presentation j.w.m.m. van hellenberg hubar mid term colloquium 2011 07 13

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The mid-term colloquium presentation of my graduation. The graduation theme is “Electrical and thermal energy balance analysis for an off-grid campground site”. The graduation research is performed at the Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e) in the research group of prof.dr.ir Jan Hensen.

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  • 1. Electrical and thermal energy balance analysis for an off-grid campground site
    July 13th, 2011
    Jeroen van Hellenberg Hubar, BEng
    Supervisors
    Prof. dr. ir. J.L.M. Hensen
    Dr. dipl.-ing M. Trcka
    B. Lee MSc

2. Outline
Introduction
Objective
Research Question
Methodology
Preliminary results
Future plan
/ Building Physics & Systems
PAGE 1
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3. Introduction
PAGE 2
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Current energy situation
Buildings are always connected to the grid
Electricity
Gas
Source of energy neither a choice or concern
/ Building Physics & Systems
4. Introduction
PAGE 3
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Remote / rural area
Buildings are completely off-grid
Energy has to be provided with an off-grid energy source.
PAGE 3
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/ Building Physics & Systems
5. Introduction
International Energy Agency (IEA)
Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems (ECBCS)
Annexes / Tasks
Goal: Integrated and performance based solutions for energy efficient and environmentally friendly buildings and communities, that support sustainability and produce carbon-free energy according to demand
PAGE 4
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/ Building Physics & Systems
6. Introduction
PAGE 5
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Annex 54
Integration of Micro-Generation and Related Energy Technologies in Buildings
Subtask B
Use simulations to develop an extensive library of performance studies and synthesis techniques to identify generic performance trends and rules of thumb regarding the appropriate deployment of micro-generation technologies.
/ Building Physics & Systems
7. Objective
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Develop a concept design (with a case study to demonstrate) for an off-grid community

  • Ensure the comfort of the occupants

8. The energy generation is an optimized combination of different renewable micro generation technologies./ Building Physics & Systems
9. Research Question
PAGE 7
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Research Question
How to develop a design concept which ensures the comfort of the occupants, and has an optimized (system) performance of an energy system with 100% renewable micro-generation technologies which has to satisfy the electrical and thermal energy demand, for an off-grid campground at Texel, in the Netherlands?
/ Building Physics & Systems
10. Research Question
PAGE 8
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Sub Questions
How to ensure the comfort, in terms of the availability of domestic hot water, electricity and a desirable indoor temperature for an off grid campground?
In which way shall the individual components be integrated / incorporated as a energy system that balances demand with generation for an off-grid campground?
Which configuration, of different technology mixes, is the most favorable for supplying the campground with thermal and electrical energy?
/ Building Physics & Systems
11. Methodology
Computational Research/paper [Ashby, 2005]
Input
Computational Tools
Method
PAGE 9
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[Ashby, 2005]: Ashby, M. (2005) How to write a paper, Engineering Department University of Cambridge, Cambridge 6th Edition.
/ Building Physics & Systems
12. Methodology
Input
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Generation side

  • Solar panel; ZEN Power 205

13. Solar collector; Natatech SX 2.85 14. Urban wind turbine; Turby 15. Off-shore wind turbine; Vestas V164-7.0 16. Heatpump; Air-water heatpump TRNSYS configuration 17. Auxilliary heaters; TRNSYS configurationDemand side

  • Auto Camper Service International (ASCI) guide

18. Dutch Agency of the ministry of Economic affairs, agriculture and innovation (Agentschap NL) 19. Central Bureau of Statistics of the Netherlands (CBS) 20. Knowledge Institute for the installation technology sector (ISSO) 21. Association of water companies in the Netherlands (VEWIN) 22. IEA Solar Heating & Cooling program (IEA-SHC Task 26)/ Building Physics & Systems
23. Methodology
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(Computational) Tools

  • Google SketchUp: Designing the 3D-models for the accommodation and facilities at the campground

