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- Prehistoric BritainPrehistoric Britain BC Roman Britain Roman Britain 43 AD Anglo Saxon Britain Anglo Saxon Britain 450 Viking Britain Viking Britain 793 Medieval Britain Medieval Britain 1066 Tudor Britain Tudor Britain 1485 Stuart Britain Stuart Britain 1603 Georgian Britain Georgian Britain 1714 Victorian Britain Victorian Britain 1837 Modern BritainModern Britain 1902 +
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- Hundreds of years ago, Britain didn't have just one king - it had lots! Celtic kings and princes ruled Scotland, Ireland and Wales, and everything else was divided up between tribes of Anglo-Saxons.Anglo-Saxons Each tribe had its own king. Sometimes one king became more powerful than the others, and for a while he would be overlord or chief king. Then in early 800s, bands of Danish Vikings from northern Europe began attacking Britain. In 878, the Saxon King of Wessex, Alfred the Great won a great battle against the Danes and forced them to agree to peace. Much of Britain was divided into Danish land (the Dane law) and Anglo-Saxon Land (England).VikingsAnglo-Saxon
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- Gradually the Danes and the Saxons learned to live together and in 924 Athelstan (Alfred's grandson) became king of both Saxon and Danish lands - the first 'King of England'. But England wasn't peaceful for long. After about 60 years, the Viking raids began again - and only ended in 1016, when the Danish King, Canute, became King of England.
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- Timeline of the Kings and Queens of England from 1066 to 1603 The Normans The Normans (1066 - 1154) Plantagenets Plantagenets ( )(1154 - 1399) The House of Lancaster The House of Lancaster (1399 - 1461) The House of York The House of York (1461 - 1485) The Tudors The Tudors (1485 -1603)
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- Kings and Queens of the United Kingdom from 1603 to the present day The Stuarts The Stuarts (1603 - 1649) (1660 - 1714) The House of Hanovarians The House of Hanovarians (1714 -1901) Saxe-Coburg-Gotha - - (1901 -1910) The Windsors The Windsors (1910 - Today)
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- The only time when there was no King or Queen in Britain was when the country was a republic between 1649 and 1660. ( In 1649 King Charles I was executed and Britain became a Republic for eleven years. The monarchy was restored in 1660.)
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- The Normans King William I, the Conqueror 1066 - 1087 Invaded England from Normandy. Defeated King Harold at the Battle of Hastings.Battle of Hastings In 1085 the Doomsday Survey was begun and all England was recorded so William knew exactly what his new kingdom contained. The Doomsday Book was, in effect, the first national census. When William died his lands were divided between his eldest two sons. Robert inherited Normandy, while William became king of England.
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- The Normans King William II, Rufus 1087 - 1100 Son of William I. He was called William Rufus or William the Red because of the reddish colour of his hair and complexion. He was killed in the New Forest by a stray arrow while out hunting, maybe accidentally, there is some doubt about this. The Rufus Stone in The New Forest marks the spot where he fell.
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- The Normans King Henry I 1100 - 1135 The fourth and youngest son of William I. Henry's two sons were drowned so his daughter Matilda was made his successor. When Henry died the Council considered a woman unfit to rule so offered the throne to Stephen, a grandson of William I.
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- The Normans King Stephen 1135 - 1154 Nephew of Henry I and grandson of William l. The Welsh and Scots invaded. Civil war followed between King Stephen and Matilda, Henry I's daughter. A compromise was decided, Matilda's son, Henry Plantagenet, was to be king when
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- The Normans Empress Matilda 1141 Daughter of Henry I. England's first female monarch. She was called the Empress because her dead husband had been the German Emperor. She had a very bad temper and wasn't very popular.
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- The Plantagenets King Henry II 1154 - 1189 Son of Matilda and grandson of Henry I. Came to the throne at just 21. He ruled for thirty-four years, but spent only fourteen of them in England. He controlled more of France than the King of France.
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- The Plantagenets King Richard I the Lionheart 1189 - 1199 Third and eldest surviving son of Henry II. He was in England for only ten months, spending the other time fighting in the *Crusades. He spoke very little English. He is usually depicted as a brave, warrior king, and was given the nickname 'Lionheart'. Richard had no children, so the next king was his brother John.
