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Chemistry Backdrop In the 1800s, hospitals were often dangerous places. Many doctors didn't wear caps and gowns or wash their hands before they began to work. Doctors also hadn't discovered how to put people to sleep so a patient was usually awake during an operation. Some people died from the pain, but more often, they died from an infection, when germs got into their wounds. Back then, people believed that an infection was caused by something in the air.

Joseph ListerFather Of Modern Surgery" The hospital environment has not always been a place of sterility and extreme cleanliness that is associated with it so readily today. Prior to the work of Joseph Lister, the hospital was a place to go to die, not to be cured. If an individual was able to survive the pain and torture of surgery without anesthesia, a postoperative infection would most certainly be their ultimate demise. Thanks to Joseph Lister, a hospital is now a place of healing and cleanliness, not one of death and filth.

Doctor Joseph Lister spent many years trying to find out how to prevent infection. In 1869, Dr. Lister invented a pump to spray carbolic acid into the air in operating theaters. It wasn't very pleasant to work with, but the chemical killed the bugs and kept patients safer. Soon, other hospitals began to use carbolic acid and more and more people survived their operations. Joseph Lister, bug buster, had made an important discovery that saved many lives.

Carbolic Acid is produced when phenol reacts with water+ H2OOHO + H3O+

Modern surgeonsAntisepticsOHCH3Cl3HCOHOH(CH2)5CH34 chloro 3,5 dimethylphenol4 - hexylresorcinolBecause of Joseph Listers contribution to science, specifically in the field of medicine. The first company that produces health care and hygiene products was name after him to give him recognition for his works.

PHENOL

What is Phenol?OHAn alcohol like compounds that have the hydroxyl group bound to a benzene ring.

Phenol is derived from the old name for benzene (phene), to include the suffix that indicates it possesses a hydroxyl group (ol). CAUTION: The word phenol (C6H5-OH) is often confused with phenyl (C6H5-). Phenols are acidic and are important intermediates in the preparation of aryl ethers, C6H5-OR .

Physical Properties Phenol may be found as a translucent, clear, or light-pink crystalline mass; a white powder, or a clear liquid. It has a sweet, sharp odor or medicinal odor. Addition of small amount of water causes the solid to liquefy at room temperature. Phenol is used in many commercially available products including plastics, resins, fertilizers, paints, photographic developers, and some medicines.-wikipediaNAMEMelting pointBoiling PointSolubility g/100ml at 25CPhenol41C182C11.3gMethanol 97C65CAny amountDescription: Phenol is both a manufactured chemical and a natural substance. It is a colorless-to-white solid when pure. The commercial product is a liquid. Phenol has a distinct odor that is sickeningly sweet and tarry. You can taste and smell phenol at levels lower than those that are associated with harmful effects. Phenol evaporates more slowly than water, and a moderate amount can form a solution with water.Warning properties: pungent odor is usually adequate to warn of acute exposure ingestion can be fatal. Flammability: nonflammable (Source: wikipedia)

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Natural Phenols

Cloves

OH

OCH3

CH2 CH CH2

EUGENOL / Cloves

Nutmeg

OH

OCH3

CH CH CH3

ISOEUGENOL/NUTMEG

Vanilla

OH

OCH3

H C O

VANILLIN

Thyme

OH

CH CH3

CH3

3HC

THYMOL / THYME MINT

Wintergreen

C O CH3 OOHMETHYL SALICYLATESynthetic Phenol DerivativesOHC CH3CH3CH3OCH3Butylated Hydroxy Anisole(BHA)2 t butyl 4 - methoxyphenolOHCCCH3CH3CH3CH3CH3CH33HCButylated Hydroxy Toluene(BHT)2,6 di t butyl 4 - methylphenolApplications

Disinfectant

C OH OOHSalicylic AcidOHO - phenylphenolCH2OHCl2 benzyl 4 - chlorophenol

Beverage preservative

Food preservative

Additive for coal tar/ asphalt modification

Dyes, Pigments & Colorants

Rubber & PlasticAntioxidant

NomenclatureAromatic RulesWhen a single hydrogen of the benzene ring is replaced by a hydroxyl, the compound can be named as a derivative of benzene or simply PHENOL. A number of phenol derivatives are known by common names that are also IUPAC accepted and are used preferentially over other possibilities.Compounds formed by replacing a hydrogen of benzene with more complex hydrocarbon group can be named by designating the benzene ring as substituent.We called them phenyl group. When two groups are attached to a benzene ring, three isomeric structures are possible. They can be designated by the prefixes ortho (o), meta (m), and para (p):When two or more groups are attached to a benzene ring, their positions can be indicated by numbering the carbon atoms of the ring so as to obtain the lowest possible numbers for the attachment positions. Group that comes first in alphabetical order is given the lower number.

OH

CH3CH3

3HC

OH

CH3CH2

2ON

NO2

HO

C6H5C6H5

C6H5

OH

BrCl2,3,4 - triphenylphenol2 ethyl 4,5 - dinitrophenol3 bromo 5 chlorophenol 3,4,5 - trimethylphenolOHOH

OH

OH

OH

OH

OH

PhenolCathecolResorcinolHydroquinoneOH

CH3P methylphenolOH

OH

BrCl2 bromo 5 chlorohydroquinone OH

OH

CH3CH25 ethylresorcinolOH

HO

NO22ON3,5 - dinitrocathecolChemical PropertiesPhenol ReactionsHalogenationNitrationSulfonationAkylationEther FormationHalogenationOH+ Br2U r ask 2 produce 2,4,6 - tribromophenolOH

Br+ HBrTHENALL U HAVE 2 DO IS TO CONTINUE THE SEQUENCE OF REACTION 2 PRODUCE UR DESIRED PRODUCT.FeBr3NitrationU r ask 2 produce m - nitrophenol

OH+ HNO3+ H2OOHNO220CH2SO4Sulfonation+ SO3H2So415 20 COHOHSO3HO phenolsulfonic acidTEMPERATURE VARY DEPENDING ON THE DESIRED POSITION. 100 C FOR PARA POSITIONAlkylation+ CH3 C CH3 CH3ClOHHNO3C CH3CH3

CH3

OH+ HCl 2 t butylphenol / O t butylphenolIN THIS REACTION U WILL BE USING AN ACID CATALYST IT CAN BE HNO3, HF, HI, OR HCl.Williamson synthesis/Ether formationOH

+ CH3 CH2 BrNaOHOCH2CH3+ HBrethoxybenzene