Prehistoric egypt

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<ul><li><p>BEFORE THE PHARAOHSPREHISTORIC EGYPT</p><p>M. Fahmy Raiyah</p></li><li><p>Jacques de MorganFlinders PetriPIONEERS OF EGYPTIAN PREHISTORIC EXCAVATIONS </p></li><li><p>PALAEOLITHIC (c.500,00010,000 BC)</p></li><li><p>Upper, Middle and Lower Paleolithic industries of Egypt.</p><p>Date Period Egyptian variant5000 BC NeolithicQarunianShamarkian6500 BC Epi-paleolithicArkiniansQadanHalfanKubbaniyanIdfuan20,000 BC Upper (late) PaleolithicKhormusanAterianMousterian90,000 BC Middle PaleolithicArkin 8Umm ShagirBir Sahara 14300,000 BC Lower Paleolithic</p></li><li><p>Two bipolar Upper Paleolithic blade cores (up to 13 cm long)</p></li><li><p>Handaxes from prehistoric Egypt. Lower Paleolithic or Middle Paleolithic. From the Metropolitan Museum in New York.</p></li><li><p>Khormusan(between 45,000 and 15,000 BC)Lower Nubia and Upper EgyptTools from stone, animal bones and hematiteSmall arrow heads</p></li><li><p>Halfan (between 17,000 and 13,000 BC)From the second cataract to Kom OmboLevallois toolsMicroliths</p></li><li><p>Microlithic tools</p></li><li><p>Kubbaniyans(16,070 15,640 BC) used tiny microlithic tools and divided their time between two distinct but overlapping habitats.storing food</p></li><li><p>Qadan (13,000-9,000 BC)Qadan burials: The bodies were buried loosely flexed on their left sides with their heads to the east and facing south. More than one individual often shared the same grave </p></li><li><p>CLIMATE CHANGESFrom 120,000 90,000 BC: A moister, rainier period prevailed, enabling Lower Paleolithic people to live and hunt on ancient savannas.About 90,000 years ago: The rains that characterized the Lower Paleolithic Period were interrupted, and for a short time the Sahara became a vast desert. Soon, a more humid climate returned, and scientists call this the Middle Paleolithic. Springs, lakes and lush grasslands covered much of the Sahara, surpassing the savanna conditions that had prevailed in the earlier Lower Paleolithic Period.</p></li><li><p>Around 37,000 BC: the climate began to dry up, and by 30,000 BC Egypts environment was as arid as it is today. The flora and fauna of the Western Desert disappeared, and the Middle Paleolithic peoples living there lost their food sources.</p><p>moister, more hospitable climate returned to Egypt from about 17,000 to 13,000 BC.</p></li><li><p>NEOLITHIC</p></li><li><p>6000 BC: Mid-Neolithic period</p></li><li><p>4000 BCLate Neolithic/Early Predynastic</p></li><li><p>Source: </p><p>datethe cultural backgrounddurationbefore 8000 BCPalaeolithic8000-5200 BCEpipalaeolithic (Tarifian;Qarunian- Fayum B - 6000-5000 BC)3000 years6000-5000 BCNabta Playa1000 years5200-4000 BCFayum Neolithic(Fayum A)1200 years4800-4200 BCMerimde600 years4600-4400 BCEl Omari200 years4400-4000 BCBadarian400 years4000-3300 BCMaadi700 years4000-3500 BCNaqada I500 years3500-3200 BCEgypt in the Naqada PeriodNaqada II300 years3200-3100 BCNaqada III100 years</p></li><li><p>Predynastic cultures in Lower and Upper Egypt</p><p>Date (BC) Upper Egypt Lower Egypt3150 Protodynastic Protodynastic3300 Naqada III Naqada III3400 Naqada IIcd (Late Gerzean)Maadian (Late Gerzean)3650 Naqada IIab (Early Gerzean) Omari B (?)3750 Naqada I (Amratian) Omari A (?)4400 Badarian4800 Merimden5200 Fayyum A</p><p>Source: After Brewer, Douglas J. and Teeter, Emily, Egypt and the Egyptians (Cambridge University Press, 1999)</p></li><li><p>NABTA PLAYA</p></li><li><p>Between 9500 and 5000 radiocarbon years ago the area of Nabta Playa, in the Western Desert of Egypt received 100 to 200 mm of rainfall per year, making it more suitable for human occupation. The rainfall gathered in a series of lakes; Nabta Playa, one of the largest in the region. The earliest sites were located around these large water resources, as were many Palaeolithic sites in Egypt. The lakes attracted humans and other animals and supported a subsistence base of hunting, gathering and in some cases fishing. During the last part of the Neolithic sequence at Nabta Playa, beginning around 4500 BC, the climate began shifting towards the modern hyper-aridity.