packers and liner hangers

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  • Packers and Liner Hangers

    Basic Overview

    Applications and Selections of Packers

    Setting Criteria and procedures

    8/25/2015 1 George E. King Engineering

    GEKEngineering.com

  • What is a Packer?

    A packer is a tool used to form an annular seal between two concentric strings of pipe or between the pipe and the wall of the open hole.

    A packer is usually set just above the producing zone to isolate the producing interval from the casing annulus or from producing zones elsewhere in the wellbore.

    Separates fluid types (or ownership), protects against pressures and corrosion.

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    George E. King Engineering GEKEngineering.com

  • Why are packers used?

    Tubing and packer used to isolate zone of interest - can be removed for repair.

    Packers act as downhole valve for press control.

    Packer can be a temporary plug to seal off the zone while work is done up the hole.

    Subsurface safety valves used with packers for downhole shut-in.

    Focus flow

    Isolate between zones

    8/25/2015 3 George E. King Engineering

    GEKEngineering.com

  • Lock Ring and Mandrel

    Slips

    Cone

    Seal

    Inner Mandrel

    Packer Cutaway Drawing

    Ability to effectively set a packer depends on having a clean, non corroded set point and reaching the set point without fouling the slips or failing other components.

    As the packer sets, the inner mandrel moves up, driving the cone underneath the slips, pushing them into the casing wall. The sealing element is compressed & extruded to the casing wall.

    8/25/2015 4 George E. King Engineering

    GEKEngineering.com

  • Packers and Liner Hangers Mechanical isolation methods

    Two examples:

    1. An external casing packer (ECP) set to seal the annulus between the surface or protection string and the inner, production string

    2. A conventional packer set near the end of the tubing, that isolates the inner annulus from the tubing.

    8/25/2015 5 George E. King Engineering

    GEKEngineering.com

  • Packer Considerations

    Force on an area

    Remember, its a force balance. Area down =

    casing ID - tube OD

    Area up =

    tube x-section +

    casing ID - tube OD

    8/25/2015 6 George E. King Engineering

    GEKEngineering.com

  • Packer Types & Selection

    Hydraulic Set

    Wireline Set

    Retrievable Permanent

    Production Packers

    Sealbore

    Hydraulic

    Multiport

    Mechanical

    Hydraulic Set

    Wireline Set

    Differential Set

    Hydrostatic Set

    Double Grip

    Single Grip

    ESP

    RMC

    Dual

    Single

    Hyd. Slips

    Mech. Slips

    Schlumberger 8/25/2015 7 George E. King Engineering

    GEKEngineering.com

  • Specific Packer Examples

    Packer Examples

    Retrievables

    Seal bores

    Inflatables

    Wash Tools

    8/25/2015 8 George E. King Engineering

    GEKEngineering.com

  • Retrievable Packers

    Expected to be retrieved

    More prone to leaks

    Need an equalizing port

    Release mechanism must be possible with well design

    8/25/2015 9 George E. King Engineering

    GEKEngineering.com

  • Retrievable Packers

    Compact

    Simple J slot control for set and release

    Shear ring secondary release

    Right-hand safety joint emergency release

    Rocker type slips

    Can be set shallow

    Tension Set - Economical packer used in

    production, injection, zone isolation applications

    Weatherford 8/25/2015 10

    George E. King Engineering GEKEngineering.com

  • Retrievable Production Packers

    Rotation set and release

    Can be set with tension or compression

    Tubing can be landed in tension, compression or neutral

    Models rated up to 10,000 psi

    Pressure equalization needed prior to upper slip release

    Secondary shear release required

    Mechanical - Used in production, injection,

    fracturing, zone isolation and remedial applicatuions

    Weatherford 8/25/2015 11

    George E. King Engineering GEKEngineering.com

  • Retrievable Production Packers

    Compression set

    RH rotation required to set, (LH option usually available)

    Available with or without Hydraulic hold down buttons for differential pressure from below

    By-pass needed for equalization of pressure, and for running and retrieval without surging/swabbing the well.

