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  • Tanzania

    Port of Dar es Salaam

    Tanzania Harbows AuthorityGrain Terminai

    Evaluation Mission Report

    Leiden December 1992

    infake + sfrorage+bagging fruckloadingweiohmo

  • Table of Contents

    Acknowledgement

    Glossary

    Conclusions and

    Introduction

    Section 1:

    1.1.1.2.

    Section 2:

    2.1.2.2.

    Section 3:

    3.1.3.2.3.3.3.4.3.5.

    Section 4:

    4.1.4.2.4.3.4.4.4.5.

    Section 5:

    5.1.5.2.

    Recommendations

    Identification

    Dar es Salaam Port Development ProjectParis Donor Meeting

    Formulation and Appraisal

    Grain Handling in Dar es Salaam portGEM Consultants : alternative designs

    Implementation

    Tendering and ConstructionDescription of THA Grain TerminalThe CostsOrganizational Structure of the GTTechnical Assistance and Training

    Present Situation

    The Food Balance in TanzaniaThe Food Aid ShipmentsThe rle of the Grain TerminalFinancial AspectsConstructional Engineering Aspects

    Future Options

    Forecasts Food Relief ImportsOptions for th Stratgie Grain Reserve

    i

    ii

    iii

    p.l

    p.3

    p.3p.5

    p.7

    p.7p.8

    p.13

    p.13p.16p. 17p.19p.23

    p.26p.29p.31p.34p.36

    p.39

    p.39p.39

    (SGR); Exports or Imports

    Bibliography p.43

    Annex 1 Terms of Rfrence for th Evaluation Mission of the Grain Terminal

    Annex 2 List of Interviews

    Annex 3 Lay out of Bertlin and Partners/World Bank Concept; 1984

    Annex 4 GEM Alternative Design (no. 3) for th Grain Terminal

  • Acknowledgement

    The mission wishes to thank all the persons who were of great help inconducting this valuation study. We are particularly grateful to the manyTanzanian officials, and the reprsentatives of donors and internationalorganisations in Dar es Salaam, who so patiently responded to all ourquestions.

    Special thanks are due to Mr. S.M. Luhigo, Deputy General Directer ofTHA and Mr. J. Thate, Grain Terminal Advisor, who kindly and willinglyprovided us with much relevant information.

    The mission also acknowledges the support given by the Dutch Embassy inDar es Salaam. Mr. E. Noorman, Ist Secretary, Mr. IJzermans, Counsellorand 'Loes" were all very helpful in discussing the Ternis of Rfrence andorganizing the mission's appointments.In Rotterdam, the mission benefited much from the many informative andopen discussions with the GEM consultants, in particular Mr. J. Vissers andMr. J. v.d. Riet.

    Henk Meilink (mission leader)Henk HavingaGrard van Dongen

    Leiden; December 1992.

  • Glossary

    THA: Tanzania Harbours AuthorityW.B.: World Bank, WashingtonGEM: Graan Elevator Maatschappij, RotterdamDGIS: Directorate General of the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign

    AffairsIMF: International Monetary FundNMC: National Milling CorporationSADCC: Southern African Development Coordination ConferenceSGR: Strategie Grain ReserveTazara: Tanzania Zambia RailwaysTRC: Tanzanian Railway CorporationGTM: Grain Terminal ManagerFAO: Food and Agriculture Organization of U.N.MOA: Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock DevelopmentWFP: World Food ProgrammeFOB: Free on BoardUNDP: United Nations Development Programme

  • UI

    Conclusions and Recommendations

    At present, under the Nectar/TH A management contract, (ending Ist ofFebruary 1994) the grain terminal will only be put to use in the event ofcongestion in the port arising from the insufficient offtake of grain bags byTazara railways.

    A normal, regulr inflow of grain shipments can easily be handled byNectar's bagging capacity (which includes the 3 THA mobile bagging units)of about 3000 tons a day. The bags are loaded directly onto flat wagons ortrucks to be transported to railwagons or alternatively to warehouses in theport area. Storage capacity in the port and its neighbourhood is about125.000 tons.

    This explains why in 1992, of the 284.000 of grain discharged in Dar esSalaam only a small portion (13,6%) was handled through the terminal.

    The mission learned that THA's dcision to contract out the grain baggingoprations and implicitly the management of the silo was in particular basedon THA's inability to guarantee laydays (discharge time of the ship) inforeign currency (i.e. US dollars). Consequently a "third party" had to bebrought in to provide this liability.The mission urges THA management to commence discussions with theTreasury with the aim of altering this situation.

