organisasi & arsitektur komputer 1

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    PART IIITHE GERMAN SCENE

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    The DEHOMAG D11 TabulatorA Milestone in the History of Data Processing

    Friedrich W. Kistermann

    Abstract. The DEHOMAG D11 tabulator has beenoverlooked for too long in the history of data processing.This is due to the scarcity of literature about thismachine and its usual classification as a tabulator, eventhough its internal structure corresponds to anautomatic calculator. In general, very little attention hasbeen paid to the time period preceding the electronicage, that is, there has been a neglect of the pre-computerera. The D11 tabulator, however, had a decisive influenceon the diffusion of punched card data processing inGermany.

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    Role of the tabulator in the DP workflow The work flow diagram shows that

    every punched card installationneeded at least one card punch, one

    verifier, one sorter and one

    tabulator, assuming that thecustomer was not contracting aservice bureau.

    In 1895, Herman Hollerith used hispunched card system for costaccounting in the railroad industry.This happened in parallel to his

    work for the United States censusbureau and census bureaus in someother countries.2 In 1908, afterapproximately ten years ofdevelopment and a major change inconstruction, the Hollerith punchedcard system was ready to be widelyused in industry and trade.

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    DEHOMAG D 11 tabulator

    programming (I) shows the printed form that was

    used as a planning guide toprepare the wiring (or

    programming) of theplugboard(or control panel).

    Because of the great flexibility ofthe D11, the wiring preparation

    was standardized right afterinitial experience with the

    machine. The wiring (orprogramming) sheet consistedof three parts:

    a) the cycle overview

    b) the control area

    c) the transfer field

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    DEHOMAG D11 I tabulator

    programming (II) Unfortunately, this is not the

    place to go any deeper into theprogramming details beyondjust showing the programmingform. Let me just add thateven wired plugboards of greatcomplexity could bedocumented on such a sheet.

    The wires which transferredthe electrical impulses wereomitted for clarity, because itis sufficient to know that thedigit impulses are all

    transferred in parallel

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    The DEHOMAG D11 TabulatorA Milestone in the History of Data Processing The development of the Hollerith tabulator has revealed a rather slow pace

    of improvement. The addition of new functions came if and whencustomers made demands based on their experience with the Hollerith dataprocessing system and on the expected improvement to their business. Thesystem helped primarily to streamline the work flow. It made bureaucraticorganiza-tions more efficient and made it easy to obtain summarized data,which are the basis for getting information quickly.

    The DEHOMAG D11 tabulator is not comparable with any other ma-chinesof this kind. The intention of this contribution is to present a machinewhich has been hitherto almost unknown, although it can be considered amilestone in the development of data processing.

    Don't look too closely at the speed and the capacity of the D11, capacitymeaning the number of counters, the number of program steps and thenum-ber of selectors. The hardware of the machine reflects 1930stechnology: clumsy counters and slow relays. But the ideas realized in theD11 were new and brilliant, and outstanding for that time.

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    The Architecture of Konrad Zuse'sEarly Computing MachinesRal RojasAbstract. This paper provides a detailed description of thearchitecture of the computing machines Z1 and Z3 which Konrad

    Zuse designed in Berlin between 1936 and 1941. The necessary basicinformation was obtained from a careful evaluation of the patentapplication Zuse filed in 1941. Additional insight was gained from asoftware simulation of the machine's logic. The Z1 was built usingpurely mechanical components; the Z3 used electromechanicalrelays. However, both machines shared a common logical structure,and their programming model was the same. I argue that both theZ1 and the Z3 possessed features akin to those of moderncomputers: the memory and processor were separate units; theprocessor could handle floating-point numbers and compute thefour basic arithmetical operations as well as the square root of anumber. The program was stored on punched tape and was readsequentially. In the last section of this paper, I show that,

    surprisingly, the Z3 can emulate any modern computer.

