play and children with disabilities. play and children with disabilities children with disabilities...
Post on 14-Dec-2015
Embed Size (px)
- Slide 1
PLAY AND CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Slide 2 PLAY AND CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Children with disabilities may engage in play differently than their peers without disabilities. Consequently, quality of play depends on the following: 1.The disability or combination of disabling factors. 2.The opportunity for play. 3.The accessibility of toys. 4.A modified play environment. 5.The presence of peers and adults to facilitate and encourage play. Disabilities can be classified in terms of the following: 1.Intellectual impairment, physical disabilities, and emotional disorders (Rubin, Fein & Vanderberg, 1983) 2.Developmental and developmental delay. 3.Children at risk for development (children who can become disabled without intervention). Slide 3 THE NATURE OF DISABLITIES PHYSICAL DISABILITIES Children with Physical Disabilities can have Hearing impairment. Depending on type of malfunction to the ear or nerves, impairment may range from mild to severe; temporary or permanent. Visual impairment. Variation in range of impairment due to premature birth, injury, or medical causes. Motor impairment. Variations range from physical restrictions of limbs, hand, trunk control, mobility, and strength. Generally caused by: 1)Spina Bifida 2)Cerebral Palsy 3)Muscular Dystrophy Slide 4 Spina Bifida Develops when spinal cord is not fully developed and has an opening that impedes protection of the cord. Significant impairment causes Loss of bowel and bladder control Bone Deformities Motor Impairment Paralysis Hydrocephalus. A condition in which spinal fluids collects in the brain. If left untreated can result in retardation and seizures. Condition commonly treated by surgically implanting a tube into brain which allows fluid to drain and blood to circulate properly. Slide 5 Cerebral Palsy Most common type of orthopedic impairment leading to a neuromuscular disability. Results from injury to brain before or during birth. Children (mild to moderate) are able to walk and use other motor movements with some awkwardness; however, children (severe) often have other disabilities (mental retardation and have little or no mobility). Muscular Dystrophy Results in progressive degeneration of the voluntary muscle of the arms and legs. Symptoms (can appear in children as young a 3 years of age) Appearance of awkwardness Walking on tiptoes Severe curvature of the spine Other postural abnormalities Although there can be periods of remission, gradually the child loses the ability to walk and early death is possible. Slide 6 AT- RISK CHILDREN At-risk Children. Childrens experience with Biological or Environmental factors that may result in developmental delays or disabilities. Biological Risk Factors Children have biological history that can result in later developmental problems Children at-risk include a)Premature babies. b)Children born to mothers who have German measles while pregnant or complications during labor. c)Low birth weight babies. d)Children who accidentally ingest toxic substance during infancy and toddlers years. Environmental Risk Factors Can be at risk because of the environment in which they lived before and after birth. These risk factors result from the mothers living in substandard or deprived environments. Early identification of at-risk child is essential so that intervention earlier on can be provided. Slide 7 DEVELOPEMNTAL DELAYS COGNITIVE DELAY Child with cognitive or mental retardation is unable to use thinking skills to the level that is characteristic of normal development. A child with Downs Syndrome experiences cognitive delays that result in mental retardation ADHD Language Delay Difficulty in articulating or expressing language. Speech deficit that limits verbalization, such as stuttering or inability to utter sounds correctly. Immature use of language. Limited vocabulary. Slide 8 Emotional and Behavioral Disorders Exhibit deviation from age appropriate behavior that can cause them to be very aggressive or very withdrawn. Leading to behavioral problems such as: Aggression. Academic disability. Anxiety. Depression. Behavioral deviation can be caused by Psychological causes Bereavement due to loss of a parent through divorce or death. Environmental causes Parenting methods of child management, Teacher management strategies. Psychological causes Genetic factors. Slide 9 A. Autism Children with autism experience severe emotional disturbance. Noticeable as early as 2 years of age. More common in boys than girls and is believed to be a biological problem that occurs during prenatal stages of development. Behavior exhibited includes Head banging. Extremely delayed expressive language. Echolalia speech. Stereotypical body movements. Children with Autism Can seem to be insensitive to sound and events around them. Have difficulty in socially interacting with others. Fail to