pirateria maritimĂ, jaful armat pe mare si terorismul naval (maritime piracy, armed robbery at sea...
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DESCRIPTIONHLDAN, Romulus. Pirateria maritim, jaful armat pe mare i terorismul maritim - probleme ale securitii mondiale la nceputul secolului XXI n Geopolitica, Anul VIII, Nr. 33-34, Editura TOP FORM, pp. 156172, Bucureti, 2010, ISSN 1583-543XPIRATERIA MARITIM, JAFUL ARMAT PE MARE I TERORISMUL MARITIM PROBLEME ALE SECURITII MONDIALE LA NCEPUTUL SECOLULUI XXI dr. Romulus HLDANMaritime piracy, armed robbery at sea and maritime terrorism represent a plague which, even at this start of the
HLDAN, Romulus. Pirateria maritim, jaful armat pe mare i terorismul maritim - probleme ale securitii mondiale la nceputul secolului XXI n Geopolitica, Anul VIII, Nr. 33-34, Editura TOP FORM, pp. 156172, Bucureti, 2010, ISSN 1583-543XPIRATERIA MARITIM, JAFUL ARMAT PE MARE I TERORISMUL MARITIM PROBLEME ALE SECURITII MONDIALE LA NCEPUTUL SECOLULUI XXI dr. Romulus HLDAN
Maritime piracy, armed robbery at sea and maritime terrorism represent a plague which, even at this start of the century, is an alarming reality, first because of the diversification of the execution mettods and its growing scale and also because of the social,economic and moral effects it generates. Pirates always strike where the law is weak, especially where the legal force to impose, protect and promote law is lacking. The development of maritime transportation and new maritime routes has been accompanied by the increasing piracy in the intense traffic areas. However, while whitin the XVIIth century the first to be coded was maritime legislation, ironically the sea still remains a huge space spoted with cases of law breaking as long as certain national interests make the national legislation to move at a very low speed. For instance, not only The International Maritime Organization (IMO) but also the 162 maritime nations develop their legislation on this matter very slow showing huge imobilism. To realize the dimension of maritime piracy menace we can show that the losses provoked by pirate attacks summon annually almost 20 billion dollars. Maritime piracy and armed robbery at sea seem to be a twisted reality in a world which is showing itself as an evolved one, without primitivism, middle aged cruelties and the obsolescence of these cases of law breaking. It often covers the image of the cruel reality of the danger and ferocity of these acts which can lead to unpredictable developments which can affect many more areas of the ocean. The acts of piracy occur within international waters, beyond jurisdiction of any country, usually outside the areas in which the ships are monitorized and protected, also where the war ships patrol. Armed robbery at sea stands for any unlawful act of violence, kidnapping, theft or any deed of this kind, except for piracy, against a ship, people or onboard goods which occur within inner waters of a country, archipelagic waters and territorial sea. As a general conclusion, maritime piracy and armed robbery at sea are linked with poverty, most of the cases being registered in worlds poorest areas such as Africa or South-eastern Asia. However they are favored by many different factors which complicate the prevention and eradication, such as: many ships show the flag perfunctory; phenomena of corruption which can affect military and civilian authorities of a country; globalization of sea trade; differences in approaching practices of the states related to maritime piracy and armed robbery at sea of the countries; discrepance between international maritime legislation and general legislation of the countries; ability of the states to impoze the maritime law; involvement of naval forces, coast guard, police and harbor administration of some countries in unlawful affaires with pirates; posibility of unlawful registration of stolen ships. There are many organizations, agencies and institutions involved in the fight against maritime piracy and armed robbery at sea, as well as many successful companies that patronaize this activity, however there are two institutions intensively active: The International Maritime Bureau of International Chamber of Commerce and International Maritime Organization (IMO). The most important aspect is that either piracy or robberies at sea are not conjunctural phenomena. They have deep roots hard to be broken and wherever the sea shore will be poor, there will be piracy and armed robbery at sea more likely to happen and they might be generated also by the local tradition as we outlined previously.
