Potential for Anaerobic Digestion of Crop Residues

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Potential for Anaerobic Digestion of Crop Residues. Ron Fleming & Malcolm MacAlpine (Ridgetown Campus of University of Guelph), Jim Todd (OMAFRA). CSBE09-706. Funding. OMAFRA Alternative Renewable Fuels Plus program U of Guelph/OMAFRA Agreement. Objectives. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<ul><li><p>Potential for Anaerobic Digestion of Crop ResiduesRon Fleming &amp; Malcolm MacAlpine (Ridgetown Campus of University of Guelph), Jim Todd (OMAFRA)</p><p>CSBE09-706</p></li><li><p>FundingOMAFRA Alternative Renewable Fuels Plus programU of Guelph/OMAFRA Agreement</p></li><li><p>ObjectivesSuitability of various agricultural by-products, mainly related to vegetable production and processing, as feedstocks for ADFeedstock handling, processing and storage requirementsOptimum conditions to maximize methane productionEconomic potential of using vegetable wastes as energy feedstocksNutrient quality of digestate</p></li><li><p>Overview3 year project 2008 to 2010Use a pilot scale anaerobic digester Potential in Ontario to use organic waste materials common in agriculture to produce energy through the use of an anaerobic digesterConsider livestock manure as an inputLook at crop residuals from various field crops</p></li><li><p>Top 10 Vegetable Crops for Marketed Production in Ontario</p><p>Chart1</p><p>35029Cucumbers and GherkinsCucumbers and Gherkins</p><p>41183Peas, GreenPeas, Green</p><p>44643Total CabbageTotal Cabbage</p><p>48739MushroomsMushrooms</p><p>80005Onions, DryOnions, Dry</p><p>100067Cucumbers, GreenhouseCucumbers, Greenhouse</p><p>130651Tomatoes, GreenhouseTomatoes, Greenhouse</p><p>138662Total CarrotsTotal Carrots</p><p>177521Corn, SweetCorn, Sweet</p><p>560684Tomatoes, FieldTomatoes, Field</p><p>Tonnes</p><p>Column2</p><p>Column3</p><p>Tonnes</p><p>Sheet1</p><p>TonnesColumn2Column3</p><p>Cucumbers and Gherkins35,029</p><p>Peas, Green41,183</p><p>Total Cabbage44,643</p><p>Mushrooms48,739</p><p>Onions, Dry80,005</p><p>Cucumbers, Greenhouse100,067</p><p>Tomatoes, Greenhouse130,651</p><p>Total Carrots138,662</p><p>Corn, Sweet177,521</p><p>Tomatoes, Field560,684</p><p>To resize chart data range, drag lower right corner of range.</p></li><li><p>Example: Tomato WasteAvailable for 8 weeks August/SeptemberWaste represents 3 to 13% of total harvested3 types of processing wastes:Pomace (mostly skins) 800 t in 2008Lye sludge (+/- 94% water) and Screenings (stems, seeds, etc) 16,000 to 19,000 t</p></li><li><p>Potential Biogas Yields100 200 300 400 600 25 36 93 103 155 171 195 202 35 39 68 90 291220 400 469 486 552 600 657 (m3 biogas/tonne)</p></li><li><p>Description of AD System152 cm diameter, 130 cm depth, flexible domed top, total volume = 2.7 m3; liquid volume = approx. 1.8 m3Complete-mixed mesophilic system</p></li><li><p>Mobile Anaerobic Digester</p></li><li><p>Feeding Hopper and Auger</p></li><li><p>Auger Tube Outlet</p></li><li><p>Mixing Paddle and Heating Coils</p></li><li><p>Electric and Heating Systems</p></li><li><p>Gas Analyzer and Flow Meter</p></li><li><p>Flare and Pressure Relief Tube</p></li><li><p>Test MethodVarious materials/mixtures testedApprox. 4 weeks for each recipeDaily Monday to Friday:Gas samples analyzedGas volume recordedGas flaredMixer startedMaterial added</p></li><li><p>Loading rateRanged from 0.5 to 1.2 kg VS/m3 digester capacityAverage hydraulic retention time ranged from 21 to 40 days</p></li><li><p>Input #1 Sugar beets + swine manurewww.extension.umn.edu/.../DC7715.html</p></li><li><p>Adding mixture of sugar beets and manure to feed hopper</p></li><li><p>Input #2Liquid swine manureHad been stored for several monthsRepresents an input that is plentiful</p></li><li><p>Input #3Sweet potatoesChopped fineAdded to digestate, mixed and added to digester as a slurryNo new liquids added</p></li><li><p>Input #4Sweet potatoes + (fresh) swine manureDigestate removedSweet potatoes mixed with fresh swine manure</p></li><li><p>Input #5Swine manureFreshly produced manure</p></li><li><p>Input #6Dried tobacco Nicotine-free tobacco leaves (dry)Mixed with digestate before adding to digester as a slurry</p></li><li><p>Sample AnalysisBiogas:Methane (CH4), Carbon Dioxide (CO2)Inputs and outputs: N, P, K, pH, NH4-N, C, ashCalculated C:N ratioCalculated Volatile Solids</p></li><li><p>Results for 2008</p></li><li><p>Example of Daily Inputs and Methane Production Sweet Potatoes &amp; Swine manure</p></li><li><p>Example of Cumulative Gas Production and VS Inputs Sweet Potatoes &amp; Swine manure </p></li><li><p>Sugar beets &amp; swine manure poor gas production but first test for the unit &amp; problems with temperature control Fresh swine manure yielded twice as much methane as older swine manureDried tobacco was the most difficult to mixDigestion led to a decrease in DM and an increase in NH4-N</p></li><li><p>InputBiogas Methane content Swine manure + sugar beets57%Older swine manure64%Sweet Potatoes48%Sweet Potatoes + manure56%Fresh swine manure63%Nicotine-free tobacco leaves49%</p></li><li><p>InputMethane Produced (L/kg VS) Swine manure + sugar beets233Older swine manure336Sweet Potatoes547Sweet Potatoes + manure585Fresh swine manure670Nicotine-free tobacco leaves358</p></li><li><p>Advantages of this test setupCan change recipe fairly easily Dont need huge quantities of inputsIs a good demonstration unit technology transfer</p></li><li><p>LimitationsCurrently only able to add inputs 5 days per weekA few design problems e.g. input auger not sufficient for many materials some re-design neededInitial difficulty keeping temperature constant has been resolvedAssumes gas production stabilized within 4 weeks</p></li><li><p>This yearContinue testing vegetable wastes + other farm organic materialsDocument logistical considerations for various materialsDocument economic considerations</p></li><li><p>Questions?</p><p>*****</p></li></ul>