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    Konrad Zuse's Z4:

    Architecture, Programming, and Modificationsat the ETH Zurich

    Ambros P. SpeiserAbstract. Konrad Zuse built the Z4, a relay computer with amechanical memory of unique design, during the war years in

    Berlin. Eduard Stiefel, a professor at the Swiss FederalInstitute of Technology (ETH), who was looking for acomputer suitable for numerical analysis, discovered themachine in Bavaria in 1949. Despite considerable doubtsregarding the machine's operability, he decided to acquire theZ4 for his Institute in Zurich. The machine had a number of

    unique features which were convincing evidence of Zuse'sadmirable creativity. The Z4 went into operation inSeptember 1950. It functioned satisfactorily, and in thefollowing years several significant results in numericalanalysis were obtained with its help.

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    The Plankalkl of Konrad Zuse

    RevisitedFriedrich L. BauerAbstract. The ideas that finally led to creation of the Plankalkl first cameto Konrad Zuse (19101995) around 1938, while working on the Z3. Hewanted to build aPlanfertigungsgert, and made some progress in thisdirection in 1943. Around 1944, he prepared a draft of the Plankalkl, whichwas meant to become a doctoral dissertation some day. Zuse went back tothis work when he had to stay in Hinterstein (Allgu) after the end of thewar. The first document from this period is dated June 14, 1945. The finalmanuscript was finished early in 1946, but was not fully published until1972. As a result, only rudimentary information, scattered in a few shortpublications and contributions to conferences, was available up to that

    point. The Plankalkl is the first fully-fledged algorithmic programminglanguage. It was far ahead of its time, although not in the line ofdevelopment so heavily influenced later by machines of the von Neumanntype. It was, in fact, more a precursor of functional and object orientedprogramming. However, it fell into oblivion, and had no influence on mostpeople studying these topics years later.

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    The G1 and the Gttingen Family ofDigital ComputersWilhelm HopmannAbstract. A small group under the direction of Dr. HeinzBilling constructed four different computers, the G1 (1952),

    the G2 (1955), the Gla (1958) and the G3 (1961), at the MaxPlanck Institute in Gttingen. The G1, G2 and Gla were bit-serial machines, which used a magnetic drum for both themain memory and the bit-serial registers. Whereas the G1 andGla used punched tape programming, the G2 was controlledby stored programs. The G3 was a bit-parallel computer with

    a ferrite core memory of 4096 50-bit words for numbers andprograms, and which operated at a speed of 5000 Flops. TheG 1 and G2 operated using fixed-point arithmetic, whereas theGla and G3 had a floating-point arithmetic unit. Each of theG-computers was in operation on a regular basis at theInstitute for several years.

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    Konrad Zuse and Industrial Manufacturingof Electronic Computers in GermanyHartmut PetzoldAbstract. Although Konrad Zuse is widely recognized asone of the pioneers of the invention of the computer, hisrole as entrepreneur in the 1950s and 1960s has beenoverlookedquite unjustly. In fact, Zuse started theindustrial production and distribution of electroniccomputers in Germany. He was the founder and directorof the first German computer company, not considering

    IBM. For several years, Zuse was able to compensate hiscompany's modest development capacity byincorporating some of the most up-to-date results ofprojects conducted by research institutes in Germany,France, the Netherlands, Switzerland and Austria.

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    Helmut Hoelzer

    Inventor of theElectronic Analog Computer Thomas Lange Abstract. During World War II, a young German

    engineer, Helmut Hoelzer, studied the application ofelectronic analog circuits for the guidance and controlsystem of liquid-propellant rockets. He developed aspecial purpose analog computer, the "Mischgert," andintegrated it into the rocket. The development of thefully electronic, general purpose, analog computer was a

    spin-off of this work. It was used to simulate ballisticpaths by solving the equations of motion. At the time,Hoelzer did not use the word "computer" but referred to"electronic modeling" or "transformation of equationsinto hardware.''