Psychopharmacology - ?· 1 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Chapter 4 Psychopharmacology This multimedia…

Download Psychopharmacology - ?· 1 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Chapter 4 Psychopharmacology This multimedia…

Post on 20-Aug-2018

212 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

TRANSCRIPT

<ul><li><p>1 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Chapter 4</p><p>Psychopharmacology</p><p>This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network, preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease or lending of the program.</p></li><li><p>2 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Psychopharmacology</p><p>Psychopharmacology: The study of the effects of drugs on the nervous </p><p>system and on behavior.</p><p>Drug effects: The changes a drug produces in an animals </p><p>physiological processes and behavior.</p><p>Sites of Action: The locations at which molecules of drugs </p><p>interact with molecules located on or in cells of the body, thus affecting some biochemical processes of these cells.</p></li><li><p>3 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Principles of PsychopharmacologyPharmacokinetics</p><p>Pharmacokinetics: The process by which drugs are absorbed, </p><p>distributed within the body, metabolized, and excreted.</p></li><li><p>4 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Principles of PharmacologyRoutes of Administration</p><p>Intravenous (IV) injection: Injection of a substance directly into a vein.</p><p>Intraperitoneal (IP) injection: The Injection of a substance into the peritoneal </p><p>cavity-the space that surrounds the stomach, intestines, liver, and other abdominal organs.</p></li><li><p>5 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Principles of PharmacologyRoutes of Administration</p><p>Intramuscular (IM) injection: Injection of a substance into a muscle.</p><p>Subcutaneous (SC) injection: Injection of a substance into the space beneath </p><p>the skin.</p><p>Oral administration: Administration of a substance into the mouth, so </p><p>it is swallowed.</p></li><li><p>6 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Principles of PharmacologyRoutes of Administration</p><p>Sublingual administration: Administration of a substance by placing it </p><p>beneath the tongue.</p><p>Intrarectal administration: Administration of a substance into the rectum.</p><p>Inhalation: Administration of a vaporous substance into the </p><p>lungs.</p></li><li><p>7 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Principles of PharmacologyRoutes of Administration</p><p>Topical administration: Administration of a substance by placing itdirectly onto the skin or mucous membrane</p><p>Intracerebral administration: Administration of a substance directly into the </p><p>brain.</p><p>Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration: Administration of a substance into one of the </p><p>cerebral ventricles.</p></li><li><p>8 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Principles of PharmacologyDrug Effectiveness</p><p>Dose-response curve: A graph of the magnitude of an effect of a drug </p><p>as a function of the amount of the drug administered.</p><p>Therapeutic index: The ratio between the dose that produces the </p><p>desired effect in 50% of the animals and the dose that produces toxic effects in 50% of the animals.</p></li><li><p>9 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p></li><li><p>10 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p></li><li><p>11 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Principles of PharmacologyEffects of Repeated Administration</p><p>Tolerance: A decrease in the effectiveness of a drug that is </p><p>administered repeatedly.</p><p>Sensitization: An increase in the effectiveness of a drug that </p><p>is administered repeatedly.</p></li><li><p>12 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Principles of PharmacologyEffects of Repeated Administration</p><p>Withdrawal symptom: The appearance of symptoms opposite to those </p><p>produced by a drug when the drug is administered repeatedly and then suddenly no longer taken.</p></li><li><p>13 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Principles of PharmacologyPlacebo Effects</p><p>Placebo: An inert substance given to an organism in lieu of </p><p>a physiologically active drug; used experimentally to control for the effects of mere administration of a drug.</p></li><li><p>14 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Sites of Drug Action</p><p>Antagonist: A drug that opposes or inhibits the effects of a </p><p>particular neurotransmitter on the postsynaptic cell.</p><p>Agonist: A drug that facilitates the effects of a particular </p><p>neurotransmitter on the postsynaptic cell.</p></li><li><p>15 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Sites of Drug ActionEffects on Receptors</p><p>Direct agonist: A drug that binds with an activates a receptor.</p><p>Receptor blocker: A drug that binds with a receptor but does not </p><p>activate it; prevents the natural ligand from binding with the receptor.</p></li><li><p>16 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Sites of Drug ActionEffects on Receptors</p><p>Direct antagonist: Synonym for a receptor blocker.</p><p>Noncompetitive binding: Binding of a drug to a site on a receptor; does not </p><p>interfere with the binding site for the principal ligand.</p></li><li><p>17 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Sites of Drug ActionEffects on Receptors</p><p>Indirect antagonist: A drug that attaches to a binding site on a </p><p>receptor and interferes with the action of the receptor; does not interfere with the binding of the principal ligand.