pesticide pollution

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pollution due to usage of pesticides on human health and environment alternatives, and effectiveness of alternatives are discussed in this presentation

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  • 1. Pesticide Pollution-Govardhan .S (RC/11-08)B.Sc.,(Commercial Agriculture and Business management)College of Agriculture , RajendranagarProf. Jaishankar Telangana State Agriculture University9/15/2014 govardhan.happy@gmail.com 1

2. What Is A PesticideDefinition:Substances meant for attracting,seducing, destroying, or mitigating any pestThey are a class of biocide. The most commonuse of pesticides is as plant protection products(also known as crop protection products), whichin general protect plants from damaginginfluences such as weeds, plantdiseases or insects.term pesticide is often treated as synonymouswith plant protection product9/15/2014 govardhan.happy@gmail.com 2 3. What Is A Pesticide Term pesticide includesall of the following: herbicide,insecticide,Insect growth regulator, nematicide,termiticide,molluscicide,Piscicideaviciderodenticide,predacide,bactericide,Insect repellent, animal repellent, antimicrobial, fungicide, disinfectant(antimicrobial),sanitizer9/15/2014 govardhan.happy@gmail.com 3 4. According to the Stockholm Conventionon Persistent Organic Pollutants, 9 of the12 most dangerous andpersistent organic chemicals areorganochlorine pesticides9/15/2014 govardhan.happy@gmail.com 4 5. Negative Role Of Pesticides A fundamental contributor to the Green Revolution hasbeen the development and application of pesticides for thecontrol of a wide variety of insectivorous and herbaceouspests that would otherwise diminish the quantity andquality of food produce. The use of pesticides coincideswith the "chemical age" which has transformed societysince the 1950s. In areas where intensive monoculture ispractised, pesticides were used as a standard method forpest control. Unfortunately, with the benefits of chemistryhave also come disbenefits, some so serious that they nowthreaten the long-term survival of major ecosystems bydisruption of predator-prey relationships and loss ofbiodiversity. Also, pesticides can have significant humanhealth consequences.9/15/2014 govardhan.happy@gmail.com 5 6. Negative Role Of Pesticides While agricultural use of chemicals is restricted to a limitednumber of compounds, agriculture is one of the fewactivities where chemicals are intentionally released intothe environment because they kill things. Agricultural use of pesticides is a subset of the largerspectrum of industrial chemicals used in modern society.The American Chemical Society database indicates thatthere were some 13 million chemicals identified in 1993with some 500 000 new compounds being added annually.In the Great Lakes of North America, for example, theInternational Joint Commission has estimated that thereare more than 200 chemicals of concern in water andsediments of the Great Lakes ecosystem..9/15/2014 govardhan.happy@gmail.com 6 7. Negative Role Of Pesticides Because the environmental burden of toxicchemicals includes both agriculture and non-agriculturalcompounds, it is difficult to separatethe ecological and human health effects ofpesticides from those of industrial compoundsthat are intentionally or accidentally released intothe environment. However, there isoverwhelming evidence that agricultural use ofpesticides has a major impact on water qualityand leads to serious environmental consequences9/15/2014 govardhan.happy@gmail.com 7 8. The impact on water quality by pesticides isassociated with the following factors: Active ingredient in the pesticide formulation. Contaminants that exist as impurities in the activeingredient. Additives that are mixed with the active ingredient(wetting agents, diluents or solvents, extenders,adhesives, buffers, preservatives and emulsifiers). Degradate that is formed during chemical, microbialor photochemical degradation of the activeingredient.9/15/2014 govardhan.happy@gmail.com 8 9. Health effects of pesticides Acute effects Acute health problems may occur in workers thathandle pesticides, such as abdominal pain, dizziness,headaches, nausea, vomiting, as well as skin and eyeproblems In China, an estimated half million people arepoisoned by pesticides each year, 500 of whom die. Pyrethrins, insecticides commonly used in commonbug killers, can cause a potentially deadly condition ifbreathed in9/15/2014 govardhan.happy@gmail.com 9 10. Health effects of pesticides Long term effects Cancer Many studies have examined the effects of pesticideexposure on the risk of cancer. Associations have beenfoundwith: leukemia, lymphoma, brain, kidney, breast, prostate,pancreas, liver, lung, and skin cancers. Increased rates of cancer have been found among farmworkers who apply these chemicals A mother's occupational exposure to pesticides duringpregnancy is associated with an increases in her child'srisk of leukemia, Wilms' tumor, and brain cancer.9/15/2014 govardhan.happy@gmail.com 10 11. Health effects of pesticides