.

    Neostigmine: A drug that inhibits the activity of

    acetylcholinesterase.

  • 22 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2004

    Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsAcetylcholine

    Nicotinic receptor: An ionotropic acetylcholine receptor that is

    stimulated by nicotine and blocked by curare.

    Muscarinic receptor: A metabotropic acetylcholine receptor that is

    stimulated by muscarine and blocked by atropine.

    Atropine: A drug that blocks muscarinic acetylcholine

    receptors .

    Curare: A drug that blocks nicotinic acetylcholine

    receptors.

  • 23 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2004

    Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsMonoamines

    Catecholamines Dopamine (DA) Norepinephrine (NE) Epinephrine

    Indolamines Serotonin (5-HT)

  • 24 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2004

    Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsMonoamines

    Monoamine: A class of amines that includes indolamines such

    as serotonin and catecholamines such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine.

    Indolamines Serotonin (5-HT)

  • 25 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2004

    Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsMonoaminesDopamine

    Dopamine: A neurotransmitter; one of the catecholamine.

    Produces both excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials.

    Implicated roles in movement, attention, learning, reinforcing effects of abused drugs.

    Synthesized from tyrosine that we obtain from our diet.

  • 26 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2004

    Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsMonoaminesDopamine

    L-Dopa: The levorotatory form of DOPA; the precursor of

    the catecholamines; often used to treat Parkinsons disease because of its as a dopamine agonist.

  • 27 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2004

    Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsMonoaminesDopamine

    Nigrostriatal system: A system of neurons originating in the substantia

    nigra and terminating in the neostriatum (caudate nucleus and putamen of the basal ganglia); appears to play a role in the control of movement.

  • 28 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2004

    Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsMonoaminesDopamine

    Mesolimbic system: A system of dopaminergic neurons originating in

    the ventral tegmental area and terminating in the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and hippocampus; appears to play a role in the reinforcing effects of drugs that are commonly abused.

  • 29 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2004

    Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsMonoaminesDopamine

    Mesocortical system: A system of dopaminergic neurons originating in

    the ventral tegmental area and terminating in the prefrontal cortex; appears to influence formation of short-term memories, planning, and preparing strategies for problem solving.

  • 30 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2004

    Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsMonoaminesDopamine

    Parkinsons Disease: A neurological disease characterized by tremors,

    rigidity of the limbs, poor balance, and difficulty in initiating movements; caused by degeneration of the nigrostriatal system; Parkinsons disease has been treated with L-DOPA.

  • 31 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2004

    Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsMonoaminesDopamine

    AMPT: A drug that blocks the activity of tyrosine

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