power point of sonali

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    `COMPUTERSECURITY

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    ` Computer security is a branch of computer technologyknown as information security as applied to computers andnetworks. The objective of computer security includesprotection of information and property from theft,

    corruption, or natural disaster, while allowing theinformation and property to remain accessible andproductive to its intended users. The term computer systemsecurity means the collective processes and mechanismsby which sensitive and valuable information and servicesare protected from publication, tampering or collapse by

    unauthorized activities or untrustworthy individuals andunplanned events respectively.

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    ` The technologies of computer security are based on logic. As security isnot necessarily the primary goal of most computer applications,designing a program with security in mind often imposes restrictions onthat program's behavior.

    ` There are 4 approaches to security in computing, sometimes acombination of approaches is valid:

    ` Trust all the software to abide by a security policy but the software isnot trustworthy (this is computer insecurity).

    ` Trust all the software to abide by a security policy and the software isvalidated as trustworthy (by tedious branch and path analysis forexample).

    ` Trust no software but enforce a security policy with mechanisms thatare not trustworthy (again this is computer insecurity).

    ` Trust no software but enforce a security policy with trustworthyhardware mechanisms.

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    ` Security Architecture can be defined as the design

    artifacts that describe how the security controls

    (security countermeasures) are positioned, and

    how they relate to the overall informationtechnology architecture. These controls serve the

    purpose to maintain the system's quality

    attributes, among them confidentiality, integrity,

    availability, accountability and assurance.[1]

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    ` Hardware based or assisted computer security

    offers an alternative to software-only computer

    security. Devices such as dongles may be

    considered more secure due to the physicalaccess required in order to be compromised .

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    ` One use of the term computer security refers totechnology to implement a secure operating system.Such ultra-strong secure operating systems are basedon operating system kernel technology that canguarantee that certain security policies are absolutelyenforced in an operating environment. An example ofsuch a Computer security policy is the Bell-LaPadulamodel. The strategy is based on a coupling of specialmicroprocessorhardware features, often involving thememory management unit, to a special correctly

    implemented operating system kernel.

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    ` If the operating environment is not based on a secureoperating system capable of maintaining a domain forits own execution, and capable of protectingapplication code from malicious subversion, and

    capable of protecting the system from subverted code,then high degrees of security are understandably notpossible. While such secure operating systems arepossible and have been implemented, mostcommercial systems fall in a 'low security' category

    because they rely on features not supported by secureoperating systems (like portability, and others)

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    ` Within computer systems, two security models

    capable of enforcing privilege separation are

    access control lists (ACLs) and capability-based

    security. The semantics of ACLs have beenproven to be insecure in many situations, for

    example, the confused deputy problem

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    ` Computer security is critical in almost any

    technology-driven industry which operates on

    computer systems. Computer security can also be

    referred to as computer safety. The issues ofcomputer based systems and addressing their

    countless vulnerabilities are an integral part of

    maintaining an operational industry.[3]

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    ` Security in the cloud is challenging[citation needed],

    due to varied degree of security features and

    management schemes within the cloud entitites. In

    this connection one logical protocol base need toevolve so that the entire gamet of components

    operates synchronously and securely[original

    research?].

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    ` A hackeris a person who breaks into computers

    and computer networks for profit, in protest, or

    because they are motivated by the challenge.[1]

    The subculture that has evolved around hackers isoften referred to as the computer underground but

    it is now an open community.[2]

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    ` information is a strategic resource` a significant portion of organisational budget is spent

    on manageing information` there are many types of information

    ` have several security related objectives confidentiality (secrecy) - protect info value integrity - protect info accuracy availabilty - ensure info delivery

    ` threats to information security various surveys, with results of order: 55% human error 10% disgruntled employees 10% dishonest employees 10% outsider access

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    ` A computer virus is a computer program that cancopy itself[1] and infect a computer. A true virus canspread from one computer to another (in some form ofexecutable code) when its host is taken to the target

    computer; for instance because a user sent it over anetwork or the Internet, or carried it on a removablemedium such as a floppy disk, CD, DVD, orUSBdrive.[2]

    ` Viruses can increase their chances of spreading to

    other computers by infecting files on a network filesystem or a file system that is accessed by anothercomputer.[3][4]

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    ` Understanding Anti-Virus Software &

    Understanding Firewalls

    ` Coordinating Virus and Spyware Defense

    ` Debunking Some Common Myths` Good Security Habits

    ` Safeguarding Your Data

    ` Real-World Warnings Keep You Safe Online

    ` Keeping Children Safe Online

    ` Choosing and Protecting Passwords

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    ` Dealing with Cyberbullies` Understanding Hidden Threats: Corrupted Software

    Files` Understanding Hidden Threats: Rootkits and Botnets

    ` Preventing and Responding to Identity Theft` Recovering from Viruses, Worms, and Trojan Horses` Recognizing and Avoiding Spyware` Avoiding Social Engineering and Phishing Attacks` Understanding Denial-of-Service Attacks

    ` Identifying Hoaxes and Urban Legends` Avoiding the Pitfalls ofOnline Trading

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    ` Understanding Your Computer: Email Clients

    ` Using Caution with Email Attachments

    ` Reducing Spam

    ` Benefits and Risks of Free Email Services` Benefits of Blind Carbon Copy (BCC)

    ` Understanding Digital Signatures

    ` Using Instant Messaging and Chat Rooms Safely

    ` Staying Safe on Social Network Sites

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    ` How Anonymous Are You?

    ` Protecting Your Privacy

    ` Understanding Encryption

    ` Effectively Erasing Files` Supplementing Passwords

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    ` Understanding Your Computer: Web Browsers

    ` Evaluating Your Web Browser's Security Settings

    ` Shopping Safely Online

    `

    BrowsingS

    afely: Understanding Active Contentand Cookies

    ` Understanding Web Site Certificates

    ` Understanding Internationalized Domain Names

    ` Understanding Bluetooth Technology

    ` Avoiding Copyright Infringement

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