Perry Bood Chapter Definitions

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AMNIOINFUSIONChapter 15Infusion of room-temperature normal saline or lactated Ringer's solution through an intrauterine pressure catheter into the uterine cavity in an attempt to increase the fluid around the umbilical cord and prevent compression during uterine contractions.AMNIOTOMYChapter 16Artificial rupture of the amniotic sac (fetal membranes).ANEUPLOIDYChapter 6An abonormal number of chromosomes.APGAR scoreChapter 23an evaluation of a newborn's physical condition, usually performed 1 minute and again 5 minutes after birth, based on a rating of five factors that reflect the infant's ability to adjust to extrauterine life. The system rapidly identifies infants requiring immediate intervention or transfer to a neonatal intensive care unit.ARNOLD-CHIARI MALFORMATIONChapter 45Abnormalities of the fourth ventricle, lower cerebellum, and brainstem; often associated with myelomeningocele.ASPHYXIAChapter 15Fetal hypoxia that results in metabolic acidosis.ASSOCIATIVE PLAYChapter 33Group play without group goals.ATOPYChapter 40Genetic predisposition for the development of an immunoglobulin E (IgE)mediated response to common aeroallergens.AUTONOMIC DYSREFLEXIAChapter 49A syndrome affecting persons with a spinal cord lesion above the midthoracic level (tetraplegics and some paraplegics) that is characterized by hypertension, bradycardia, severe headaches, pallor below and flushing above the cord lesions, and convulsions. It is the result of impaired function of the autonomic nervous system caused by simultaneous sympathetic and parasympathetic activity, such as may occur with bowel or bladder distension pain or a pressure ulcer. It is usually a medical emergency requiring care in an intensive care unit. A cerebrovascular accident and death may occur during an attack.AUTOREGULATIONChapter 45The unique ability of the cerebral arteries to maintain a steady blood flow during changes in blood pressure and perfusion by adjusting their diameter in response to alterations in cerebral perfusion pressure.AZOTORRHEAChapter 40Putrefied protein.BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS (BE)Chapter 42An acute or subacute bacterial infection of the endocardium or the heart valves or both. The condition is characterized by heart murmur, prolonged fever, bacteremia, splenomegaly, and embolic phenomena.BLAST CELLSChapter 43Immature white blood cells, such as lymphoblasts, myeloblasts, or monoblasts.BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA (CHRONIC LUNG DISEASE)Chapter 25Chronic pulmonary condition in which damage to the infant's lungs requires prolonged dependence on supplemental oxygen. Also called chronic lung disease.brown fat or brown adipose tissueChapter 22Highly vascular specialized fat found in the newborn that provides more heat than other fat when metabolized.caput succedaneumChapter 22Area of edema over the presenting part of the fetus or newborn, resulting from pressure against the cervix. Usually called simply caput.cephalhematomaChapter 22Bleeding between the periosteum and skull from pressure during birth; does not cross suture lines.cleansing breathChapter 14A deep breath taken at the beginning and end of each labor contraction.

DEVELOPMENTAL DYSPLASIA OF THE HIPChapter 22Instability of the hip joint leading to dislocation in the neonatal period. Although it may be associated with various neuromuscular disorders, such as myelodysplasia, or occur in utero, it most commonly occurs in neurologically normal infants and is multifactorial in origin. Usually there is laxity of the hip ligaments. Most affected infants are firstborn children, and 30% to 50% present in the breech position. About 90% of those affected are girls. The condition was formerly called congenital dislocation of the hip, but because the dislocation is not normally present at birth but develops later, the term developmental dysplasia of the hip is preferred.DyspareuniaINVOLUTIONChapter 18Retrogressive changes that return the reproductive organs, particularly the uterus, to their nonpregnant size and condition.KERNICTERUSChapter 22Staining of brain tissue caused by accumulation of unconjugated bilirubin in the brain. Also called bilirubin encephalopathy.Chapter 4Difficult or painful coitus in women.ERYTHEMA TOXICUMChapter 22Benign rash of unknown cause in newborns, with blotchy red areas that may have white or yellow papules or vesicles in the center.HEMORRHAGIC (HYPOVOLEMIC) SHOCKChapter 21Shock associated with the sudden and rapid loss of significant amounts of blood. Severe traumatic injuries often cause such blood losses. This results in inadequate perfusion to meet the metabolic demands of cellular function. Death occurs within a relatively short time unless transfusion quickly restores normal blood volume. Hemorrhagic shock often accompanies secondary shock.HYDROPS FETALISChapter 25Heart failure and generalized edema in the fetus secondary to severe anemia resulting from destruction of erythrocytes.