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  • CRITICAL ISSUES & SURVEY OFTHE PHILIPPINE DIASPORA LANDSCAPEFar East Asia Diaspora Educators ConsultationAugust 11-14, 2011, Manila, Philippines

    Jojo ManzanoAsian Theological Seminary

  • Waves of Filipino Migration in Search of Employment Opportunities

    1920s under American colonial rule, the Filipinos worked in pineapple plantations in Hawaii, California, and to Washington and Alaska to work in fish canneries.

    1960s, Filipino nurses, doctors, medical technicians filled in skill gaps in the United States, Canada and other European countries.

    1970s, the phenomenon of overseas contract workers (OCWs) emerged. Filipinos leave the Philippines in even larger numbers to fill in labour shortages in rich and industrializing countries in the Middle East (e.g. Saudi Arabia, Kuwait) and the Asia-Pacific (Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, Malaysia)as construction workers, nannies, domestic workers, nurses and entertainers.;

  • Around 8.6 million to 11 million Filipinos (about 11% of the total population of the Philippines) live in 214 countries overseas.

    Sources: Department of Foreign Affairs, Philippine Overseas Employment Administration, Commission on Filipinos Overseas

  • Philippines

    Middle East2,415,896

    Europe722,427 Asia1,074,496

    Where the 8M+ Filipinos are going





    @ 2009

  • 3,582,879



    Stock Estimates of FilipinosBy Major World Group

    Total: 8,579,378 @ December 2009)

  • Permanent - Immigrants or legal permanent residents abroad whose stay do not depend on work contracts.

    Temporary - Persons whose stay overseas is employment related, and who are expected to return at the end of their work contracts.

    Irregular - Those not properly documented or without valid residence or work permits, or who are overstaying in a foreign country.

    Sources: Department of Foreign Affairs, Philippine Overseas Employment Administration, Commission on Filipinos Overseas

  • The top 10 destination countries of Filipinos:

    United States of America Saudi Arabia

    Canada United Arab Emirates

    Australia Malaysia

    Japan United Kingdom

    Hong Kong Singapore

  • Diaspora in the Philippines

    1. The Permanent and Temporary Migrants (OFW/OCW)

    2. Irregular Migrants3. Internal Migrants4. The Foreign Migrants and

    Tourists in the Philippines

  • 1.

    The Permanent and Temporary Migrants

  • Permanent MigrantsFilipino permanent migrants are in the developed

    countries of North America, particularly the United States (US). Other destinations of permanent migrants are countries in Asia, Oceania, and Europe but the proportion is far lower than that in North America.

    Mostly highly educated they emigrated because of more career advancement opportunities, over and above the differences in wages

    The larger proportion of permanent migrants are unemployedhousewives, students, and minors. This scenario is created by the family reunification goal of permanent migration in the US the prime destination of Filipino emigrants.

  • Temporary Migrant Workers Temporary migrant workers. This includes the increasing

    number of new-hire and the even faster increasing proportion of rehired workers.

    Land-based temporary migrants are composed of professionals, service workers, production process workers, transport workers, and laborers.

    Filipino temporary migrant workers are shown to be younger and better educated. Around 7 out of 10 are of ages between 24 to 44 years old and half of them have at least some tertiary education.

    Temporary labor migration is likewise selective of gender, with majority of temporary migrant workers being women.

  • The history of systematized export of Filipino labor abroad is a product of extreme poverty, underdevelopment and joblessness in the country, rooted in the uneven distribution of land and wealth that has benefited a handful of rich landlords, big business, cronies, and multinational companies.

    This system started under Spanish colonial rule, was entrenched under American colonial rule and continues to this very dayfrom Marcos era up to this present government administration of Benigno Aquino III.;

  • The deepening economic crisis in the Philippines has aggravated the migration of Filipinos abroad to the point where 8 million people, more than 10% of the population, now work abroad as migrant labor in 214countries.

    Filipino migrant workers contribute significantly to the ailing Philippines economy through their remittances. In 2010 remittances of migrant Filipinos were registered at $18. 7billion. This contribution is recognized by the government. Migrant workers are hailed as "new economic heroes.;

  • The Philippine government has been unable to provide protection to its migrant workforce, despite the hefty fees OCWs have to pay in order to be employed overseas. Many Filipinos continue to experience abuse and exploitationcontract violations, termination without cause, rape, sexual harassment, and even death.

    The anguish and ordeal of migrant Filipinos continue. The conditions that confront them necessitate the continued organizing, education and mobilization work, in order that they can better defend their rights and welfare abroad, and to address the root causes of migration in the Philippines.

  • Deployment Trend of OFWs1975 - 2001






  • Y-2004 Y-2005 Y-2006 Y-2007 Y-2008 Y-2009 Y-20100









    Deployment Trend of OFWs2004 - 2010



  • 280,80825,69615,44848,185




    2010 Deployment of OFWs 1,470,826

  • 2010 daily deployment average of Landbased OFWs


    3,303* daily! 1,164 new hire; 2,139 rehires

    *Figures do not include Sea-based workers

  • 2010 Top Ten OFW Destinations(Landbased, New Hires & Rehires)

    Countries No. of Departures

    Saudi Arabia 293,049

    U. Arab Emirates 201,214

    Hong Kong 101,340

    Qatar 87,813

    Singapore 70,251

    Kuwait 53,010

    Taiwan 36,866

    Italy 25,595

    Bahrain 15,434

    Canada 13,885

    TOTAL 1,123,676

  • 2010 OFW Deployment by Major Occupational Category

    Countries Number of Departures

    Professional Medical, Technical & Related Workers


    Administrative & Managerial Workers


    Clerical Workers 10,706

    Sales Workers 7,242

    Service Workers 154,536

    Agricultural Workers 1,122

    Production Workers 120,647

    Others 2,753

    TOTAL 340,279

    (Land-based, New Hires & Rehires)

  • 2010 Top Ten OFW Deployment by OccupationalCategories and Gender (New Hires)

    Occupation Male Female TotalHousehold Service Workers 1,703 94,880 96,583Charworkers, Cleaners & Related Workers

    2,612 9,521 12,133

    Nurses Professional 1,828 10,254 12,082Caregivers & Caretakers 543 8,750 9,293Waiters, Bartenders & Related Workers

    4,393 4,396 8,789

    Wiremen & Electrical Workers 8,576 30 8,606Plumbers and Pipe Fitters 8,391 16 8,407Welders & Flame-Cutters 5,037 22 5,059Housekeeping & Related Service Workers

    701 4,098 4,799

    Bricklayers, Stonemasons, & Tile Setters

    4,478 29 4,507

    TOTALS 154,677



  • 2.

    The Irregular Migrants

  • Irregular migrants people who have fled their homes for reasons similar to refugees, but who remain within their own national territory and are subject to the laws of that state.

    Irregular migrants are a hidden population of people thus difficult to know their exact number. They avoid identification for fear of arrest and deportation. Irregular migrants are everywhere but a significant number of them are in East Malaysia.

  • Definition: This entry includes those persons residing in a country as refugees or internally displaced persons (IDPs). The definition of a refugee according to a United Nations Convention is "a person who is outside his/her country of nationality or habitual residence; has a well-founded fear of persecution because of his/her race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion; and is unable or unwilling to avail himself/herself of the protection of that country, or to return there, for fear of persecution

    The term "internally displaced person" is not specifically covered in the UN Convention; it is used to describe

  • Fillipino refugees in Borneo, Malaysia

    Since 2008, sporad