pressentation on transdermal patches

Download Pressentation on Transdermal Patches

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A Transdermal Patchis amedicatedadhesivepatch that is placed on theskinto deliver a specificdoseof medication through the skin and into the bloodstream.

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  • 1. By Shrikant Athavale Prathith Consultants Pune India 17-06-2013 1
  • 2. Background A Transdermal Patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream. Often, this promotes healing to an injured area of the body. An advantage of a transdermal drug delivery route over other types of medication delivery such as oral, topical, intravenous, intramuscular, etc. is that the patch provides a controlled release of the medication into the patient, usually through either a porous membrane covering a reservoir of medication or through body heat melting thin layers of medication embedded in the adhesive. 17-06-2013 2
  • 3. Transdermal Patch Much more than a Surgical Tape Transdermal patches are simple to use into the bloodstream deliver drugs straight 17-06-2013 through the skin. 3
  • 4. Medicines in pill form have a long, tortuous journey must go through the digestive system the liver must eventually eliminate them to get to destination 17-06-2013 they are absorbed into the blood they pass through the liver, before circulating to the rest of the body 4
  • 5. Comparison of Medicine Travel Pill v/s Transdermal Medicines pill Transdermal 17-06-2013 5
  • 6. Transdermal Drug Delivery Designing The essential Factors are Selection of Drug Drug Stability Polymer Selection Release Control Improvement of drug absorption 17-06-2013 Minimize Skin Irritation 6
  • 7. Transdermal Drug Delivery Designing Polymer Selection The main polymers used are silicone, polyisobutylene and acrylic ( most dominating ) 17-06-2013 7
  • 8. Transdermal Drug Delivery Designing Release Control solubilizes, and solubilizing adjuvants 17-06-2013 8
  • 9. Transdermal Drug Delivery Designing Improvement of drug absorption Transdermal absorption Enhancers Like Isopropyl myristate Oleyl alcohol 17-06-2013 9
  • 10. Drug in Adhesive System Backing Adhesive with Drug Release Liner Simple DIA designs are popular, as they can be made by adding the drug and other components to the adhesive, mixing them, and then laminating them to a backing layer. 17-06-2013 10
  • 11. Matrix System Backing Adhesive Drug reservoir Release Liner Liquid reservoir designs have the drawback of needing great precision in manufacturing to avoid the drugs leaking, 17-06-2013 11
  • 12. Liquid Reservoir System Backing Drug reservoir Adhesive Rate Limiting membrane Release Liner while the extra membranes create a more complex manufacturing process. The matrix is often created by mixing a high concentration of drug into an adhesive, as high as 30 per cent, compared to around 5 per cent in DIA designs. 17-06-2013 12
  • 13. Advantages of Transdermal Drug Delivery do not put too much load on digestive system and liver avoid the pain on injection eliminate the adverse effects associated with excessive absorption of drugs taken orally thereby alleviate anxiety offer more comfort to patients produce excellent prolonged effects administration can be visually confirmed 17-06-2013 13
  • 14. Transdermal Drug Delivery patches May cause side effects like o light headedness o dizziness o redness or irritation of the skin ( covered by the patch ) o flushing some other side effects cab be serious slow or fast heart beat worsening chest pain fainting rash itching difficulty in breathing or swallowing 17-06-2013 14
  • 15. Transdermal Drug Delivery patches The patient can suffer a overdose symptoms of overdose may include 17-06-2013 Headache confusion Fever dizziness slow or pounding heartbeat nausea Vomiting fainting shortness of breath sweating Flushing cold and clammy skin loss of ability to move the body coma ( loss of consciousness for a period of time ) 15
  • 16. Applications of Transdermal Patches Treatment of Ischemic Heart Disease TDD with isosorbide dinitrade contain in adhesive treats ischemic heart diseases such as angina pectoris, when applied on chest or upper abdomen release the drug contribute to therapeutic improvement of cardic function. For Local Anesthesia with tulobuterol ( Respiratory function has a circadian rhythem and is known to decrease from around midnight to early morning , generally known as "morning dip" paients suffering from bronchial asthma, accacks often occur in the early morning , caused by morning dip, is a major stress factor this patch offers a long lasting brochodilating effect 17-06-2013 16
  • 17. Special precautions when using transdermal patches apply patch to clean, dry, unbroken skin apply patch firmly ( it may take 20-30 seconds to get it stick firmly in place) wash your hands after applying use only one patch at a time if ou need to conduct MRI test , the patch may need to be removed if you develop skin irritation ( due to adhesive ) , appy the next patch on another area when you remove the skin patch, fold it so the adhesive edges stick together gently wash the area with soap and water 17-06-2013 17
  • 18. The main Components The main components to a transdermal patch are: Liner - Protects the patch during storage. The liner is removed prior to use. Drug Drug solution in direct contact with release liner Adhesive Serves to adhere the components of the patch together along with adhering the patch to the skin Membrane - Controls the release of the drug from the reservoir and multi-layer patches Backing Protects the patch from the outer environment 17-06-2013 18
  • 19. There are five main types of transdermal patches. Single-layer Drug-in-Adhesive Multi-layer Drug-in-Adhesive Reservoir Matrix Vapour Patch 17-06-2013 19
  • 20. Single-layer Drug-in-Adhesive The adhesive layer of this system also contains the drug. In this type of patch the adhesive layer not only serves to adhere the various layers together, along with the entire system to the skin, but is also responsible for the releasing of the drug. The adhesive layer is surrounded by a temporary liner and a backing. 17-06-2013 20
  • 21. Multi-layer Drug-in-Adhesive The multi-layer drug-in adhesive patch is similar to the singlelayer system in that both adhesive layers are also responsible for the releasing of the drug.One of the layers is for immediate release of the drug and other layer is for control release of drug from the reservoir. The multi-layer system is different however that it adds another layer of drug-in-adhesive, usually separated by a membrane (but not in all cases). This patch also has a temporary liner-layer and a permanent backing. 17-06-2013 21
  • 22. Reservoir Unlike the Single-layer and Multi-layer Drug-in-adhesive systems the reservoir transdermal system has a separate drug layer. The drug layer is a liquid compartment containing a drug solution or suspension separated by the adhesive layer. This patch is also backed by the backing layer. In this type of system the rate of release is zero order. 17-06-2013 22
  • 23. Matrix The Matrix system has a drug layer of a semisolid matrix containing a drug solution or suspension. The adhesive layer in this patch surrounds the drug layer partially overlaying it. Also known as a monolithic device. 17-06-2013 23
  • 24. Vapour Patch In this type of patch the adhesive layer not only serves to adhere the various layers together but also to release vapour. The vapour patches are new on the market and they release essential oils for up to 6 hours. The vapour patches release essential oils and are used in cases of decongestion mainly. Other vapour patches on the market are controller vapour patches that improve the quality of sleep. Vapour patches that reduce the quantity of cigarettes that one smokes in a month are also available on the market. 17-06-2013 24
  • 25. Popular uses The highest selling transdermal patch i