Neurological The risk of developing Parkinson's disease is 70% greater inthose exposed to even low levels of pesticides People with Parkinson's were 61% more likely to reportdirect pesticide application long term exposures may increase the risk of dementia. The United States Environmental Protection Agency finisheda 10-year review of the organophosphate pesticidesfollowing the 1996 Food Quality Protection Act, but did littleto account for developmental neurotoxic effects9/15/2014 govardhan.happy@gmail.com 11 12. Health effects of pesticides Reproductive effects Strong evidence links pesticide exposure to birthdefects, fetal death and altered fetal growth It was also found that offspring that were at some pointexposed to pesticides had a low birth weight and haddevelopmental defects Fertility A number of pesticidesincluding dibromochlorophane and 2,4-D has beenassociated with impaired fertility in males9/15/2014 govardhan.happy@gmail.com 12 13. Health effects of pesticides Other studies have found increased risks of dermatitis inthose exposed According to researchers from the National Institutes ofHealth (NIH), licensed pesticide applicators who usedchlorinated pesticides on more than 100 days in theirlifetime were at greater risk of diabetes.9/15/2014 govardhan.happy@gmail.com 13 14. Environmental Effects Of Pesticides Over 98% of sprayed insecticides and 95% ofherbicides reach a destination other than theirtarget species, including non-target species,air, water and soil. Pesticide drift occurs when pesticidessuspended in the air as particles are carried bywind to other areas, potentially contaminatingthem9/15/2014 govardhan.happy@gmail.com 14 15. Environmental Effects Of Pesticides Pesticides are one of the causes of water pollution, andsome pesticides are persistent organic pollutants andcontribute to soil contamination. Since chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides dissolve infats and are not excreted, organisms tend to retainthem almost indefinitely. Biological magnification is theprocess whereby these chlorinated hydrocarbons(pesticides) are more concentrated at each level of thefood chain. Among marine animals, pesticideconcentrations are higher in carnivorous fishes, andeven more so in the fish-eating birds and mammals atthe top of the ecological pyramid.9/15/2014 govardhan.happy@gmail.com 15 16. Environmental Effects Of Pesticides Global distillation is the process whereby pesticides aretransported from warmer to colder regions of theEarth, in particular the Poles and mountain tops.Pesticides that evaporate into the atmosphere atrelatively high temperature can be carried considerabledistances (thousands of kilometers) by the wind to anarea of lower temperature, where they condense andare carried back to the ground in rain or snow Economics Human health and environmental cost from pesticides inthe United States is estimated at $9.6 billion9/15/2014 govardhan.happy@gmail.com 16 17. Residues of Pesticides Residues in human blood: Organochlro insecticides found in samples of blood serumin rural areas of ahmedabad showed an average of200.3ppb Among all HCH (Hexaclorciclohexan) and DDT(DichloroDiphenyl Trichloroethane) were chief contaminents Residues in human milk: Potential risk to infants Toxilogical implecation cannot be assessed presicely Hexaclorobenzens a fungiside is found in human milk andfat9/15/2014 govardhan.happy@gmail.com 17 18. Residues of Pesticides Residues in human fat: In absece of a sutable animal tissue culture or human biomarkermodel to provide an objective evaluation it is not possible forpharmological interpetention of such small amounts ofpesticides Residues in food commodities and average daily intake Concentration of pesticides varies greatly DDT and HCH are found in ground nut and sesamum oils inTamil Nadu Residues in environmental samples Residues in aerosols in ahmedabad ranges from 2.06-18.96ng/m3 of BHC and DDT DDT and HCH in drinking water samples 47.4-256.9ng/L9/15/2014 govardhan.happy@gmail.com 18 19. Reasons for conditional utilization Allow agricultural producers to improve thequality, quantity, and diversity of our foodsupply. Used in timber, turf, horticulture, aquatic, andstructural pest control industries. Homeowners and home gardeners often usepesticides in their homes, yards, and on pets.9/15/2014 govardhan.happy@gmail.com 19 20. What Happens after Application? When pesticides are applied the goal is that theywill remain in the target area long enough tocontrol a specific pest and then degrade intoharmless compounds without contaminating theenvironment. Once applied, many pesticides are mobile in theenvironment (air, soil, water). This movement can be beneficial (movingpesticide to target area, such as roots) but canalso reduce the effect on the target pest andinjure nontarget plants and animals.9/15/2014 govardhan.happy@gmail.com 20 21. Pathways of pesticide movement Runoff Chemical degradation Volatilize (gas vapor) Leaching and breakdown in soil Leaching and degradation by microbes Photo degradation (sun)9/15/2014 govardhan.happy@gmail.com 21 22