Polymeric Foams Technology and Developments in Regulation Process and Products

Download Polymeric Foams Technology and Developments in Regulation Process and Products

Post on 08-Dec-2016

264 views

Category:

Documents

5 download

TRANSCRIPT

<ul><li><p>61259_C000.indd i61259_C000.indd i 11/6/2008 4:39:29 PM11/6/2008 4:39:29 PM</p></li><li><p>series editor Shau-Tarng Lee</p><p>INCLUDED TITLES</p><p>Polymeric Foams: Mechanisms and MaterialsEdited by Shau-Tarng Lee and N.S. Ramesh</p><p>Thermoplastic Foam Processing: Principles and DevelopmentEdited by Richard Gendron</p><p>Polymeric Foams: Science and TechnologyShau-Tarng Lee, Chul B. Park, and N.S. Ramesh</p><p>Polymeric Foams: Technology and Developments in Regulation, Process, and Products</p><p>Edited by Shau-Tarng Lee and Dieter Scholz</p><p>POLYMERIC FOAMS</p><p>61259_C000.indd ii61259_C000.indd ii 11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM</p></li><li><p>61259_C000.indd iii61259_C000.indd iii 11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM</p></li><li><p>CRC PressTaylor &amp; Francis Group6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742</p><p> 2009 by Taylor &amp; Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor &amp; Francis Group, an Informa business</p><p>No claim to original U.S. Government worksPrinted in the United States of America on acid-free paper10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1</p><p>International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-4200-6125-3 (Hardcover)</p><p>This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reasonable eorts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or the consequences of their use. The authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may rectify in any future reprint.</p><p>-</p><p>Except as permitted under U.S. Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microlming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers.</p><p>For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www.copyright.com (http://www.copyright.com/) or contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC), 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400. CCC is a not-for-prot organization that pro-vides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged.</p><p>-</p><p>Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identication and explanation without intent to infringe.</p><p>Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data</p><p>Polymeric foams : technology and developments in regulation, process, and products / editors, Shau-Tarng Lee and Dieter P.K. Scholz.</p><p>p. cm. -- (Polymeric foams series ; 4)Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN-13: 978-1-4200-6125-3 (alk. paper)ISBN-10: 1-4200-6125-9 (alk. paper)1. Plastic foams. I. Lee, S.-T. (Shau-Tarng), 1956- II. Scholz, Dieter P.K. III. </p><p>Title. IV. Series.</p><p>TP1183.F6P6482 2008668.493--dc22 2008042301</p><p>Visit the Taylor &amp; Francis Web site athttp://www.taylorandfrancis.comand the CRC Press Web site athttp://www.crcpress.com</p><p>61259_C000.indd iv61259_C000.indd iv 11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM</p></li><li><p>To the Lord who said, For everyone who has will be given more, and he will have an abundance. Whoever does not </p><p>have, even what he has will be taken from him. (New Testament; Matthew Chap. 25 verse 29) </p><p>This simply summarizes the bubble nucleation and growth in polymeric foaming way before we understood them.</p><p>61259_C000.indd v61259_C000.indd v 11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM</p></li><li><p>61259_C000.indd vi61259_C000.indd vi 11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM</p></li><li><p>Contents</p><p>Preface ............................................................................................................. ixSeries Statement ............................................................................................ xiAcknowledgments ..................................................................................... xiiiEditors ............................................................................................................ xvContributors ............................................................................................... xvii</p><p> 1. History and Trends of Polymeric Foams: From Process/Product to Performance/Regulation ................................... 1Shau-Tarng Lee</p><p> 2. Development of Endothermic Chemical Foaming/Nucleation Agents and Its Processes ............................................... 41Dieter Scholz</p><p> 3. Foam Extrusion Using Carbon Dioxide as a Blowing Agent ...................................................................................... 69Walter Michaeli, Dirk Kropp, Robert Heinz, and Holger Schumacher</p><p> 4. Processes and Process Analysis of Foam Injection Molding with Physical Blowing Agents ....................................... 101Walter Michaeli, Axel Cramer, and Laura Flrez</p><p> 5. Foaming Analysis of Poly(e-Caprolactone) and Poly(Lactic Acid) and Their Nanocomposites .............................. 