polymeric foams technology and developments in regulation process and products

Download Polymeric Foams Technology and Developments in Regulation Process and Products

Post on 08-Dec-2016

308 views

Category:

Documents

11 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • 61259_C000.indd i61259_C000.indd i 11/6/2008 4:39:29 PM11/6/2008 4:39:29 PM

  • series editor Shau-Tarng Lee

    INCLUDED TITLES

    Polymeric Foams: Mechanisms and MaterialsEdited by Shau-Tarng Lee and N.S. Ramesh

    Thermoplastic Foam Processing: Principles and DevelopmentEdited by Richard Gendron

    Polymeric Foams: Science and TechnologyShau-Tarng Lee, Chul B. Park, and N.S. Ramesh

    Polymeric Foams: Technology and Developments in Regulation, Process, and Products

    Edited by Shau-Tarng Lee and Dieter Scholz

    POLYMERIC FOAMS

    61259_C000.indd ii61259_C000.indd ii 11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM

  • 61259_C000.indd iii61259_C000.indd iii 11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM

  • CRC PressTaylor & Francis Group6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742

    2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

    No claim to original U.S. Government worksPrinted in the United States of America on acid-free paper10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

    International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-4200-6125-3 (Hardcover)

    This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reasonable eorts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or the consequences of their use. The authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may rectify in any future reprint.

    -

    Except as permitted under U.S. Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microlming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers.

    For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www.copyright.com (http://www.copyright.com/) or contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC), 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400. CCC is a not-for-prot organization that pro-vides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged.

    -

    Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identication and explanation without intent to infringe.

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Polymeric foams : technology and developments in regulation, process, and products / editors, Shau-Tarng Lee and Dieter P.K. Scholz.

    p. cm. -- (Polymeric foams series ; 4)Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN-13: 978-1-4200-6125-3 (alk. paper)ISBN-10: 1-4200-6125-9 (alk. paper)1. Plastic foams. I. Lee, S.-T. (Shau-Tarng), 1956- II. Scholz, Dieter P.K. III.

    Title. IV. Series.

    TP1183.F6P6482 2008668.493--dc22 2008042301

    Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site athttp://www.taylorandfrancis.comand the CRC Press Web site athttp://www.crcpress.com

    61259_C000.indd iv61259_C000.indd iv 11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM

  • To the Lord who said, For everyone who has will be given more, and he will have an abundance. Whoever does not

    have, even what he has will be taken from him. (New Testament; Matthew Chap. 25 verse 29)

    This simply summarizes the bubble nucleation and growth in polymeric foaming way before we understood them.

    61259_C000.indd v61259_C000.indd v 11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM

  • 61259_C000.indd vi61259_C000.indd vi 11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM

  • Contents

    Preface ............................................................................................................. ixSeries Statement ............................................................................................ xiAcknowledgments ..................................................................................... xiiiEditors ............................................................................................................ xvContributors ............................................................................................... xvii

    1. History and Trends of Polymeric Foams: From Process/Product to Performance/Regulation ................................... 1Shau-Tarng Lee

    2. Development of Endothermic Chemical Foaming/Nucleation Agents and Its Processes ............................................... 41Dieter Scholz

    3. Foam Extrusion Using Carbon Dioxide as a Blowing Agent ...................................................................................... 69Walter Michaeli, Dirk Kropp, Robert Heinz, and Holger Schumacher

    4. Processes and Process Analysis of Foam Injection Molding with Physical Blowing Agents ....................................... 101Walter Michaeli, Axel Cramer, and Laura Flrez

    5. Foaming Analysis of Poly(e-Caprolactone) and Poly(Lactic Acid) and Their Nanocomposites .............................. 143Ernesto Di Maio and Salvatore Iannace

    61259_C000.indd vii61259_C000.indd vii 11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM

  • viii Contents

    6. Nanostructure Development and Foam Processing in Polymer/Layered Silicate Nanocomposites .................................. 175Masami Okamoto

    7. New Material Developments from the Nitrogen Autoclave Process .............................................................................. 219Neil Witten

    8. Polystyrene Foam and Its Improvement in Vacuum Insulated Panel Insulation .............................................................. 255Chang-Ming Wong

    Author Index ............................................................................................... 291Subject Index ............................................................................................... 299

    61259_C000.indd viii61259_C000.indd viii 11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM

  • Preface

    Since the 1960s, polymeric foams have grown into a solid industry that affects almost every aspect of our lives. As our style of living improved, foam consumption increased as well. Solid efforts have laid a good foun-dation in foam science and technology, which allowed it to weather the energy crisis in the 70s, ozone issues in the 80s, and recycle/reuse in the 90s. Above all, innovations in Foam science and technology made the development of new applications and improvements in industry perfor-mance possible. It is no wonder this industry continues healthy growth into the 21st century.

    As a result of the globalization of the manufacturing industries, emerg-ing nations benefi ted greatly from enhanced skills and capabilities, and economic prosperity quickly followed. With living standards rising across the world, the global polymeric foam industries grew in quantity as well as in quality to meet the new demands for consumer goods. Every year, new concepts, innovations, and developments continue to be showcased at inter-national foam conferences.

    As published in earlier volumes in this Polymeric Foam series, mecha-nisms, processing, science, technology, and materials have been addressed. But the pace of development and the social climate are rapidly changing. As refl ected at the recent foam conferences, performance, sustainable resources, and energy security are becoming increasingly important. In 2005, we began dialogue about gathering a collection of renowned poly-meric foam publishings and assimilating them into a book so that readers could get a clear picture of foam development. After frequent communi-cations, certain commitments were secured, some unfortunately could not carry through, but there was enough to make the editing of this book possible. In general, it covers from early developments in blowing agent,

    61259_C000.indd ix61259_C000.indd ix 11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM

  • x Preface

    process optimization, specialty foam development, and current trends. This book is divided into chapters written by world renowned authors, primarily from Europe, and are clearly practitioner oriented.

    The fi rst chapter gives a historical perspective clearly showing a foam development trend from the 50s into global production in the 21st cen-tury. The next chapter focuses on the blowing agent evolution and how this emerging technology was turned into an industry. Physical blowing agent in foam extrusion and injection moulding are addressed in Chapters 3 and 4, respectively. Chapter 5 illustrates interesting works in sustainable foam development. Nanocomposite foam is presented by a pioneer researcher from Japan in Chapter 6. Novel foam products and energy security foam are included in Chapters 7 and 8. This book is intended to present the development picture to benefi t the industrial practitioner, researcher, academic faculty, and graduate school student and hopefully direct more enthusiasm and dedication into the already active fl ow for an even more pros perous future.

    61259_C000.indd x61259_C000.indd x 11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM11/6/2008 4:39:30 PM

  • Series Statement

    The bubble is a wonderful creation: a perfect spherical shape, beautiful arch in various degrees of curvature, and minimum surface area per given volume. Without the

Recommended

View more >