</p><p>Indirect agonist: A drug that attaches to a binding site on a </p><p>receptor and facilitates the action of the receptor; does not interfere with the binding site of the principal ligand.</p></li><li><p>18 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p></li><li><p>19 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p></li><li><p>20 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsAcetylcholine</p><p>The first transmitter to be discovered.</p><p>The primary neurotransmitter secreted by the efferent axons of the central nervous system.</p><p>All muscular movement is accomplished by the release of acetylcholine.</p><p>Appears to be involved in regulating REM sleep, perceptual learning, and memory.</p></li><li><p>21 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsAcetylcholine</p><p>Botulinum toxin: An acetylcholine antagonist; prevents release by </p><p>terminal buttons.</p><p>Black widow spider venom A poison produced by the black widow spider </p><p>that triggers the release of acetylcholine.</p><p>Neostigmine: A drug that inhibits the activity of </p><p>acetylcholinesterase.</p></li><li><p>22 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsAcetylcholine</p><p>Nicotinic receptor: An ionotropic acetylcholine receptor that is </p><p>stimulated by nicotine and blocked by curare.</p><p>Muscarinic receptor: A metabotropic acetylcholine receptor that is </p><p>stimulated by muscarine and blocked by atropine.</p><p>Atropine: A drug that blocks muscarinic acetylcholine </p><p>receptors .</p><p>Curare: A drug that blocks nicotinic acetylcholine </p><p>receptors.</p></li><li><p>23 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsMonoamines</p><p>Catecholamines Dopamine (DA) Norepinephrine (NE) Epinephrine</p><p>Indolamines Serotonin (5-HT)</p></li><li><p>24 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsMonoamines</p><p>Monoamine: A class of amines that includes indolamines such </p><p>as serotonin and catecholamines such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine.</p><p>Indolamines Serotonin (5-HT)</p></li><li><p>25 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsMonoaminesDopamine </p><p>Dopamine: A neurotransmitter; one of the catecholamine.</p><p> Produces both excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials.</p><p> Implicated roles in movement, attention, learning, reinforcing effects of abused drugs.</p><p> Synthesized from tyrosine that we obtain from our diet.</p></li><li><p>26 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsMonoaminesDopamine</p><p>L-Dopa: The levorotatory form of DOPA; the precursor of </p><p>the catecholamines; often used to treat Parkinsons disease because of its as a dopamine agonist.</p></li><li><p>27 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsMonoaminesDopamine</p><p>Nigrostriatal system: A system of neurons originating in the substantia</p><p>nigra and terminating in the neostriatum (caudate nucleus and putamen of the basal ganglia); appears to play a role in the control of movement.</p></li><li><p>28 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsMonoaminesDopamine</p><p>Mesolimbic system: A system of dopaminergic neurons originating in </p><p>the ventral tegmental area and terminating in the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and hippocampus; appears to play a role in the reinforcing effects of drugs that are commonly abused.</p></li><li><p>29 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsMonoaminesDopamine</p><p>Mesocortical system: A system of dopaminergic neurons originating in </p><p>the ventral tegmental area and terminating in the prefrontal cortex; appears to influence formation of short-term memories, planning, and preparing strategies for problem solving.</p></li><li><p>30 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsMonoaminesDopamine</p><p>Parkinsons Disease: A neurological disease characterized by tremors, </p><p>rigidity of the limbs, poor balance, and difficulty in initiating movements; caused by degeneration of the nigrostriatal system; Parkinsons disease has been treated with L-DOPA.</p></li><li><p>31 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsMonoaminesDopamine</p><p>AMPT: A drug that blocks the activity of tyrosine </p><p>hydroxylase and thus interferes with the synthesis of the catecholamines.</p><p>Reserpine: A drug that interferes with the storage of </p><p>monoamines in synaptic vesicles; serves as a monoamine antagonist.</p></li><li><p>32 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsMonoaminesDopamine</p><p>Apomorphine: A drug that blocks dopamine autoreceptors at </p><p>low doses; at high doses blocks postsynaptic receptors as well.</p><p>Methylphenidate: A drug that inhibits the reuptake of dopamine; </p><p>also known as Ritalin; used to treat children with attention deficit disorder.</p></li><li><p>33 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsMonoaminesDopamine</p><p>Monoamine oxidase (MAO): A class of enzymes that destroy the </p><p>monoamines; dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin.</p><p>deprenyl: A drug that blocks the activity of MAO-B; acts as </p><p>a dopamine agonist.</p></li><li><p>34 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsMonoaminesDopamine</p><p>Chlorpromazine: A drug that reduces the symptoms of </p><p>schizophrenia by blocking dopamine D2receptors.</p><p>Clozapine: A drug that reduces the symptoms of </p><p>schizophrenia, apparently by blocking dopamine D4 receptors.