Planet Earth - ?· Atmosphere Lithosphere ACTIVITIES 9 Planet Earth ... the Sun’s rays are vertical…

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  • Planet Earth1FIND OUT ABOUT:

    WhylifeexistsonEarth

    TheEarthsmovementanditsconsequences

    HowmapsrepresenttheEarth

    Latitudeandlongitude

    KNOW HOW TO:

    Useascale

    Locateaplaceonamap

    Useamapoftimezones

    I see Earth!

    Today, we all know what the Earth looks like from space. But until the 20th century, no-one was sure.

    In 1961, the astronaut Yuri Gagarin became the first person to see the Earth from space. His first words were: I see Earth! It is so beautiful! Since Gagarins flight, hundreds of men and women have gone into space.

    Artificial satellites now collect images of the Earth all the time. Satellite images are important in meteorology, environmental conservation, military intelligence, and many other fields.

    6

  • WhatdoestheEarthlooklikefromspace?Whydowecallittheblueplanet?

    WhowasYuriGagarin?

    Howdoweusetheinformationprovidedbysatellites?

    WORK WITH THE IMAGE

    MapsarerepresentationsoftheEarthssurface.OneofthefirstworldmapswasmadebyPtolemy,aGreekgeographerandastronomer,inthesecondcenturyAD.

    WhereistheIberianPeninsula?

    Whichcontinentsareshown?

    WhyisAmericamissing?

    HOW DO WE KNOW?

    7

  • The Solar System

    The Solar System consists of a single star, the Sun, and the planets that orbit it. The Sun is a huge mass of hot gases, which sends out energy to the rest of the Solar System. There are eight planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.

    Our own planet, the Earth, is the fifth biggest planet in the Solar System. It has a surface area of 510 million square kilometres (km2). It is the third closest planet to the Sun, which is 150 million km away.

    Most planets in the Solar System have one or more satellites, which are astronomical bodies that orbit them. The Earth only has one satellite: the Moon.

    1The Earth and the Solar System

    The biosphere: life on Earth

    The Earth is the only planet in the Solar System where life exists. The following conditions make this possible:

    The Earth has the ideal temperature for life. It is the right distance from the Sun so it is not too hot or too cold.

    The atmosphere is a layer of gases that protects the Earth from the Suns radiation. Itcontains essential gases, like oxygen.

    Water is necessary for all living things.

    The biosphere is the ecological system in which life exists. Nearly all living things are found between an altitude of 3,000 metres (m) above sea level, and 2,000 m below sea level.

    THE SOLAR SYSTEM

    MercuryEarth

    Jupiter SaturnUranus Neptune

    Venus Mars

    SUN

    1 ListtheplanetsinorderofdistancefromtheSun.(Beginwiththenearestplanet.)Whichisthelargestplanet?Whichisthesmallestplanet?

    2 Whatisthemeaningofthefollowingterms?

    SolarSystem

    orbit

    satellite

    ACTIVITIES

    8

    10,000

    8,000

    6,000

    4,000

    2,000

    0

    2,000

    4,000

    6,000

    8,000

    10,000

    ALimitoftheflightofbirds.BLimitoflifeinthetropicalzone.CLimitoflifeinthetemperatezone.DMostlivingthings.ELowestlimitoflife.

    THE BIOSPHERE

    A

    B

    C

    D

    E

  • The outer structure of the Earth

    The Earths surface is made up of three parts: a layer of gases and clouds, large bodies of water, and land.

    The atmosphere is the layer of gases that surrounds the Earth. It consists of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), and carbon dioxide and other gases (1%).

    The hydrosphere is all the water that exists on our planet: oceans and seas, rivers and lakes, ice, groundwater and water vapour.

    The lithosphere is the Earths solid outer layer. It consists of the continents and submerged land under the oceans and seas.

    WORKWITHTHEIMAGE

    3 WhichpartsoftheEarthcanweseefromspace?Listanddescribethem.

    WORKWITHTHEcHART

    4 Whichtwogasesmakeupmostoftheatmosphere?

    TheEarthseenfromspace.

    5 Matchthetwocolumns.Listenandcheckyouranswers.

    Thelithosphere TheEarthsecologicalsystem

    Thebiosphere AlltheEarthswater

    Theatmosphere TheEarthssolidsurface

    Thehydrosphere Alayerofgases

    6 Whatisthedifferencebetweenanartificialsatelliteandanaturalsatellite?

    Imaginethatourplanethadbothanatmosphereandliquidwaterbutextremetemperatures.WouldlifeonEarthbepossibleinthosecircumstances?

