population ecology - ?· population ecology population ecology is the study of _____ interactions-...

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  • population Ecology

    Population ecology is the study of ____________________ interactions- organism/s interacting

    with member/s of the ____________ species in relation to their __________________; how both

    biotic and abiotic factors affect ___________, distribution, size, and age structure of populations.

    Density is the _____________ of individuals per unit area or volume (e.g. the number

    of _____ trees per square kilometer in Troy). Dispersion is the pattern of ______________

    among individuals within the population.

    To measure density, population ecologists can:

    A) _______________ individuals; can also count nests, burrows, tracks, or _________.

    B) _____________ sampling e.g. count the number of oak trees in several __________

    located 100 m x 100 m plots in Troy and calculate an average for the city.

    C) __________-______________ method (also called capture-recapture method)- Take

    a sample from the population, mark those individuals and release them back into the

    population. After the individuals have mixed freely with unmarked individuals, take new

    samples, and record the ratio of marked to un-marked individuals.

    1st catch X 2

    nd catch total

    Number of recaptures in 2nd

    catch

    Q: Approximately how many oak trees

    are in this 100 m x 100 m plot? Note:

    each sample quadrant is 10 x 10 meters

    (100 square meters).

    Q: Using this technique, how can you

    get a more accurate approximation?

    10,000

    square

    meters

    Q: Label the factors in this image that can

    increase or decrease population density.

    Q: Aside from immigration and emigration,

    what else causes a population to grow or

    decline?

    Populations when births ____ deaths;

    populations when births ____ deaths.

  • There are 3 types of dispersion for populations.

    ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

    (Most common) (Most rare)

    Demography- studies vital _________________ of populations and how they change over time.

    Demographers use _________ tables- age-specific summaries of the survival pattern of a

    population which tracks ________________ (individuals of the same age) from birth to death.

    The data from a life table is then put into a _______________________ curve.

    Q: According to the life table, which gender of ground squirrels has a shorter life expectancy?

    Q: The 3 general types of survivorship curves are shown on the right above. Which survivorship curve type

    has high death rates early in life due to large numbers of offspring, but little or no parental care?

    Q: Which survivorship curve type has a constant death rate over the organisms life span?

    Q: Do most species exhibit a Type I, Type II, or Type III survivorship curve or something in between these

    types?

  • _______________________ table is based on female cohorts producing offspring from birth

    to death.

    ___________________ time- the amount of time between the birth of an individual and the

    birth of their ______________________/ offspring. Small organisms typically have _________

    generation times (e.g. some bacteria can divide asexually by _____________ fission every _____

    minutes), while large organisms typically have longer generation times (e.g. giant coastal

    _______________ trees are the __________________ trees in the world, up to 378 feet tall with

    a base up to 22 feet in diameter, and do not reproduce until they are _______ years old; the same

    is true for giant inland ____________________ trees which are one of the _________________

    trees in the world [Montezuma Cypress and African Baobab trees are wider], up to 311 feet tall

    with a base up to 40 feet in diameter).

    Q: At what age do ground squirrels start having offspring?

    Q: At what age range is reproductive output at its peak for

    ground squirrels?

    Q: How many days on average are many female squirrel

    species fertile each year?

    Q: Humans have menstrual cycles (shed the endometrial

    lining) when not pregnant. What cycle do squirrels and most

    other mammals have that reabsorbs the endometrial lining

    when not pregnant?

    Q: Most mammals (excluding humans) have a bone in the

    penis to aid in copulation (mating). What is this called?

    20 minutes = 2

    40 minutes = _______

    80 minutes = _______

    120 minutes = _______

    Q: While some bacteria can reproduce this quickly, what are some limiting factors that affect their colony

    size?

    Limited _______________ (food, water, nutrients, energy, & space), toxic ____________ accumulation,

    ____________________, and ______________ that infect bacteria (called ________________________).

    Q: Based on this image of a bacteriophage. What are the two things a virus

    must minimally have?

  • population growth (also called geometric population growth)- a

    population whose members all have access to abundant ___________________ and reproduce

    without limits. This produces a ____-shaped curve.

    population growth- a population with ___________ resources

    (limiting factors such as: energy, shelter, refuge from predators, nutrient availability, water, and

    suitable nesting sites) that cause a population to reach a ________________ / leveling off point

    as the population increases. This produces an ____-shaped curve or sigmoid curve.

    There are 2 types of reproductive efforts an organism can make: ______________________ (a

    single, large reproductive effort) and ______________________ (repeated reproduction).

    Q: Which population is growing faster exponentially?

    Q: When does exponential growth occur?

    When a population is introduced into a ______ environment,

    after a catastrophic event (e.g. a fire destroys a forest), or in a

    _______________ situation (_______________ = in glass).

    A B

    Q: What is the name of the plateau in a logistic growth curve?

    Q: What letter do population ecologists use to represent the carry capacity?

    Q: Circle on the logistic growth curve the inflection point (where the acceleration switches from positive

    to negative).

    Q: The Daphnia water flea graph is a more realistic depiction of a logistic growth curve. How does it

    differ from the first graphs S-shaped curve?

    Q: These 2 pictures show an agave (Agave

    americana) plant which grows in desert

    climates and send up its large flowering

    stalk to produce seeds and die. What type

    of reproduction is this?

    Q: Fermented agave (Agave tequilana)

    produces what alcoholic drink?

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3c/AgaveAmericana.jpg

  • Life ____________________- (do not confuse this with a life table used to create a

    survivorship curve)______________ that affect an organisms schedule of reproduction and

    survival. Life histories include: A) when reproduction _____________, B) how often an

    organism reproduces, and C) how ____________ offspring per reproductive episode.

    r-selected- reproductive success in ___________________ (density-independent) environments

    (e.g. weeds growing in a large field). K-selected- reproductive success in __________________

    (density-dependent) environments (e.g. African savanna elephants).

    Life History Chart r-selected (r = per capita rate of increase)

    K-selected (K = carrying capacity)

    Maturation Time Life Span Death Rate of Offspring Brood size (# of offspring) # of Reproductions Per Lifetime Timing of the First Reproduction Parental Care Size of the Offspring

    There is a trade off between reproduction and __________________ survival.

    Q: Are petunias annual (live for one growing season) or

    perennial plants (longer lives, come back each year,

    invest energy into roots and freeze resistant buds)? What

    type of reproductive effort do petunias have?

    Q: Are roses annual or perennial plants? What type of

    reproductive effort do roses have?

    Q: Is an r-selected or K-selected life history associated with logistic population growth?

    Q: Is an r-selected or K-selected life history associated with exponential population growth?

    Q: Are most organisms r-selected, K-selected, or somewhere between these two types?

    Q: A normal clutch size (# of baby birds) for this bird species is 5

    chicks. The researchers transferred chicks among nests to see the

    effects of larger and smaller clutch sizes on parental survival the

    following winter. What can you conclude about this bird species?

    ___________ offspring = _____________ lifespan for parents.

    Q: Why is this the case?

    ________ offspring = more _______________ invested in

    reproduction and ________________ of the offspring. Energy

    beyond what is used for maintenance and growth of the parents.

  • The principle of __________________ states an organism only has limited ______________

    so if it uses energy for one function (e.g. reproduction) it will have less energy for other

    functions (e.g. its own growth).

    Most organisms allocate their energy by mating during a breeding __________________

    (e.g. Canada geese mate in March).

    Density-____________________- factors that affect populations as the number of individuals

    ____ / t