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- The Plantagenets King John 1 1199 - 1216 Fourth child of Henry II and brother of Richard l. Responsible for the Magna Carta (Great Charter) giving justice to all.
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- The Plantagenets King Henry III 1216 - 1272 Eldest son of John I. Henry was 9 years old when he became king. His reign lasted fifty-six years, making it the longest of any English monarch (NB not British monarch) In 1264 Henry was captured during a civil war and was forced to set up a 'Parlement' (from the French "parler", to talk) at Westminster, the start of the House of Commons. He rebuilt Westminster Abbey.
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- The Plantagenets King Edward I 1272 - 1307 Eldest son of Henry III. Edward 'Longshanks' (so called because he was over 6ft tall) fought wars against the Scots King Robert the Bruce and was called 'the hammer of the Scots'. Edward formed the Model Parliament in 1295, bringing together the knights, clergy, nobility and burgesses of the cities, bringing Lords and Commons together for the first time.
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- The Plantagenets King Edward II 1307 - 1327 Son of Edward I. He was called Edward of Carnarvon after his birthplace in Wales. Edward's wife raised an army to take over the Kingdom. He was murdered in gaol.
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- The Plantagenets King Edward III 1327 - 1377 Son of Edward II. Edward came to the throne at the age of 14. He fought many battles against the Scots and the French. Set up the Order of the Garter. The outbreak of bubonic plague, the 'Black Death' in 1348-1350 killed half the population of England. The Black Prince Edward's lll's eldest son was also called Edward. He was known as the Black Prince because of the colour of his armour.
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- The Plantagenets Richard II 1377 - 1399 Son of Edward the Black Prince and grandson of Edward III. Richard ruled at the time of Chaucer the poet. His cousin, Henry IV, had him murdered in prison to take over the throne.
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- The House of Lancaster Henry IV 1399 - 1413 Henry was eldest son of John of Gaunt (fourth son of Edward III) and grandson of Edward III. He came to the English throne by force. He made his cousin Richard ll, abdicate, and then seized the crown himself. This started a dispute between the House of Lancaster and the House of York. Henry died of leprosy in 1413.
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- The House of Lancaster Henry V 1413 - 1422 Son of Henry IV. He was the first English king who could read and write easily in English. Henry was 14 years old when he fought his first battle. He fought the French in the battle of Agincourt and won. Died at the age of 35.
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- The House of Lancaster Henry VI 1422 - 1461, 1470 - 1471 Henry succeeded the throne when he was only 9 months old. He was crowned King of France at Notre Dame in Paris on 16 December 1431. He lost the English claim to all French soil except for Calais. He was very ill during his reign. The war of the roses began between the House of Lancaster and the House of York. He founded Eton College in 1440. He was murdered in the Tower of London a few days after the Yorkist' victory in the Wars of Roses at Tewkesbury.
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- The House of York King Edward IV 1461 -1470, 1471 - 1483 Came to the throne in 1461 after defeating Henry Vl at the Battle of Towton, in Yorkshire. He was just 19 years old. Tried to bring peace to the country. During his reign the first printing press was established in Westminster by William Caxton.
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- The House of York King Edward V 1483 - 1483 Elder son of Edward IV. He reigned for only two months. He and his brother Richard were murdered in the Tower of London. He was only about 12 years old when he died.Tower of London
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- The House of York King Richard III 1483 - 1485 Younger brother of Edward IV and prime suspect to the suspected murders of the two princes, Edward and Richard. He was killed in battle against Henry Tudor (Henry VII) ending the Wars of the Roses. He was the last English King to die on the Battlefield.
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- The Tudors King Henry VII 1485 - 1509 Henry gained the throne when he defeated and killed Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485. The battle ended the War of the Roses, a dispute between the House of Lancaster and the House of York.King Henry VII Kept England peaceful and brought riches to the crown and country.
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- The Tudors King Henry VIII 1509 - 1547 Second son of Henry VII. Henry succeeded to the throne because his elder brother Arthur died in 1502. His first wife, Catherine of Aragon, was Arthur's wife. The best known fact about Henry VIII is that he had six wives! Argued with the Pope and made himself the hea
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