    THINK ABOUT IT

    GasesintheatmosphereattheEarthssurface.

    Carbon dioxide 0.038 %

    Other gases 0.032 %

    Argon 0.93 %

    Nitrogen 78.1 %

    Oxygen 20.9 %

    Hydrosphere

    Atmosphere Lithosphere

    ACTIVITIES

    9

    PlanetEarth 1

  • Rotation and revolution

    Like other objects in the Solar System, the Earth moves all the time. It has two types of movement:

    Rotation on its own axis.

    Revolution around the Sun.

    Rotation

    The Earth spins continually on its own axis in a west-to-east direction. It takes 24 hours to complete one rotation.

    The rotation of the Earth causes thealternation of day and night. TheEarth is spherical so the Sun cannot illuminate the whole planet simultaneously. Consequently, it is always day on only one side of the Earths surface, where it receives the Suns rays. On the other side, it is night.

    Revolution

    At the same time as the Earth rotates on its axis, it also moves around the Sun in an elliptical orbit. It takes theEarth 365 days and six hours to complete one revolution. As a calendar year only has 365 days, there is a leap year every four years, when we add an extra day to the month of February.

    The Earth is tilted so the angle of the Suns rays changes in each hemisphere during the year. This causes the seasons.

    2The movement of the Earth

    day

    North Pole

    night

    the Sun's rays

    South Pole

    axis of rotation

    the Earths tilt: 23.5 to the Sun

    1 WhatistherotationoftheEarth?Howlongdoesittake?

    2 WhydoestherotationoftheEarthcausethealternationofdayandnight?

    3 DoesthelengthofdayandnightchangemoreattheEquatororatthepolesduringtheyear?Why?

    4 WhatistherevolutionoftheEarth?Howlongdoesittake?

    5 WhydoestherevolutionoftheEarthcausetheseasons?

    ACTIVITIES

    ROTATION OF THE EARTH

    10

  • The seasons

    At the Equator, the Suns rays reach the Earth vertically all the year round so there is little difference between the seasons.

    However, further from the equator, the seasons are reversed in the two hemispheres:

    In summer, the Suns rays reach one hemisphere almost vertically. At the same time, it is winter in the other hemisphere. For example, it is summer in Spain when it is winter in Chile.

    In spring and autumn, the Suns rays reach both hemispheres at a similar angle.

    The four seasons begin at the solstices and equinoxes:

    Summer and winter: at the two solstices (around 21 June and 21 December), the Suns rays are vertical at one of the tropics. Days are long and warm in one hemisphere, but short and cold in the other.

    Spring and autumn: at the two equinoxes (around 21 March and 23 September), the Suns rays are vertical at the equator. Both hemispheres receive the same amount of sunlight, and day and night are equally long.

    REVOLUTION OF THE EARTH

    summer solstice

    spring equinoxspring

    autumn

    elliptical orb

    it

    autumn equinox

    winter solstice

    summer

    summer

    winter

    winter

    spring

    autumn

    6 AtwhatangledotheSunsraysreachthenorthernhemisphereinsummer?

    7 Whatdothefollowingtermsmean?

    equinox

    solstice

    leapyear

    8 June-SeptemberisnottheperiodwhentheEarthisclosesttotheSun.Sowhyisitsummerinthenorthernhemisphereatthattimeoftheyear?

    9 Bringatorchandsphericalobjectstotheclass.UsethemtoexplaintherotationandrevolutionoftheEarth.

    ACTIVITIES

    11

  • Globes and maps

    The Earth is spherical. However, it is not a perfect sphere because it is flat at the poles. We call this shape a geoid.

    Globes are accurate representations of the Earth because they have a similar shape to our planet.

    Maps provide information about a small area, a country, a region or the whole world. However, maps have a flat surface but our planet is three-dimensional. Consequently, they distort shapes and distances.

    The main features of a map

    A map has the following features: a title, a scale, a key, an arrow pointing north, and a grid of imaginary lines (parallels and meridians).Aglobe.

    3How do we represent the Earth?

    Over 3,000 mm

    3,000 to 1,000 mm

    1,000 to 500 mm

    500 to 250 mm

    Less than 250 mm

    Total precipitation(in mm)

    Gre

    enw

    ich

    mer

    idia

    n

    180

    90

    Tropic of Cancer

    Tropic of Capricorn

    20

    20

    40

    60

    60

    150

    150

    120

    120

    90 60 30 0 30 60

    60 30 0 30 60 12090

    12090

    150 180

    150 180

    0

    20

    20

    40

    60

    40

    Equator0

    N

    SOURCE: A. N. Strahler and A. H. Strahler, Physical Geography.