Speaking about maritime terrorism is obviously at the beginning, though its trend of development is very fast. Thus implies different methods and practices which have been considered not so long time ago inaccessible outside of a professional framework. For sure, Al Qaida ownes ships. Experts have identiffied a number of 15 to 300 ships wich might belong to this terrorist organization and which sail, perfunctory, under the flag of countries such as Yemen and Somalia, Senegal, Liberia, St. Vincent Caribbean Islands. Practically, this might be considered first terrorist fleet of the world. Abdulrahine Mohammed Abda al Nasheri is recognized as Osama bin Ladens head of naval operations, the brain behind the strike against USS Cole and the planner of the new future attacks against American and British war ships within Gibraltar Strait and The Mediterranean Sea areas. Fortunately, the Morocco secret services arresting the Saudi members of Al Qaeda who were supposed to act in the area, prevented suicidal missions. He is also known as The Emir of the Sea and even though he was captured by the Americans, this Admiral of Osama bin Laden has managed to create the very first maritime terrorist structure in the world. Infringements of the law which occur in the same environmental area always tend to converge so that, at some point, they appear to act individually or even together so that they can hardly be separated. This is also in the case of maritime terrorism, maritime piracy and armed robbery at sea, and it remains to be demonstrated which is the unifying element as well as wich makes the difference. In the actual law context, concept of piracy does not include the terrorist acts, their objectives being politicaly different. The main difference between pirates and terrorists is that while the first ones want the prize and rarely accept to die for a cause, the second ones, terrorists, always give their life for their cause. Nonetheless, we cannot talk much about commun aspect of piracy and terrorism. We can say they have two important things in common: first is the fact that both are results of actions of non-state actors, and the second refers to the fact that piracy might became a provider of maritime terrorism or even a producer of it. This is the case of Somalia, where pirates traine and provide militants for the naval wing of Islamic terrorist organization Al-Shabaab, helping it mainly in illegal weapon trade. Key words: piracy, armed robbery at sea, institutions involved in the fight against maritime piracy and armed robbery at sea, maritime terrorism, pirates and terrorists, piracy and maritime terrorism community
1. PIRATERIA MARITIM - PROBLEM MONDIAL A SECOLULUI XXI Pirateria maritim a aprut din cele mai vechi timpuri, practic de cnd oamenii au nceput s navige pe mare. inta dintotdeauna a pirailor a fost marfa pe care o transport navele i, uneori, chiar navele, dar i bunurile personale i banii pasagerilor i echipajelor. ntotdeauna, piraii au acionat acolo unde este slab legea i, mai ales, unde este slab fora care promoveaz, apr i impune legea. Dac n antichitate Marea Mediteran era un rai al pirailor, n evul mediu, odat cu descoperirea Americii, pirateria i-a stabilit centrul de greutate n zona Atlanticului i, cu preponderen, n Marea Caraibelor. Aceasta nu a nsemnat c celelalte centre tradiionale ale pirailor de pe coasta nordic a Africii sau Canalul Mnecii au ncetat s existe. Ele s-au perpetuat pn ctre secolele XVII XVIII, dar amploarea aciunilor lor a sczut, astfel c, spre sfritul secolului XVII, pirateria din Canalul Mnecii a disprut. S-au esut nenumrate legende, dar majoritatea au fost numai produsul fanteziei unor scriitori care au ncercat s creeze o atmosfer specific i s romaneze o ndeletnicire care nu este dect o tlhrie clasic desfurat pe mare. De exemplu, celebrul craniu cu cele dou oase ncruciate, proiectate pe un fond negru, nu au fost niciodat steagul pirailor. Acetia preferau culoarea roie sau
steaguri de mprumut care s le mascheze adevrata ndeletnicire, iar aceste steaguri, de multe ori, erau ale unor state i erau schimbate funcie de interese. De foarte multe ori, pirateria era patronat de state i exemplul lui Francis Drake este elocvent. Acesta a fost pur i simplu un pirat, dei a acionat n numele reginei i a primit chiar titlul de sir. Dezvoltarea transporturilor maritime i a unor noi rute maritime a fost nsoit i de amplificarea pirateriei n zonele de trafic intens, dar, ca o ironie, n timp ce legislaia maritim a fost prima codificat, n secolul XVII, marea rmne, nc, o imens frontier a frdelegii, atta timp ct interesele naionale nguste fac ca legislaiile naionale n domeniu s se mite cu o ncetineal dezarmant. Att Organizaia Maritim Internaional (IMO) ct i cele 162 de naiuni maritime se mic foarte ncet n ceea ce privete legislaia n domeniu i dau dovad de mult conservatorism. Experi avizai n domeniu subliniaz, de exemplu, c, sub actualele prevederi ale IMO, echipajelor de pe navele comerciale le este interzis s poarte arme care s le asigure autoprotecia, ceea ce este o ciudenie ntr-o lume n care au dreptul s poarte arme i cine trebuie i cine nu trebuie. Pentru a realiza dimensiunile pericolului pe care l reprezint pirateria maritim trebuie s artm c pierderile produse prin atacurile piratereti se cifreaz la aproape 20 miliarde de $ anual. Un alt efect este i creterea primelor de asigurare pentru navele i ncrcturile transportate de ctre acestea prin zonele periculoase. Actele de piraterie au evoluat extreme de rapid, astfel c, n anul 2000, au crescut cu 56% fa de 1999 i cu 400% fa de anul 1990 , iar, la aceast dat, fa de acum 10 ani, actele de pirateie au crescut cu 31%. Chiar dac, ncepnd cu anul 2004, cazurile de piraterie raportate au sczut simitor, virulena i amploarea acestora s-a amplificat apreciabil, iar n ultimii trei ani chiar se remarc un reviriment al pirateriei, n special datorat activitii pirailor din zona Golfului Ad