</p></li><li><p>Groups here were not sedentary but practiced seasonal migration to take advantage of different food resources as they became available. Initially, cattle, and later sheep and goat, were probably herded by the migrating people. By planting a few crops in well-watered areas along the way, they added an additional food resources. Cultivated plants might have been abandoned until harvest, or they may have been tended for part or all of the growing season. Some groups may have even been semi-permanently settled, like those in the late Neolithic Fayyum, where it is thought some members lived at one site year-round.</p></li><li><p>Nabta Playa calendar in Aswan Nubia museum</p></li><li><p>FAYOUM c.51004500 BC</p></li><li><p>The earliest fully developed Neolithic sites in the Egyptian Nile Valley are located in the north and date between c.51004500 BC, with Fayum A and Merimde Benisalame being the older ones.</p></li><li><p>Transition from hunting and gathering and fishing to farming and herding. New technology/tools for farmers Wild to domesticated animals Guaranteed food supply at hand Permanent Housing Pottery (for storage) Child-bearing women = sedentary Population increases More help for farming (intensive) Village life initiates urbanization</p></li><li><p>The Fayum Pre-dynastic period has been split up into two phases, </p><p> Fayum A: 5200-4000 BC</p><p> Fayum B: 6000-5000 BC</p></li><li><p>MERMIDA5000-4400 BC</p></li><li><p>OMARI4600-4400 BC</p></li><li><p>It discovered in 1924 by the Egyptian mineralogist Amim El-Omari and Paul Bovier-La pierre. Bovier-La pierre excavated parts of the site during two weeks in 1925. In 1943 Fernand Debono continued the excavations. The excavations were finally published in 1990.From the settlement only pits and postholes survived. The houses might have been built from wattle and daub. All excavated objects were found in the pits.The pottery is made with the local clay. The stone tool repertoire consists of small flakes, axes, sickles and point.The dead were buried in abandoned storage pits near houses. The body was placed on the left side with the head to the south and facing west. Many burials contained a small pot place in front of the body</p></li><li><p>MAADI/BUTO</p></li><li><p>Maadian pottery vessels</p></li><li><p>The subterranean style house found at Maadi from above (a) and in profile (b). The closest known counterpart to this structure is found in Southwest Asia.</p></li><li><p>Badarian culture4400- 4000</p></li><li><p> used copper in addition to stoneplanted wheat and barleyKept cattle, sheep, and goats.Fished from the Nile and hunted gazelle.</p></li><li><p>Ancient Badarian figurine of a woman with incised features (c. 4000 BC), carved out of hippopotamusivory, held at the British Museum. This type of figure is found in burials of both Badarian men and women</p></li><li><p>blade of knife</p></li><li><p>arrowhead</p></li><li><p>axe</p></li><li><p>Typical Badarian artefacts</p></li><li><p>A large sunken ceramic vessel employed as a Badarian grain silo.</p></li><li><p>An ostrich eggshell bead in profile and as a strung series for a necklace.</p></li><li><p>string of beads from a Badarian tomb, the oldest glazed beads</p></li><li><p>NAQADA</p></li><li><p>The Naqada period was first divided by the British EgyptologistWilliam Flinders Petrie, who explored the site in 1894, into three sub-periods:Naqada I:Amratian (after the cemetery nearEl-Amrah)Naqada II:Gerzean (after the cemetery nearGerzeh)Naqada III:Semainean (after the cemetery near Es-Semaina)</p></li><li><p>NAQADA I (Amratian)</p><p>4000 BC to 3500 BC</p></li><li><p>An interestingartefact of the Naqada I Periodis the animal relief pot.</p></li><li><p>Stone vessels</p></li><li><p>Stone vessels</p></li><li><p>An abbreviated list of pot marks recorded on early Naqada vessels. Note how some marks resemble early hieroglyphs.</p></li><li><p>That boats were of great symbolic importance to the earliest inhabitants of Upper Egypt is shown by this predynastic model of a man lying in a foetal position in a coracle-like vessel, surely one of the most poignant images from this early period, conveying a deep sense of desolation. As was probably the case here, the boat was frequently used to represent the transit of the dead to the Afterlife. Naqada I, probably from Middle Egypt</p></li><li><p>A clay figurine </p></li><li><p>A disc-shaped mace head made of dark grey and white porphyry.