partial reconfiguration using fpgas: architecture 1

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PARTIAL RECONFIGURATION USING FPGAs: ARCHITECTURE 1 Slide 2 Agenda Introduction Partial Reconfiguration Basics Design Considerations Advantages of Partial Reconfiguration Challenges of Partial Reconfiguration Application Examples Case Study 2 Slide 3 Introduction Basic Premise : Hardware reconfiguration is allowed during execution of an application. FPGA Chip Design A Design B Design C Some Interesting Applications Dynamic Instruction Set Architecture Software Defined Radio Video encoding techniques Cryptography Networking protocols 3 Slide 4 Introduction Classification of FPGA with respect to configuration capabilities Dynamic Partial Reconfiguration : Reconfiguring only a part of the device at run time while the rest of the device executes. Useful for systems which can time share the FPGA resources. 4 Slide 5 Introduction Area reduction Power reduction Hardware Reuse Flexibility Performance Improvement Higher Level of Parallelism Time sliced resource sharing Fast system start Load a basic module to enable a fast system boot up Load peripheral modules later. Smaller bitstreams sizes Application Portability Encapsulation of reconfigurable system into a portable application. Benefits 5 Slide 6 Partial Reconfiguration Basics Each vendors products can have different characteristics and utilities Some common terminology are as below. TERMINOLOGY Reconfigurable Partition(RP) Dynamic Partial Reconfiguration (DPR) Reconfigurable Module (PRM) Configuration Memory (CM) Frames Partial Bitstream Merged Bitstream Static Logic (Base Region) Bus Macro 6 Slide 7 Partial Reconfiguration Basics Overall Structure CLBs Configurable logic blocks IOBs Input-output buffers DSP48s Xilinxs digital signal processing units BRAMs Block Random Access Memories FIFOs First-in First-out buffers DCMs Digital Clock Managers Structure Overview CLBs IOBs DCMs and Clock Dist. DSP48s BRAMS and FIFOs Figure 1. Virtex-4 LX15 FPGA layout 7 Slide 8 Partial Reconfiguration Basics Structure Overview 8 Slide 9 Partial Reconfiguration Basics Bit Stream and Frames FPGAs are reprogrammed by writing bits into CM Organized in small blocks called Frames Multiple frames required to program a column of tiles(After Virtex II ) Contains both routing and logic tile configuration. Virtex-6 Frame size: 81 x 32 bits (81 words) Typical Bit streams for Virtex-6 are in the range of 43Mb to 190 Mb 9 Slide 10 Partial Reconfiguration Basics Different columns of FPGA fabric can have different bit streams PR overhead for full flexibility Possible to reduce Bit stream Size : - Compression Techniques - Partial Reconfiguration Bit Stream 10 Slide 11 Partial Reconfiguration Basics Row address 0 to 9 Top/Bottom row with respect to HCLK Together with row address can locate the tile Major Address : Columns 0 onwards Minor Address : No. of frames in tile Block type : Logic Blocks, BRAMs, Routing Blocks. Frames 11 Slide 12 Partial Reconfiguration Basics Bus Macros: Means of communication between PRMs and static design All connections between PRMs and static design must pass through a bus macro with the exception of a clock signal Type of Bus Macros Tri-state buffer (TBUF) based bus macros Slice-based (or LUT-based) bus macros Bus Macros 12 Slide 13 Partial Reconfiguration Basics Used for connecting points to link Static and reconfigurable part Introduced in 2002 Fixed positions on the FPGA fabric Present along a thin vertical slice Extra hardware required. No longer supported in modern FPGAs. Xilinx Bus Macros (Tri state Buffer Based) 13 Slide 14 Partial Reconfiguration Basics LUTs and Switch matrix acts as the connection points (2004) Passes the boundary of static and reconfigurable regions in a predefined manner. Uses 2 LUTs per wire Increased latency and area Not used any more. Partition Pins replace Bus Macros Xilinx Bus Macros (LUT Based) 14 Slide 15 Partial Reconfiguration Basics 15 Partition Pins are the logical and physical connection between static logic and reconfigurable logic. Automatically created for all RP ports. Also referred to as Proxy LUTs. It is single LUT1 No special instantiations required Not Bidirectional Partition Pins Slide 16 Externally Serial configuration port JTAG (Boundary Scan) port Select Map port Internally Though the Internal configuration access port (ICAP) using an embedded microcontroller or state machine Partial Reconfiguration Basics Methods of Reconfiguration Summary of Configuration Options 16 Slide 17 Partial Reconfiguration Basics Reconfiguration via a processor 17 Slide 18 Partial Reconfiguration Basics Port to read and write the FPGA configuration at run time Enables a user to write software programs for an embedded processor that modifies the