    PRECIPITATIONIN THE WORLD

    0 2,700

    kilometres

    Scale

    505399-01-16 precipitaciones mundi

    An arrow pointing north shows orientation.

    Texts give us place names and other information.

    The title tells us what the map is about.

    Scale indicates how far distances have been reduced.

    The key shows the colours and symbols used on the map.

    We use parallels and meridians to find the exact location of a place.

    12

  • Types of maps

    There are two main types of maps. They give us different kinds of information:

    Topographic maps show the main features of the natural environment, like mountains and rivers. They also include man-made features, such as cities and roads.

    Thematic maps provide visual information on a particular subject, for example climate or population. They often use colours, symbols and text.

    WORKWITHTHEMAPS

    1 Whattypesofreliefcanyouseeonthetopographicmap?

    2 Whattypeofinformationdoesthethematicmapgiveus?

    3 Whatisthedifferencebetweenatopographicmapandathematicmap?

    A TOPOGRAPHIC MAP

    200

    500

    1,000

    2,000

    4,000

    metres

    0

    843135U1p9h2

    90 60

    40

    20

    0 Equator

    20

    Tropic of Capricorn

    P A C I F I C

    O C E A N

    30

    20

    0

    20

    30

    PAT

    AG

    ON

    IA

    GRANCHACO

    PAMPAS

    Huascaran6,768

    Ojos del Salado6,880

    6.959Aconcagua

    Gulfof Arica

    Altiplano

    ANDES

    MOUNTAINS

    Amazon Basin

    GuianaHighlandsPLA

    INS

    A T L A N T I C

    O C E A N

    PuertoRico

    HispaniolaCuba

    Caribbean Sea

    Jamaica

    MexicoGulf of

    Orizaba5,700

    4,217Tajumulco

    90 60

    SouthGeorgia IslandsCape

    HornStrait

    of Magellan

    RiverPlate

    So

    Fran

    cisc

    oRiver

    Para

    naRi

    ver

    CapeSo Roque

    MatoGrossoPlateau

    Lake Titicaca

    Trinidad

    8,380 Puerto RicoTrench

    kilometres

    0 1,052SCALE

    FalklandIslands

    OR

    INO

    CO

    AmazonRiver

    Precipitaciones(en mm)

    Menos de 200

    De 500 a 200

    De 1.000 a 500

    Ms de 1.000

    ATLANTICOCEAN

    Mediterranean Sea

    C a n t a b r i a n S e a

    nai

    dire

    m hc

    iw

    neer

    G

    505399-01-17 precipitaciones Espaa

    0 420

    kilometres

    Scale

    Precipitation(in mm)

    Less than 200 mm

    500 to 200 mm

    1,000 to 500 mm

    Over 1,000 mm

    A THEMATIC MAP

    4 NametwowaysofrepresentingtheEarth.Whataretheadvantagesanddisadvantagesofeachone?

    5 Makealistofthemainpartsofamap.Whattypeofinformationdowegetfromeachofthefollowing?

    mapkey scale parallelsandmeridians

    6 Investigatethecoloursandsymbolsusedonmaps.Lookforoneexampleofeachofthefollowing:

    aline asymbol agreenarea

    abluearea averysmallcircle

    7 Doyouusemapsinyourownlife?Aretheyprintedonpaper,ordisplayedonanelectronicscreen?Inwhichsituationsdoweuseeachkindofmap?

    ACTIVITIES

    Orientation in nature

    Weestablishdirectionbyusingthecardinal points:north,south,eastandwest.Ifwearelostinthecountrysidewithoutacompass,maporGPS,wecanusethepositionoftheSunfororientation.TheSunrisesintheeastandsetsinthewest.Atnight-time,theNorthStaralwaysindicatesnorth.

    Lookoninternetforamapofstarconstellations.canyoufindtheNorthStar?(First,lookfortheBigDipper.)Trytoidentifyitinthenightskytonight.

    DID YOU KNOW?

    13

    PlanetEarth 1

  • Parallels and meridians

    Parallels and meridians form a grid of imaginary lines that help us to find the exact location of a place on Earth.

    Parallels are imaginary circles running in an east-west direction. The Equator (0) divides the Earth into two hemispheres: the northern hemisphere and the southern hemisphere. There are 90 parallels between the Equator and each pole.