    Mechanical Used in production, stimulation and

    testing

    Weatherford 8/25/2015 12

    George E. King Engineering GEKEngineering.com

  • Retrievable Packers

    Can act as a bridge plug prior to production

    Connect to tubing via On/Off Tool with blanking plug

    Tubing can be landed in tension, compression or neutral

    Slips above and below the elements

    Triple element pack off system

    Pressures to 10,000 psi

    Fluid bypass needed for pressure equalization

    Retrieved on tubing

    Secondary shear release needed

    Wireline set - Used in production, injection,

    fracturing, zone isolation and remedial applications

    where wireline setting is preferred

    Weatherford 8/25/2015 13 George E. King Engineering

    GEKEngineering.com

  • Seal Bore Packers

    Allow tubing movement; however:

    Too much contraction can pull seals out of PBR

    Seals can bond to the seal bore over long time at higher temperatures

    Debris on top of packer can stick assembly

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    GEKEngineering.com

  • Unprotected seals below the packer may allow seal swelling by gas and fluids, causing seals to roll off if the stinger is pulled out.

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    GEKEngineering.com

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  • Deep Completions

    Most typical is permanent packer with a PBR (arrangement depends on personal preferences, individual well configurations and intended operations).

    Seal assembly length dependent not only on normal operations, but also fracturing, kill and expected workovers.

    8/25/2015 17 George E. King Engineering

    GEKEngineering.com

  • Seal Bore Packers

    High pressure & temperature ratings available

    Multiple packing elements available

    Short units are desirable for use in tight doglegs (>5o) and high (>8o/100ft) departure angles

    Ability to set on wireline or with a hydraulic setting tool

    Rotationally locked units needed for mill-ability

    Share Seal Assemblies with permanent seal bore packers

    Critical metallurgical and seals (O-rings, etc) should be isolated from wellbore fluids by main elements.

    Weatherford 8/25/2015 18 George E. King Engineering

    GEKEngineering.com

  • Retrievable Seal Bore Packer

    Hydraulic set version retrievable seal bore packer available for one-trip installations

    Seal assembly is run in place for one trip installation

    Available with large upper seal bore to maximize ID

    Rotationally locked components

    One-trip applications

    Weatherford

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    George E. King Engineering GEKEngineering.com

  • Permanent Seal Bore Packers

    Seals run in place for one trip setting

    A metal back-up system can be specified to casing ID to prevent element extrusion

    Elastomer and materials available for hostile environments

    Used in one trip production applications

    Weatherford

    8/25/2015 20

    George E. King Engineering GEKEngineering.com

  • Packer Considerations

    Select seals for full range of expected temperatures, pressures, and fluids.

    A back-up system is need around the main seal to prevent seal extrusion at high temps and pressure.

    Examine slip design to help avoid premature setting during movement through viscous fluids, doglegs and rough treatment

    8/25/2015 21 George E. King Engineering

    GEKEngineering.com

  • Seal Bore Packers

    Molded Seals:

    Recommended in medium pressure applications where seal movement out of the seal bore is anticipated.

    Nitrile Seal or

    Viton Seal

    Steel spacer

    Seal spacer

    End spacer

    Nitrile Seal or

    Viton Seal

    Middle spacer

    MOLDED SEAL

    SINGLE UNIT

    CHEVRON SEAL

    SINGLE UNIT

    Chevron Seals:

    Used for higher pressure and

    temperature applications.

    Weatherford

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    George E. King Engineering GEKEngineering.com

  • Seal Bore Packer Accessories

    Tubing Anchor and Locator Assemblies

    Seal Units and Spacer Tubes

    Seal Bore and Mill-Out Extensions

    Packer Couplings and Bottoms

    Pump-out, Screw-out, and Knock-out Bottoms

    Weatherford 8/25/2015 23 George E. King Engineering

    GEKEngineering.com

  • Inflatable Packers and Plugs

    Reasons to run and inflatable.

    Need to set beneath a restriction.

    Need to set in open hole.

    In non-standard casing.

    Setting in multiple sizes of pipe on same run.

    Where larger run-in and retrieval clearances are needed.

    Large diameter applications.

    8/25/2015 24 George E. King Engineering

    GEKEngineering.com

  • Inflatable Setting Considerations The inflatable packer offers a way to set a seal in a larger area below a res