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TEACHING LISTENING SKILLS (PART 1)TW10103 by: JOHN CHONG H. L

1 May 2011

CHAPTER 1 DEFINITIONS OF LISTENING

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DEFINITIONS OF LISTENING 1. Aility to understand spoken language (Rankin, 1926) 2. A process of taking what you hear and organizing it into verbal units to which you can apply meaning (Goss, 1982) 3. A process that includes hearing, attending to, evaluating, and responding to spoken message. (Floyd, 1985) 4. A process of receiving, constructing meaning from and responding to spoken and / or nonverbal messages (Emmert, 1994)3

CHAPTER 2 GOALS AND TECHNIQUES IN TEACHING LISTENING SKILLS

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GOALS AND TECHNIQUES IN TEACHING LISTENING SKILLSThe Listening process To accomplish this goal, teachers focus on the process of listening rather than on its product: 1. To build up students awareness on listening process and skills, teachers ask them talk on how their listen in local nature language. 2. Encourage students to evaluate their comprehension and their strategy use immediately after completing an assignment. 3. encourage the development of listening skills and the use of listening strategies by using the target language to conduct classroom business: making announcements, assigning homework, describing the content and format of tests. 4. Do not assume that students will transfer strategy use from one task to another. They explicitly mention how a particular strategy can be used in a different type 5 of listening task or with another skill.

CHAPTER 3 Intergrating Metacognitive Strategies6

Intergrating Metacognitive Strategies

1.Before Listening: Plan for listening task - Set a purpose or decide in advance what to listen for. - Decide if more linguistic or background knowledge is needed. - Determine whether to enter the text from the top down. (attend to the overall meaning) or from the bottom up (focus on the words and phrases) 2. During and after listening: monitoring comprehension - Verify predictions and check for inaccurate guesses - Decide what is and is not important to understand - Listen/view again to check comprehension - Ask for help7

Intergrating Metacognitive Strategies

3. After Listening: Evaluation - Evaluate comprehension in a particular task or area - Evaluate overall progress in listening and in particular types of listening tasks - Decide if the strategies used were appropriate for the purpose and for the task - Modify strategies if necessary

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CHAPTER 4 ONE WAY COMMUNICATION AND TWO WAYS COMMUNICATION9

ONE WAY COMMUNICATION AND TWO WAYS COMMUNICATION

Authentic materials and situations prepare students for the types of listening they will need to do when using the language outside the classroom.

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ONE WAY COMMUNICATION AND TWO WAYS COMMUNICATION

ONE-WAY COMMUNICATION MATERIALS: 1. Radio and television programs 2. Public address announcements (airports, train/bus stations, stores) 3. Speeches and lectures 4. Telephone customer service recordings11

ONE WAY COMMUNICATION AND TWO WAYS COMMUNICATION

ONE-WAY COMMUNICATION PROCEDURES: 1. Help students identify the listening goal: to obtain specific information; to decide whether to continue listening; to understand most or all of the message. 2. Help students outline predictable sequences in which information may be presented: who-what-when-where (news stories); who-flight number-arriving/departing-gate number (airport announcements); "for [function], press [number]" (telephone recordings).12

3. Help students identify key words/phrases to listen for.

ONE WAY COMMUNICATION AND TWO WAYS COMMUNICATION

2-WAY COMMUNICATION

In authentic two-way communication, the listener focuses on the speaker's meaning rather than the speaker's language. The focus shifts to language only when meaning is not clear. Note the difference between the teacher as teacher and the teacher as authentic listener in the dialogues in the popup screens.

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CHAPTER 5 STRATEGIES DEVELOP LISTENING SKILLS14

LISTENING STRATEGY Listening strategies are activities that contribute directly to the comprehension and recall of listening input. Listening strategies can be classified by how the listener processes the input. Three types of listening strategies: (a)Top-down listening strategy (b)Bottom-up listening strategy (c)Metacognitive strategies15

TOP-DOWN LISTENING STRATEGIES -It is based on listener. -listener taps into background knowledge of the topic, the situation or context, the type of text, and the language. - his strategy helps listener to predict situation what will happen in the T future to get a general view. - his strategy include: T (a) Listening main idea (b) Predicting (c) Making inference (d) Sumarizing16

BOTTOM-UP LISTENING STRATEGIES - Based on text. -The listener relies on the language in the message, that is, the combination of sounds, words, and grammar that creates meaning. - ottom-up listening strategies includes: B (a) Listening to the details (b) Recognising cognates (c) Recognising words-pattern

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METACOGNITIVE STRATEGIES The purpose of metacognitive strategies are: (a)PLANNING Choosing the best strategies for listening activities. (b)MONITORING Monitor comprehension of effectiveness of the selected strategic. (c) EVALUATE Determine the achievement of listening goals. - Determine the effectiveness of the strategic selected.

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LISTENING FOR MEANING

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Students need to follow the step to extract meaning from the listening TEXT: Step 1: Find out the purpose for listening. Activate background knowledge of the topic in order to predict or anticipate content and identify Appropriate listening strategies. Step 2: Attend to the parts of the listening input that are relevant to the Identified purpose and ignore the rest. This selectivity enables students to focus on specific items in the input and reduces the amount of information they have to hold inshort-term memory in order to recognize it.20

Step 3: Select top-down and bottom-up strategies that are appropriate to the listening task and use them flexibly and interactively. Students' comprehension improves and their confidence increases when they use top-down and bottom-up strategies simultaneously to construct meaning.