143Ernesto Di Maio and Salvatore Iannace</p><p>61259_C000.indd vii61259_C000.indd vii 11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM</p></li><li><p>viii Contents</p><p> 6. Nanostructure Development and Foam Processing in Polymer/Layered Silicate Nanocomposites .................................. 175Masami Okamoto</p><p> 7. New Material Developments from the Nitrogen Autoclave Process .............................................................................. 219Neil Witten</p><p> 8. Polystyrene Foam and Its Improvement in Vacuum Insulated Panel Insulation .............................................................. 255Chang-Ming Wong</p><p>Author Index ............................................................................................... 291Subject Index ............................................................................................... 299</p><p>61259_C000.indd viii61259_C000.indd viii 11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM</p></li><li><p>Preface</p><p>Since the 1960s, polymeric foams have grown into a solid industry that affects almost every aspect of our lives. As our style of living improved, foam consumption increased as well. Solid efforts have laid a good foun-dation in foam science and technology, which allowed it to weather the energy crisis in the 70s, ozone issues in the 80s, and recycle/reuse in the 90s. Above all, innovations in Foam science and technology made the development of new applications and improvements in industry perfor-mance possible. It is no wonder this industry continues healthy growth into the 21st century.</p><p>As a result of the globalization of the manufacturing industries, emerg-ing nations benefi ted greatly from enhanced skills and capabilities, and economic prosperity quickly followed. With living standards rising across the world, the global polymeric foam industries grew in quantity as well as in quality to meet the new demands for consumer goods. Every year, new concepts, innovations, and developments continue to be showcased at inter-national foam conferences.</p><p>As published in earlier volumes in this Polymeric Foam series, mecha-nisms, processing, science, technology, and materials have been addressed. But the pace of development and the social climate are rapidly changing. As refl ected at the recent foam conferences, performance, sustainable resources, and energy security are becoming increasingly important. In 2005, we began dialogue about gathering a collection of renowned poly-meric foam publishings and assimilating them into a book so that readers could get a clear picture of foam development. After frequent communi-cations, certain commitments were secured, some unfortunately could not carry through, but there was enough to make the editing of this book possible. In general, it covers from early developments in blowing agent, </p><p>61259_C000.indd ix61259_C000.indd ix 11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM</p></li><li><p>x Preface</p><p>process optimization, specialty foam development, and current trends. This book is divided into chapters written by world renowned authors, primarily from Europe, and are clearly practitioner oriented.</p><p>The fi rst chapter gives a historical perspective clearly showing a foam development trend from the 50s into global production in the 21st cen-tury. The next chapter focuses on the blowing agent evolution and how this emerging technology was turned into an industry. Physical blowing agent in foam extrusion and injection moulding are addressed in Chapters 3 and 4, respectively. Chapter 5 illustrates interesting works in sustainable foam development. Nanocomposite foam is presented by a pioneer researcher from Japan in Chapter 6. Novel foam products and energy security foam are included in Chapters 7 and 8. This book is intended to present the development picture to benefi t the industrial practitioner, researcher, academic faculty, and graduate school student and hopefully direct more enthusiasm and dedication into the already active fl ow for an even more pros perous future.</p><p>61259_C000.indd x61259_C000.indd x 11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM</p></li><li><p>Series Statement</p><p>The bubble is a wonderful creation: a perfect spherical shape, beautiful arch in various degrees of curvature, and minimum surface area per given volume. Without the bubble, both art and science would defi nitely have a narrower scope. The bubble consists of a weak phase surrounded by, and sustained in, a strong phase. It is like the traditional Chinese virtue, Qian Xu ( ). Although foaming may be one of the more mysterious phe-nomena of the universe, it is fortunate that researchers and practitioners have been able to employ it to advantage with foamed products now com-monplace in our daily lives.