</p></li><li><p>35 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsMonoaminesNorepinephrine (NE)</p><p>Norepinephrine is synonymous with noradrenaline.</p><p>Found in neurons of the brain and the autonomic nervous system.</p><p>Almost every region of the brain receives input from noradrenergic neurons.</p><p>Implicated to play central role in vigilance or attentiveness to events in the environment.</p></li><li><p>36 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsMonoaminesNorepinephrine (NE)</p><p>Norepinephrine: One of the catecholamines; a neurotransmitter </p><p>found in the brain and in the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.</p><p>Epinephrine: One of the catecholamies; a hormone secreted </p><p>by the adrenal medulla; serves as a neurotransmitter in the brain.</p></li><li><p>37 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsMonoaminesNorepinephrine (NE)</p><p>Fusaric acid: A drug that inhibits the activity of the enzyme </p><p>dopamine--hydroxylase and thus blocks the production of norepinephrine.</p><p>Locus coeruleus: A dark-colored group of noradreneric cell bodies </p><p>located in the pons near the rostral end of the floor of the fourth ventricle.</p></li><li><p>38 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsMonoaminesSerotonin (5-HT)</p><p>Serotonin: Serotonin is an indolamine neurotransmitter; also </p><p>called 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT); thought to play a role in the regulation of mood, the control of eating, sleep, dreaming, and arousal; also thought to be involved in the regulation of pain.</p></li><li><p>39 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsMonoaminesSerotonin (5-HT)</p><p> PCPA:A drug that inhibits the activity of tryptophanhydroxylase and thus interferes with the synthesis of 5-HT.</p></li><li><p>40 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsMonoaminesSerotonin (5-HT)</p><p> Fluoxetine (Prozac):A drug that inhibits the reuptake of 5-HT.</p></li><li><p>41 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsMonoaminesSerotonin (5-HT)</p><p> Fenfluramine:A drug that stimulates the release of 5-HT; used as an appetite suppressant.</p><p> LSD:Lysergic acid diethylamideThis drug produces distortions of visual perceptions.A drug that stimulates 5-HT2a receptors.</p></li><li><p>42 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsAmino Acids</p><p>The most common amino acid transmitters are:</p><p> Glutamate</p><p> Gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA)</p><p> Glycine</p></li><li><p>43 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsAmino AcidsGlutamate</p><p>Glutamate: An amino acid; the most important excitatory </p><p>neurotransmitter in the brain.</p><p>NMDA: A drug that serves as a noradrenergic and </p><p>serotonergic agonist</p></li><li><p>44 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsAmino AcidsGlutamate</p><p>NMDA receptor: A specialized ionotropic glutamate receptor that </p><p>controls a calcium channel that is normally blocked by Mg2+ ions; has several other binding sites.</p><p>AMPA receptor: An ionotropic glutamate receptor that controls a </p><p>sodium channel; stimulated by AMPA and blocked by CNQX; the most common glutamate receptor.</p></li><li><p>45 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p></li><li><p>46 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsAmino AcidsGlutamate</p><p>Kainate receptor: An ionotropic glutamate receptor that controls a </p><p>sodium channel; stimulated by kainic acid and blocked by CNQX.</p><p>Metabotropic glutamate receptor: A category of metabotropic receptors sensitive to </p><p>glutamate.</p><p>AP5: A drug that blocks the glutamate binding site on </p><p>NMDA receptors</p></li><li><p>47 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsAmino AcidsGlutamate</p><p>Phencyclidine (PCP): A drug that binds with the PCP binding site of the </p><p>NMDA receptor and serves as an indirect antagonist of glutamate.</p><p> Behavioral symptoms include altered body image, feelings of isolation and sadness, cognitive disorganization, apathy, hostility euphoria and dreamlike states.</p></li><li><p>48 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsAmino AcidsGABA</p><p>GABA: An amino acid; the most important inhibitory </p><p>neurotransmitter in the brain and spinal cord.</p></li><li><p>49 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p></li><li><p>50 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsAmino AcidsGABA</p><p>Benzodiazepine: A category of anxiolytic drugs; an indirect agonist </p><p>for the GABAA receptor.</p><p>Anxiolytic: An anxiety-reducing effect.</p></li><li><p>51 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsAmino AcidsGlycine</p><p>Glycine: An amino acid; an important inhibitory </p><p>neurotransmitter in the lower brain stem and spinal cord.</p><p>Strychnine: A direct antagonist for the glycine receptor.</p></li><li><p>52 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsPeptides</p><p>Neurons of the central nervous system release a large variety of peptides.</p><p>A neuron manufactures both the polypeptides and the enzymes that it needs to break them apart.</p><p>Synthesis takes place in the soma and they are delivered to the terminal buttons by axoplasmictransport.</p><p>Most peptides appear to serve as neuromodulators, some act as neurotransmitter.</p></li><li><p>53 Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004</p><p>Neurotransmitters and NeuromodulatorsPeptides</p><p>Endogenous opioid: A class of peptides secreted by the brain that act </p><p>as opiates; drugs that ef...</p></li></ul>

Recommended

View more >