Step 4: Check comprehension while listening and when the listening task is over. Monitoring comprehension helps students detect inconsistencies and comprehension failures, directing them to use alternate strategies.21

CHAPTER 6 DEVELOPING OF LISTENING ACTIVITIES22

DEVELOPING OF LISTENING ACTIVITIES

To develop of listening activities, teacher have to find the goals of listening activities by matching While-listening activities. While listening activities, it must related to the text & students do them during or immediately after listening activities. Before, plan for the activities, teacher must indicate the level of students, knowledge of the students etc.

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DEVELOPING OF LISTENING ACTIVITIES

1. Allow students to read through the comprehension text. This is happen before listening activities so that they can complete written task immediately after listening activities is completed.

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DEVELOPING OF LISTENING ACTIVITIES

2. Minimise writing during listening activities During listening activities, teacher must ensure students minimize writing activities because it will distract the achievement of listening goals. Writing task can be done after listening activities.

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DEVELOPING OF LISTENING ACTIVITIES

3. Organise activities so that they guides listener through the text crucial. Combine global activities such as getting the main idea, topic, and setting with selective listening activities that focus on details of content and form.

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DEVELOPING OF LISTENING ACTIVITIES

4. Use question to focus students attention Before listening activities, teacher have to allow students review the question before listening activities. This purpose can help students to get main idea of the listening skills activities.

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DEVELOPING OF LISTENING ACTIVITIES

5. Use predicting to encourage student to listen comprehension text during listening activities Do a predicting activity before listening, and remind students to review what they are hearing to see if it makes sense in the context of their prior knowledge and what they already know of the topic or events of the passage.

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DEVELOPING OF LISTENING ACTIVITIES

6. Give immediate feedback when possible Encourage students to examine how or why their responses were incorrect.

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DEVELOPING OF LISTENING ACTIVITIES SAMPLES OF WHILE LISTENING ACTIVITIES 1. Listening with visuals 2. Filling in graphs and charts 3. Following a route on a map 4. Checking off items in a list 5. Listening for the gist 6. Searching for specific clues to meaning 7. Completing cloze (fill-in) exercises 8. Distinguishing between formal and informal registers

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CHAPTER 7 ASSESSING LISTENING SKILLS

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ASSESSING LISTENING SKILLS

1. You can use post-listening activities to check comprehension, evaluate listening skills and use of listening strategies, and extend the knowledge gained to other contexts. 2. A post-listening activity may relate to a pre-listening activity, such as predicting; may expand on the topic or the language of the listening text; or may transfer what has been learned to reading, speaking, or writing activities.

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ASSESSING LISTENING SKILLS

3. In order to provide authentic assessment of students listening proficiency, a post-listening activity must reflect the real-life uses to which students might put information they have gained through listening. (a) It must have a purpose other than assessment (b) It must require students to demonstrate their level of listening comprehension by completing some task.

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ASSESSING LISTENING SKILLS

4. To develop authentic assessment activities, consider the type of response that listening to a particular selection would elicit in a non-classroom situation. e.g. For example, after listening to a weather report one might decide what to wear the next day.

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ASSESSING LISTENING SKILLS 5. Use this response type as a base for selecting appropriate post-listening tasks. You can then develop a checklist or rubric that will allow you to evaluate each student's comprehension of specific parts of the aural text. (See Assessing Learning for more on checklists and rubrics.) e.g. for listening practice you have students listen to a weather report. Their purpose for listening is to be able to advise a friend what to wear the next day.

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ASSESSING LISTENING SKILLS e.g. 2. As a post-listening activity, you ask students to select appropriate items of clothing from a collection you have assembled, or write a note telling the friend what to wear, or provide oral advice to another student (who has not heard the weather report).

6. To evaluate listening comprehension, you use a checklist containing specific features of the forecast, marking those that are reflected in the student's clothing recommendations.

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REFERENCESByrnes, H. (1984). The role of listening comprehension: A theoretical base. Foreign Language Annals , 17 , 317-329. Coakley, C.G., & Wolvin, A.D. (1986). Listening in the native language. In B. H. Wing (Ed.), Listening, reading, writing: Analysis and application (pp. 11-42). Middlebury, VT: Northeast Conference. Gass, S. M. (1988). Integrating research areas: A framework for second language studies. Applied Linguistics, 9 , 198-217. Lund, R.J. (1990). A taxonomy for teaching second language listening. Foreign Language Annals, 23 , 105-115. Mendelsohn, D.J., & Rubin, J. (1995). A guide for the teaching of second language listening. San Diego, CA: Dominie Press. Morley, J. (1991). Listening comprehension in second/foreign language instruction. In M. Celce-Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (pp. 81-106). Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.37

Nunan, D., & Miller, L. (Eds.). (1995). New ways in teaching listening. Alexandria, VA: TESOL.

REFERENCESOmaggio-Hadley, A. (1993). Teaching language in context (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle. Peterson, P.W. (1991). A synthesis of methods for interactive listening. In M. Celce-Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (pp. 106-122). Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle. Richards, J.C. (1983). Listening comprehension: Approach, design, procedure. TESOL Quarterly, 17 , 219-240. Rixon, S. (1981). The design of materials to foster particular linguistic skills. The teaching of listening comprehension. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 258 465). Rost, M. (1990). Listening in language learning. London: Longman. Rubin, J. (1987). Learner strategies: Theoretical assumptions, research history and typology. In A. Wenden & J. Rubin (Eds.), Learner strategies in language learning (pp. 15-30). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Rubin, J. (1995). The contribution of video to the development of competence in listening. In D.J. Mendelsohn & J. Rubin (Eds.), A guide for the teaching of second language listening (pp. 151-165). San Diego, CA: Dominie Press. Underwood, M. (1989). Teaching listening. London: Longman.

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THE END OF PART 1

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