24. Trnsys3d:Convert the 3D-model to the simulation program TRNSYS. 25. TRNSYS: the transient energy system simulation tool, which is used to create the space heating demand and to balance the energy demand and energy generation; 26. Microsoft Excel: The electricity demand, domestic hot water demand and occupancy profile are created in this spreadsheet software; 27. ModeFRONTIER: Optimization software/ Building Physics & Systems
28. Methodology
Method
Creating input profiles according the Dutch comfort norms
Creating energy demand profiles according the Dutch norms
Model the energy demand and generation in TRNSYS
Define the optimization performance indicators
Formulate the optimization parameters
Optimize the energy generation according to the strategy towards near-zero energy and carbon emissions in the built environment
Define a (small) performance trend between the energy demand of a campground and the mix of the micro-generation technologies in the Netherlands.
PAGE 12
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Results will be presented in this presentation
Future research
/ Building Physics & Systems
29. Input profiles
PAGE 13
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Campground
Source: Auto Camper Service International (ASCI) guide
Central Bureau of Statistics of the Netherlands (CBS)
/ Building Physics & Systems
30. Input profiles
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Domestic Hot Water(DHW)
Space heating
Source:Knowledge Institute for the installation technology sector (ISSO)
Association of water companies in the Netherlands (VEWIN)
IEA Solar Heating & Cooling program (IEA-SHC Task 26)
/ Building Physics & Systems
31. Input profiles
PAGE 15
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Electricity Use
Normal distribution
Source: Dutch Agency of the ministry of Economic affairs,
agriculture andinnovation(Agentschap NL)
/ Building Physics & Systems
32. Energy demand profiles
PAGE 16
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Campground occupancy
Average occupancy in the Netherlands = 14,1%
Source: Central Bureau of Statistics of the Netherlands (CBS)
/ Building Physics & Systems
33. Energy demand profiles
PAGE 17
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Domestic Hot Water(DHW)
/ Building Physics & Systems
34. Energy demand profiles
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Electricity demand
PAGE 18
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/ Building Physics & Systems
35. Energy demand profile
PAGE 19
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/ Building Physics & Systems
36. Energy demand profile
PAGE 20
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The daily electricity demand created by the normal distribution of several appliances in tent02.
The number of tents of type 02 at the traditional campground.
The occupancy of the campground throughout a year.
A combination of the previous three the final electricity demand for tent02 on the traditional campground.
/ Building Physics & Systems
37. Energy demand profile
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Space heating demand
model for a cabin
Source: Dutch Agency of the ministry of Economic affairs,
agriculture andinnovation(Agentschap NL)
/ Building Physics & Systems
38. TRNSYS model
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Demand side; Accommodations / facilities
/ Building Physics & Systems
39. TRNSYS model
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Generation side; Thermal energy
DHW
HW
/ Building Physics & Systems
40. TRNSYS model
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Generation side: Electrical energy
/ Building Physics & Systems
41. Performance indicators
Energy
CO2
(Investment) cost
Minimize the Green House Gas(GHG) emissions
Reason: IPCC 2007 report states GHG, in specific CO2, are main causes of the temperature change on earth
How: Using renewable micro-generation technologies and adding CO2 emission factor to each equipment(only the CO2 emission during energy production is taken into account)
Minimize the (investment) cost of the equipment
Reason:Decisions are made upon (investment) costs
How: Adding a (investment) price for each equipment per size for the optimization (m2 / kW / KJ / etc)
PAGE 25
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Research focus is not on reducing the energy demand but on balancing the energy demand and generation. Therefore a community is allowed to use energy .
The performance indicators are to minimize CO2emittance and the (investment) costs of the energy source.
/ Building Physics & Systems
42. Optimization parameters
PAGE 26
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Indoor Temperature according Dutch Norms
DHW output temperature >60C
Inputparameters
Constrains
Objectives
MODEfrontier
Solar panel
Solar collector
Urban wind turbineHeat pumpAuxiliary heater DHW
Auxiliary heater HW
Fan coil
Buffer DHW
Buffer HW
Battery
Minimize CO2emittance
Minimize (investment) cost
Generation
Size
Equipment
/ Building Physics & Systems
43. Methodology
Method
Creating input profiles according the Dutch comfort norms
Creating energy demand profiles according the Dutch norms
Model the energy demand and generation in TRNSYS
Define the optimiza