</p></li><li><p>Sickle blade with the characteristicdenticulated cutting edge.</p></li><li><p>Scorpion palette</p></li><li><p>A sherd of Naqada I pottery bearing a representation of the red crown of Lower Egypt</p></li><li><p>Senet board and pieces.</p></li><li><p>Circular huts from Naqada I culture</p></li><li><p>NAQADA II</p></li><li><p>Painting in tomb 100 in Hierakonpolis</p></li><li><p>Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. </p></li><li><p>Grey-green ware with the wavy-handle lug</p></li><li><p>Grey-green waredecorative wavy design</p></li><li><p>Naqada II stone vessels which, unlike earlier periods, are made from harder stones such as basalt.</p></li><li><p>Designs on three Nagada II (Gerzean) Decorated Ware vessels. </p></li><li><p>The pear-shapedmace replaced theearlier disc mace.</p></li><li><p>mace head</p></li><li><p>An amulet shaped in the form of a bulls head.</p></li><li><p>Two-headed palette with opposing effigies, a characteristic design ofNaqada II.</p></li><li><p>Polished side of a Gerzean flint blade from Abu Zaidan (09.889.120). The Brooklyn Museum, New York.</p></li><li><p>Gerzean flint blades with rounded ends The British Museum, London</p></li><li><p>The Gebel el-Arak knife.</p></li><li><p>Brooklyn handle: carved ivory knife handle from Abu Zeidan, late predynastic (Nagada IIc/d). Brooklyn Museum </p></li><li><p>Rivers handle: carved ivory knife handle, late predynastic (Nagada IIc/d). Pitt-Rivers Museum, Farnham, Dorset. </p></li><li><p>Davis comb: carved ivory comb, late predynastic (Nagada IIc/d). Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York </p></li><li><p>Copper tools of the Naqada II Period: an adze (a) and an axe blade (b).</p></li><li><p>A typical Naqada II pit grave with the deceased placed in a crouched position, head to the south and looking to the west. Characteristic period ceramic vessels accompany the deceased in her final resting place.</p></li><li><p>basket coffin</p></li><li><p>wood coffin</p></li><li><p>NAQADA III</p></li><li><p>Theritual knife, dating to Naqada III period, now on display at theBrooklyn Museum</p></li><li><p>TheGebel-Tarif knifeof the Naqada III period.</p></li><li><p>Slate Palette with conquering towns scene</p></li><li><p>Bone Tags from tomb U-j at Abydos, Early Naqada III</p></li><li><p>Naqada I (Amratian)Naqada II (Gerzean)Naqada III (Semainian / Dyn.0)BURIALS</p></li><li><p>AppendixROCK DRAWINGS</p></li><li><p>Rock drawings come from different time periods, ranging from the Paleolithic, Neolithic to the pre-dynastic and dynastic times.In the 1930s, Hans Winkler collected and classified rock drawings from 40 different sites in both the Western and Eastern Deserts. </p></li><li><p>Earliest rock inscriptions are geometric designs and stylized animal footprints.</p></li><li><p>Detail of late Paleolithic rock art panel showing bovids. Qurta.</p></li><li><p>Detail of late Palaeolithic rock art panel showing three highly stylized human figures. Qurta.</p></li><li><p>Rock drawing, southern Upper Egypt, probably fifth- fourth millennium B.C . </p></li><li><p>THE CAVE OF SWIMMERS WADI SURA GILF KEBIR</p></li><li><p>Neolithic (?) hand stencils from Wadi el-Obeiyd Cave. Farafra Oasis.</p></li><li><p>Predynastic representation of highprowed boat with human figures, ubiquitous in the Eastern Desert. Wadi Barramiya. Probably Naqada II.</p></li><li><p>Finely engraved human and animalfigures. Theban Desert. Possibly early Predynastic(Tasian or Badarian).</p></li><li><p>Nag el Hamdulab vandalism to Naqada III site </p></li><li><p>MAPS</p></li><li><p>BIBLIOGRAPHYBrewer, Douglas J. Ancient Egypt, Foundations of a Civilization. London: Pearson, 2005.Davis, Whitney. Masking the Blow: The Scene of Representation in Late Prehistoric Egyptian Art. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.Rice, Michael. Egypts Making: The Origins of Ancient Egypt 5000 2000 BC. London: Rutledge, 2003.Teeters, Emily. Before the Pyramids: The Origins of Egyptian Civilization. Chicago: The Oriental Institute of University of Chicago, 2011. </p></li><li><p>Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London:</p><p>**</p></li></ul>