    Other important parallels, from north to south, are: the Arctic Circle; the Tropic of Cancer; the Tropic of Capricorn; the Antarctic Circle.

    Meridians are imaginary semicircles running in a north-south direction from the North Pole to the South Pole. The prime meridian (0) is also called the Greenwich meridian. This line divides the Earth into two hemispheres: the western hemisphere and the eastern hemisphere. There are 360 meridians: 180 in each hemisphere.

    Latitude and longitude

    Latitude and longitude indicate the geographic coordinates of a place its exact location on the Earths surface.

    Latitude is the distance from a parallel to the Equator:

    Latitude can be north (N) or south (S). Parallels show latitude. It is measured in degrees (), minutes (')

    and seconds ("). Its values go from 0 at the Equator to 90.

    Longitude is the distance from a meridian tothe Greenwich meridian:

    Longitude can be east (E) or west (W). Meridians show longitude. It is measured in degrees (), minutes (')

    and seconds ("). Its values go from 0 at the Greenwich

    meridian to 180.

    4The geographic coordinates

    Meridians:theGreenwichmeridiandividestheEarthintothewesternandeasternhemispheres.

    W E S T E R N H E M I S P H E R E

    E A S T E R NH E M I S P H E R E

    505399-01-20a Meridianos

    Gre

    enw

    ich

    mer

    idia

    n

    203040 20 30 40 50 605060 10 0 10

    Parallels: theEquatordividestheEarthintothenorthernandsouthernhemispheres.

    Tropic of Capricorn

    Antarctic Circle

    Equator

    Arctic Circle

    Tropic of Cancer

    505399-01-20b paralelos

    90

    90

    23 27 N

    66 33 N

    66 33 S

    23 27 S

    0

    40

    60

    20

    20

    40

    60

    N O R T H E R NH E M I S P H E R E

    S O U T H E R NH E M I S P H E R E

    Weputlatitudebeforelongitudewhenwegivethegeographiccoordinates.Forexample,RiodeJaneiro(Brazil)isinthesouthernhemisphereandwestoftheGreenwichmeridian.Itsapproximategeographiccoordinatesarelatitude22south(S)andlongitude43west(W).Itsexactgeographiccoordinatesare2254'10"S,4312'27"W.

    Isitsometimesusefultogiveapproximatefigures?Why?

    THINK ABOUT IT

    14

  • Tropic of Cancer

    Arctic Circle

    Equator

    Tropic of Capricorn

    Antarctic Circle

    150180 120 90 60 30 0 30 60 90 120 150

    90 60 030 30 60 90 120 150

    60

    40

    20

    0

    20

    40

    60 60

    60

    40

    40

    20

    20

    0

    Saint Petersburg

    Gre

    enw

    ich

    Mer

    idia

    n

    Kinshasa

    Rio de Janeiro

    Sydney

    London

    Quito

    Rome

    505399-01-21a mundi localizacion

    0 2,400

    kilometres

    Scale

    An example: Saint Petersburg

    1. Themapshowsitisnearthe60parallelinthenorthernhemisphere.Soitslatitudeis60north.

    2. Itisnearthe30meridianintheeasternhemisphere.Soitslongitudeis30east.

    3. Itsgeographiccoordinatesaretherefore60N,30E.

    Longitude is shown in numbers at the top and bottom of the map.

    Latitude is shown in numbers on the left and right of the map.

    How do we locate a place on a map?

    We can locate a place on a map if we have its geographic coordinates: its latitude and longitude.

    GPS

    GPS(GlobalPositioningSystem)isasatellitenavigationsystem.EachGPSreceiverisincontactwithseveralsatellites.Itgiveshighlyaccuratecalculationsoflatitudeandlongitude.

    WhenandwheredoyouthinkGPSisused?

    DID YOU KNOW?

    1 copythetableinyournotebook.completeitwiththemissinginformation.

    City Latitude Longitude

    SaintPetersburg 60N 30E

    21S 38W

    London

    32S 150E

    Rome

    Quito

    Kinshasa

    2 ImaginethatashipisindifficultywestofthecanaryIslands.Isitnecessarytoknowitsgeographiccoordinatesbeforerescuingit?Why?

    3 Lookfortheshipandtheplaneonthemap.Thencopyandcompletethesentencesinyournotebook.

    The lost ship is in the ..... hemisphere and its approximate coordinates are ..... It was going to 20 S, 120 E. Its direction should be .......