circuit structure and functionality during the circuits operation. Allows for automated runtime reconfiguration ICAP Interface 18 Slide 19 Partial Reconfiguration Basics Storage Device Bus System DMA to Storage Device Read back Support Configuration manager ICAP Interface 19 Slide 20 Design Considerations Partitioning style could be island style Slot Based Grid Based Partitioning Style 20 Slide 21 Design Considerations Partitioning style affects placement and flexibility A partition defines the smallest atomic area a module can be assigned Island style suffers from fragmentation Slot style - also suffers from fragmentation but to a lesser extent. Offered by the current vendors Xilinx and Altera. Grid Style Reduced fragmentation. Difficult to support. To enhance flexibility, the PR module must be placed and routed in every region it needs to be configured. Additional stress on Bit stream size. Placement Flexibility 21 Slide 22 Design Considerations Column wise layout of different logic primitives Must be considered when placing Depending on the type of logic primitives used by the module(SLICEX, SLICEM, etc), relocation may or may not be possible. Resource 22 Slide 23 Design Considerations One of the potential advantages of PR Power reduction But PR itself requires power. Power during PR is spent in: 1. Configuration Data Access - Spent on the configuration controller - Off/On chip Memory access - Programming interface(ICAP, SelectMAP,etc) 2. Actual configuration of FPGA Resources Power Bonamy, R., et al. "Power Consumption Models for the Use of Dynamic and Partial Reconfiguration." Microprocessors and Microsystems (2014). 23 Slide 24 Design Considerations Tasks switching power graph T1 T2 and T2 T1 Power Bonamy, R., et al. "Power Consumption Models for the Use of Dynamic and Partial Reconfiguration." Microprocessors and Microsystems (2014). 24 Slide 25 1. Module-based PR: Implement any single component separately. Constrain components to be placed at a given location. Complete bitstream is finally built as the sum of all partial bit streams. 2. Difference-based PR: Implement the complete bitstreams separately. Implement fix parts + reconfigurable parts with components constrained at the same location in all the bitstreams. Compute the difference of two bitstreams to obtain the partial bitstream needed to move from one configuration to the next one. Design Considerations Design Flows 25 Slide 26 Design Considerations Module Based P-R 26 Slide 27 Design Considerations Useful for making small on-the-fly changes to design parameters such as logic equations, Filter Parameters. Procedure: 1. Designer makes small logic changes using FPGA_Editor: changing I/Os, block RAM contents LUT programming muxs flip-flop initialization and reset values pull-ups or pull-downs on external pins block RAM write modes Changing any property or value that would impact routing is not recommended due to the risk of internal contention 2. Uses BitGen to generate a bitstream that programs only the difference between the two versions. Very quick switching Difference Based P-R 27 Slide 28 Design Considerations Difference Based P-R LUT equations change 28 Slide 29 Changing BRAM contents Design Considerations Difference Based P-R 29 Slide 30 Challenges of Partial Reconfiguration Complicated design flow Manual assistance for reconfiguring different target devices. Security issues Decrease performance as compared to full configuration. Xilinx reports 10% degradation in clock frequency when using PR. Xilinx PR Implementation Flow HDL Design Description HDL Synthesis Set Design Constraints Placement Analysis Implement Static Design and PR Modules Merge Final Bitsreams Manual steps 30 Slide 31 Complete Architecture Overview 31 Slide 32 Application examples of Partial Reconfiguration Evolution Architectures Artifical Neural Networks Evolvable Hardware Platforms Fuzzy systems Modular Robotics Speed Up Crypto (Asym) Area Saving Networking (exchange packet filters according to traffic) Modulation/frequency/encryption hopping in military radios Digital Signal Processing JPEG Encoder/Decoder systems Edge detection applications 32 Slide 33 Case Study Fault tolerant Processor IF,MAC and ALU are the PRMs Different configurations available for each module. Focus on the self healing feature more than the performance itself. Fault Tolerance Self Healing Architecture 33 Slide 34 Case Study Reconfigurable Crypto processor Processor can choose from Different crypto algorithms Major Area savings Some Power Savings too. 34 Slide 35 Case Study Fast Start up is a 2 step configuration Useful in time critical systems to initiate a swift system start up. Example : Automotive safety Fast Start Up 35 Slide 36 Thank you Questions ? 36

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