</p><p>Foaming in polymers involves delicate scientifi c mechanisms, subtle processing techniques, unique morphology transformations, and structure formations. It combines material principles, engineering designs, process-ing methodologies, and property characterization. Polymeric foams are a 20th-century success story, which during the last quarter of the century, have evolved from laboratory-scale products to pilot-line samples and then onto commercial success. Today, it is viewed not only as a technique, but also as a well-established industry. Through challenges such as ozone depletion, recycling, and environmental regulation, in addition to upgrades, it has become a strong industry.</p><p>Since polymeric foams have encountered various upgradesmaterials/technology, emissions/environmental concerns, properties/applications it has been crucial to maintain the cohesiveness of polymeric foam by looking at it from various perspectives. This series aims to cover materials/ mechanisms, science/technologies, structures/properties, applications/post-usage, and so on. The reader will be given an overall view, together with some fascinating insights, of polymeric foam. It has to be admitted that foaming is still mysterious in quite a few areas. It is my hope that a </p><p>61259_C000.indd xi61259_C000.indd xi 11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM</p></li><li><p>xii Series Statement</p><p>healthy and cohesive understanding will not only strengthen the struc-ture of the existing polymeric foam industry, but will also generate further developments to reveal more basic truths. Let us not forget that life and truth should go hand in hand.</p><p>Shau-Tarng Lee, Series editorSealed Air Corp., New Jersey</p><p>61259_C000.indd xii61259_C000.indd xii 11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM</p></li><li><p>Acknowledgments</p><p>We appreciate the depth of the editorial responsibility in creating this volume, especially as it contains work from some of the foremost and dedicated exponents of polymeric foams. While it is now time to breathe a sigh of relief regarding the completion of this volume, polymer foam work is, nevertheless, an ongoing and challenging pursuit. We give thanks for inspiration and comfort throughout the editing process, especially when on the brink of giving up or at the point of going nowhere. We would like to convey our heartfelt appreciation to those who diligently met the dead-lines in an ever-increasing workload, sought approval for publication, and secured copyright permissions. In addition, the authors, who are all of diverse international origins, certainly deserve appreciation for their efforts to overcome the cultural differences involved with their contribu-tions to this book. Without their dedication, it would have been impossible for this volume to have been produced.</p><p>The principal editor would like to thank Richard Gendron of the Canadian National Research Council, Professor James Lee of The Ohio State University, Professor Tom Turng of University of Wisconsin at Madison, and Dr. Andrew Pacquet (Formerly of Dow) for offering insight-ful comments during the review process. Their valuable critiques have defi nitely helped to improve the quality of this work and in updating the references. Luis Costa and Slavek Kubicz of the Sealed Air Corporation helped prepare formatted drawings and reference searches for which their help is greatly appreciated.</p><p>Our special thanks go to our spouses, Friederike Scholz and Mjau-Lin Lee, for their perseverance and patience during our absence, when on nec-essary trips, and when tension and discord inevitably materialized in the </p><p>61259_C000.indd xiii61259_C000.indd xiii 11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM</p></li><li><p>xiv Acknowledgments</p><p>family during the time-consuming and arduous editing process. We would also like to extend our thanks to Joseph Lee of Nyack Theological College and Matthew Lee, a Penn State graduate student, for their assis-tance with grammatical correctness. Above all, may this book be used by God to inspire more to explore the truth to benefi t future generations.</p><p>61259_C000.indd xiv61259_C000.indd xiv 11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM</p></li><li><p>Editors</p><p>Shau-Tarng Lee was born and raised in Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China. He received his Bachelor of Engineering degree from the National Tsing-Hua University. In 1980, he joined the Chemical Engineering department at Stevens Institute of Technology and was under Professor Joseph Biesenbergers guidance in foam-enhanced devolatilization. In 1981 and 1982, he received summer internships from Farrel Company to investigate bubble phenomena in devolatilization. He also received a Stanley fellow-ship and a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to support his research work at Stevens Institute of Technology. After receiving his Masters Degree in Engineering and Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), he joined Sealed Air Corporation in 1986. Since then, he has specialized in foam extrusion research, development, and production support as a develop-ment engineer, assis...</p></li></ul>

Recommended

View more >