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STYLISTIC ANALYSIS OF P.B SHELLEYS
POEM SHELLEY TO SKYLARKBy
PARVEEN AKHTARA Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of Islamia University, English Department, Peshawar, in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of
ISLAMIA COLLEGE UNIVERSITY PESHAWAR2012-2013ABSTRACT The aim of the thesis is to analyze Shelleys To a Skylark through the lens of stylistics. The thesis consists of two parts. The first part defines stylistics. It throws light on the historical background and origin of stylistics that how it got developed from the ancient rhetorical field. It further defines style as a way of expression and choice of vocabulary. It also shows the characteristics of style that influences the definition of stylistics. Beside this it defines stylistics as study of style in written and spoken language. It explores the characteristics in style of a text that makes it different from the others. It also shows the effect of deviations (grammatical etc.) and choice of vocabulary that why a writer has owned and what effect it produces.
In the Second part of the research I have tried to analyze Shelleys To a Skylark stylistically. The analysis studies the poem from grammatical, morphological, and phonological levels, stylistically. And it further relates these effects to the theme of the poem and discusses how far Shelley has succeeded in achieving his goal to express his feelings and emotion.CERTIFICATE OF APPROVALI certify that I have read Shelley to skylark:Stylistic analysis of p.b Shelley,s poem shelley to skylark by parveen akhtar ; and that in my opinion this work meets the criteria for approving a thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for M.A English at English Department of Islamia College University Peshawar.
Name: Sir Waqar
DECLARATIONI, hereby declare that the research submitted by me is my own original work. I am aware of the fact that in case my work is found to be plagiarized or not genuine, authority has full access to cancel my research work and I am liable to penal action.
Parveen AkhtarDate: 10 June, 2013ACKNOWLEDGMENTWith my whole heart I express my immense graduate and appreciation to almighty God, who in his infinite mercy saw me through to this present time and this dream a reality.
My profound and graduate also goes to my able supervisor Mr. Muhammad Waqar Ali who guided and put me through in the course of writing. His cooperation and effort towards the success of this long essay is immeasurable.
I give thanks to my parents Dr.Sher Latif and my brother Sajjad Ahmad Khan for the parental love and advice given shown to me in the course of study from the elementary level to this time. You are great, I pray to Almighty Allah that you may live long.
My sister Shahida and brother Saeed Ahmad Khan you are wonderful. You are concerned a lot to the success of this work.
I appreciate my uncle Dr. Sher Latif and his wife Miss. Farzand Bibi for their caring attitudes.My friends contribution cannot be left out Nusrat Hussain, Raheel, Shahida. I am so grateful to you all.
Again I will be ingrate if I do not acknowledge my ever sparking uncle Dr Sher Latif who during my stay in Peshawar took me as his own daughter.
You all are wonderful.
Thank you all. TABLE OF CONTENTS1CHAPTER 1
21.2AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
21.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
21.4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
62.4 APPROACHES TO STYLISTIC ANALYSIS
82.5 LEVELS OF STYLISTIC ANALYSIS
92.6 ELEMENTS IN STYLISTIC ANALYSIS
92.6.1Lexico-syntactic patterns include
122.6.5 Morphological devices Include
153.1THE AIM OF STYLISTIC ANALYSIS
153.2ANALYSIS ON THE LEVEL OF SYNTAX/GRAMMAR
163.3DISTRIBUTION OF NOUN PHRASES IN POEM
183.5CONSONANCE OF |M|, |T|
193.7HIGHER STILL AND HIGHER
23SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
INTRODUCTIONStylistics is a word derived from style; it is a discipline which studies different styles. It can refer to the study of proper use of words or language improper places. Widdowson (1975) defines stylistics as the study of literary discourse from a linguistic orientation (p. 3). He goes further by saying that what distinguishes stylistics from literary criticism on the one hand, and linguistics on the other, is that it is essentially a means of linking the two and has (as yet at least) no autonomous domain of its own. He also added that stylistics, however involves both literary criticism and linguistics, as its morphological make-up suggests: the style component relating it to the former and the istics component to the latter. Style has grown to mean so many things to so many people today. Carter (1989) is of the view that it is generally recognized that the style of work can depend on linguistic levels-often simultaneously and that one fairly crucial factor is our expectation concerning the literary form or genre employed. Haynes (1989) believes that the study of style is the study of distinctions: looking at what was said against what might have been said. Style is almost synonymous with variety. Style refers in a simple way to the manner of expression which differs according to the various contexts. Style, being a versatile field, is defined depending on ones field of study. Adejare (1992) makes this clear when he said that style is an ambiguous term .Lawal (1997) however, describes style as an aspect of language that deals with choices of diction, phrases, sentences and linguistic materials that are consistent and harmonious with the subject matter. He added that it involves the narrative technique of a writer in terms of choice and distribution of words and character. Lawal (1997) also added that it may be reckoned in terms of the sociolinguistic contexts and it may also be reckoned or analyzed on linguistic, semantic and even semiotic terms.1.1RESEARCH PROBLEM
This research notes that the stylistic analysis of this poem has not been done, so this research will address itself to analyzing this poem stylistically and examining the uniqueness of stylistics as it combines both linguistics and literary studies as it pertains to this poem. It is also addressing itself to examining how words are put together in transferring of message to the readers.1.2AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The ultimate aim of this research is to explore ways in which language use has been integrated in the poem. This refers to the recurrent features of stylistics employed by the writer. In the same vein, this work will be concerned with striking and marked use of words in this poem in order to enhance effective transfer of message. The effects and functions of the stylistic elements as regards the poem will be looked at in the analysis.1.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This work shall be exclusively stylistic, and analysis will be conducted through the use of the following levels of analysis: lexico-syntactic patterns and choices, phonology, graphology and morphology. Analysis will be conducted using the stylistic elements in each of the above mentioned levels of analysis, such that it could provide a guide and be relevant to future researchers in a related field.1.4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The data for analysis have been selected from the poem. Introduced and annotated by Shelleys Poem to a Skylark. The poem consists of sixteen stanzas, and was written in 1977. The poems will be analyzed stylistically and the five levels of the analysis already mentioned will form the basis of the analysis.
There are divergent scholarly views on what stylistics means and what it entails as opinions differ from scholar to scholar. Several ideas are discovered although they are considered not to be too far from one another, varying submissions on stylistics have been proved by critical studies to be of a similar message but different voices. This chapter is aims at reviewing related literatures it pertains to stylistics.
The concept of style has a troubled history in the modern period both within and outside literary study. It has commonly been argued that we use the term style without knowing its meaning. According to Leech (1969) style is the way in which something is spoken, written or performed. Narrowly interpreted, it refers toward use, sentence structures and figures of speech. More broadly, style is considered to be a manifestation of the person speaking or writing. He further refers to style as elocution- a Latin term which means style and also means lexis in Greek. Elocution means the style and diction of a language. Leech and Short (1981, p. 10) believe that the word style has a fairly uncontroversial meaning: it refers to the way in which language is used in a given7context, by a given person, for a given purpose, and so on. Birch (1989) says that language and style never moves beyond a concentration on the supremacy of words; he believes firmly that these words somehow contain meanings and is effectively language manipulated in ways that signal it as different from ordinary language. Carter (1989) cites that it is ge