    Considering the forecast of an inflow of about 500.000 tons of relief grainshipments in 1993, it is very likely that the terminal will be put to use.Informants anticipate that Tazara's offtake capacity will again pose problemsin the coming year. In that event the terminal provides a valuable storage'escape route' allowing Nectar/THA to discharge vessels as planned and thusprevent costly delays.

    The terminal is a highly specialized asset and for the time being requireshighly qualified external technical assistance. Intensive supervision andsecurity is indispensable.

  • IV

    Therefore the mission recommends the continuation of expatriate prsenceat the grain terminal for the coming months until Nectars contract ends atthe Ist February 1994.

    Since hardly any grain was handled by the terminal in the first two yearsafter completion in November 1989, the local management did not acquiresufficient exprience and knowledge to operate the terminal in an efficientmarmer. Trained operators and labour are also few in numbers.

    Nectar has begun to draw up a training programme for Tanzanian personnelinvolved in their bagging activities. Since the training carried out by theDutch expatrites has met with limited success so far, there is grt need tore-assess the levels at which further training is still required.

    The mission recommends that a well-defined training programme, includingclearly set objectives, valuation methods, job descriptions and thformulation of rights and objections of all parties involved, should be drawnup as a product of close coopration between THA, Nectar and expatrites.This can best be realized in an atmosphre of mutual trust and responsibility.

    The mission holds the view that linking this programme to that of the porttraining school (Bandari College) would not be a good suggestion. It isfeared that in that case "mixing up" gnral port training with spcifiedemands for silo training would be detrimental to th objectives of the grainterminal training programme.

    After February 1994, th mission advises THA to more actively seek foropportunities to attract private firais, having exprience in grain handlingand marketing, with th aim of establishing a joint venture which wouldenable th use of th silo to its fll capacity. During discussions withinformants in both Tanzania and th Netherlands, th mission learned thatthere are various firms potentially interested in trading commodities (suchas wheat, maize and cassava root slices) through th THA grain terminal.

    By February 1994, Netherlands assistance to th terminal project shouldcorne to an end.

  • In the meantime THA should pressurize Nectar to incorporate the terminalinto their handling activities to the largest extent possible.

    The workability of the terminal is seriously hampered by the numerouselectrical power cuts, inactivating the silo for a great many days.The mission therefore recommends that a generator should be installed atthe terminal premises in order to liminai dependence on a very unreliableexternal provision.

    The terminal is not served by a rail siding, Connecting the silo with Tazaraand TRC railways. The mission does not recommend to construct such a railfor 3 reasons:

    a) the distance from the terminal to the Tazara railhead is only 300mtres, which can easily be covered by available trucks transporting grainin bags.

    b) additional investment would be high since a diffrence in height of 15mtres is to be "leveled out" needing a rail track of approximately 2 kmin a port area where space is already limited and

    c) in the near future it is unlikely that Tazara will invest in railwagonssuitable for bulk grain transport.

    With regard to the constructional engineering aspects, the missionrecommends the following:

    a. sewerageImprovement of the waste water system of toilet rooms that is connected tothe existing septic tanks, by separating the household waste water from theother outlets of the toilets, and Connecting these to cesspits to be constructed.

    Estimated costs are 8.000,-.

    b. bagging station/weighbridgeThe technical maintenance of the bagging station and the opration of theweighbridge will have to become a part of the instruction-programme to bedetermined later.

  • VI

    With regard to the transportation of the fll sacks of grain from the baggingstation to the trucks, the mission recommends the acquisition of a mobileconveyor belt.

    Estimated costs are 15.000,-.

    c. Silo buildingThe leak can be repaired by treating the sewerage as mentioned under'sewerage'.

    d. power supplyBecause of the irregulr availability of the power supply from the city forthe opration of the grain terminal, the mission recommends the acquisitionand installation of an emergency power unit. Then, the terminal can operatecompletely independent from third parties.

    Estimated costs are 200.000,-.

    Because fo the "impracticability" of making a link to the existing railway,one must settle for transport of the bags of grain by truck to the railwaynetwork that is 300 mtres away.

  • INTRODUCTION

    In the Terms of Rfrence the mission is requested to address the differentphases of the Grain Terminal Project.Accordingly, this report has the foliowing sections:

    1) identification: what dcisive factors played a rle in th

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