recognize that outside world is different from self. Often experience mental retardation as well. Slide 10 (B) Abused & Neglected Children Children can be abused emotionally, physically, sexually, and through neglect. Frequently children who are abused experience more than one form of abuse. Abused children are aggressive and use inappropriate social behavior; they are equally likely to be withdrawn and passive. Aggressive children can be Disruptive. Antisocial. Children who have been sexually abused might use inappropriate sexual behavior in social interaction with peers. Physically abused children might wear clothing that is seasonally inappropriate to cover signs of abuse. Neglected children might be dressed inappropriately or in dirty clothes. Generally, because they have received minimal care and supervision. Slide 11 Children with Multiple disabilities Children with disabilities frequently have combination of conditions. Example. Children with visual impairments can also have hearing impairments, mental retardation with unusual and hearing impairments. Cognitive delay or mental retardation can have language delay or communication disorder. Behavior disorder can also experience language abnormalities or cognitive delay. It is important to understand the nature of disabilities in order to understand how these conditions and variations from normal development affect how children play. Easier to understand the limitation of children with physical disability and how their play is affected than children with behavior or mental disabilities. Providing play opportunity is more challenging in case of multiple disabilities. Slide 12 DISABILITIES AND PLAY It is difficult to study the play of children with disabilities. 1)Handicapping condition involves a wide range of disabilities, therefore it can be difficult to determine the cause of play differences. 2)Studies are flawed because they have failed to separate the developmental differences from differences caused by disabling condition. 3) Different researchers from different profession might be studying play for different purpose and with different results. 4) Some researches are conducted with individual children and do not consider the effect of peer relationship or behavior in a group setting. Slide 13 Children With Visual Impairments CHARACTERISTICS OF PLAY Troster and Bambring (1994) summarized significant difference between the play of sighted children and blind children. Blind children do the following 1)Explore their surrounding and the objects in their surrounds less often. 2)As infants and preschoolers, frequently engage in solitary play that is repetitive and stereotyped. 3)Exhibit less spontaneous play; far more than sighted children, they have to be taught how to play. 4)Do not or only rarely imitate the routine activities of the caregiver. 5)Play less frequently with stuffed animals and dolls and rarely engage in animism. 6)Play less frequently with peers and usually direct their play towards adults. 7)Exhibit clear delay in the development of symbolic play and role play. 8)Engage in play that contains fewer aggressive elements. Children with visual impairments often have developmental delays in other domains of development that could easily affect their play skills. Overprotection or fear of danger might result in limited attempts to engage in play. Slide 14 Tend to ask more questions of adults in an effort to further their understanding of the environment. Have obstacles interpreting nonverbal communication that can impede interacting with sighted children Differences in cognitive play i.e., use hands, feet and other parts of the body in object kind of plays. Lack of interest in exploring toys in the environment might be due to lack of experience and tendency to be more interested in their bodies than the environment. Presiler & Palmer (1989) found them to be more interested in environmental elements that opened and closed e.g., doors. Slide 15 Adults should not only provide a variety of real objects for play but also assist children in the symbolic use of the objects. Toys should be selected to encourage symbolic representation e.g., dolls & wooden trucks. Adults can provide experience with objects, which sighted children can acquire automatically. Adults can support play by providing the opportunity to explore in a safe & familiar environments. Partially sighted children need opportunities for motor play so that they can develop the same abilities as their sighted peers. Adults can assist children in becoming autonomous and independent in play. Assist them in developing social interaction with other children. Guide them to use more imagination and fantasy so their play can be enhanced with sighted peers. To encourage interaction with sighted peers, to start with include one peer and then gradually increase to more. Teachers can help sighted children to understand the nature of visual impairments and encourage them to play with visually impaired children. Slide 16 Children with Hearing Impairments Cha